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85 Cards in this Set

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State one of the six areas that comprise Naval Doctrine and explain its' concept.
Naval Warfare -Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces
State one of the six areas that comprise Naval Doctrine and explain its' concept.
Naval Intelligence- Points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
State one of the six areas that comprise Naval Doctrine and explain its' concept..
. Naval Operations -Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
State one of the six areas that comprise Naval Doctrine and explain its' concept.
4. Naval Logistics- Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces.
State one of the six areas that comprise Naval Doctrine and explain its' concept.
5. Naval Planning- Examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
State one of the six areas that comprise Naval Doctrine and explain its' concept.
6. Naval Command and Control- Provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems
Discuss Command and Control.
Command and Control- Naval Command and Control, provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems
Discuss Naval Planning
Naval Planning - Naval Planning, examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
Discuss Naval Intelligence
Naval Intelligence- Naval Intelligence, points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
What are the 7 principles of Naval Logistics?
1. Responsivness
2. Simplicity
3. Flexibility
4. Economy
5. Attainability
6. Sustainability
7. Survivability
Define RESPONSIVNESS as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
Responsiveness: Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place. This is the most important principle of logistics. Ensuring that adequate logistics resources are responsive to operational needs should be the focus of logistic planning. Such planning requires clear guidance from the commander to his planners; also, it requires clear communication between operational commanders and those who are responsible for providing logistic support. The operational commander’s concept of operations must be thoroughly familiar to the supporting elements—to ensure responsive, integrated support. Responsiveness is a product of logistic discipline, as well. Commanders and logisticians who consistently overestimate their requirements—in quantity and priority – risk slowing the systems ability to respond.
Define SIMPLICITY as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
Simplicity: Avoiding unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning and conducting logistic operations. Providing logistics support never is simple, but the logistics plans that utilize the basic standard support systems usually have the best chance for success. Mission-oriented logistics support concepts and standardized procedures reduce confusion. The operational commander must simplify the logistic task by communicating clear priorities, and forecasting needs based on current and accurate usage data.
Define FLEXIBILITY as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
Flexibility: Adapting logistics support to changing conditions. Logistics must be flexible enough to support changing missions, evolving concepts of operations, and the dynamic situations that characterize naval operations. A thorough understanding of the commanders intent enables logistic planners to support the fluid requirements of naval operations. In striving for flexibility, the logistic commander considers such factors as alternative planning, anticipation, the use of reserve assets, and redundancy. The task-organization of combat service support units is an example of flexible tailoring of logistic support resources to meet anticipated operational requirements.
Define ECONOMY as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
Economy: Employing logistic support assets effectively. Accomplishing the mission requires the economical use of logistic support resources. Logistic assets are allocated on the basis of availability and the commanders objectives. Effective employment further the operational commander to decide which resources must be committed immediately and which should be kept in reserve. Additionally, the commander may need to allocate limited resources to support conflicting and multiple requirements. Prudent use of limited logistics resources ensures that support is available where and when it is most needed. Without economy, operational flexibility becomes comprised.
Define ATTAINABILITY as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
ATTAINABILITY: Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support begin combat operations. Risk is defined as the difference between the commanders desired level of support and the absolute minimum needed to satisfy mission requirements. The commander must determine the minimum essential requirements and ensure that adequate logistic support levels have been attained before initiating combat operations. In some cases time will permit building up support levels beyond minimum essential requirements. During Operation Desert Shield, for example, the coalition retained the operational initiative and delayed the commencement of combat operations until a six-month supply of material was in theater and available to the operating forces. In this case, the commander was able to attain the level needed to satisfy mission requirements.
Define SUSTAINABILITY as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
SURVIVABILITY: Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation. Sustaining the logistic needs of committed forces in a campaign of uncertain duration is the greatest challenge to the logistician. Every means must be taken to maintain minimum essential material levels at all times. This requires effective support planning that incorporates economy, responsiveness and flexibility. Sustainability also is influenced by our ability to maintain and protect the ships and aircraft that move material to and from the operational theater.
Define SURVIVABILITY as it relates to one of the seven principles of Naval Logistics
SURVIVABILITY: Ensuring that the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage. Logistic support units and installations, lines of communication, transportation nodes and industrial centers are high-value targets that must be protected by both active and passive measures. For example—since we may not always have the luxury of conducting replenishment in protected rearward areas
What was the first navy ship named after an enlisted man?
Osmond Ingram (DD 255). It was launched 28 Feb 1919. Ingram was the first enlisted man killed in action in World War I, lost when the destroyer Cassin (DD 43) was torpedoed in October 1917.
What three classes of naval vessels existed at the inception of the navy?
a. Ships-of-the-line: The battleships of the sailing days. These ships were the largest of all sailing warships. These battleships carried 64 to 100 guns of various sizes.
b. Frigates: The cruisers of the 18th century. These cruisers were next in size, usually smaller than average ships-of-the-line and usually faster. They carried 28 to 44 guns.
c. Sloops-of-war: The small sailing warships. These ships carried 10 to 20 guns.
Discuss the Hand Salute.
The hand salute is centuries old, and probably originated when men in armor raised their helmet visors so they could be identified. Salutes are customarily given with the right hand, but there are exceptions. A sailor with his right arm or hand encumbered may salute left-handed, while people in the Army or Air Force never salute left-handed. On the other hand, a soldier or airman may salute sitting down or uncovered; in the Navy, a sailor does not salute when uncovered, but may salute when seated in a vehicle.
What is the significan difference for Women while saluting in Uniform?
Women follow the same customs and rules as men, with one exception. A woman in uniform indoors, where men customarily remove their hats, does not remove her hat, nor does she salute. She does use the proper spoken greeting, just as she would outdoors.
What is the proper form and position of stature when properly saluting?
Salute from a position of attention. Your upper arm should be parallel to the deck or ground, forearm inclined at a 45-degree angle, hand and wrist straight, palm slightly inward, thumb and fingers extended and joined, with the tip of the forefinger touching the cap beak, slightly to the right of the right eye. Hold the salute until the officer has returned or acknowledged it, then bring your hand smartly to your side.
While in uniform Military Personnel are responsible for saluting who/whom?
Salute all officers, men and women, of all U.S. services and all allied foreign services.
True False
If a Chief, Senior Chief, or even 1st Class Petty Officer is staning OOD, CDO, JOOD watches that enlisted individual will rate the same salute as an officer when he/she is standing that watch.
True
What is the proper protitcol when Saluting the National Ensign when reporting onboard a Naval Vessel?
Each person in the naval service, upon coming on board a ship of the Navy, shall salute the national ensign. He shall stop on reaching the upper platforms of the accommodation ladder, or the shipboard end of the brow, face the national ensign, and render the salute, after which he shall salute the officer of the deck. On leaving the ship, he shall render the salutes in inverse order. The officer of the deck shall return both salutes in each case.
When passing by the National Ensign being Carried, uncased or in military formations is it necessary to salute?
Yes
What is the protocal for saluting persons in vehicles or boats?
A proper salute should be renered.
What is the history of a Gun Salute?
Gun salute In olden days it took as much as 20 minutes to load and fire a gun, so that a ship that fired her guns in salute did so as a friendly gesture, making herself powerless for the duration of the salute.
True - False
The President of the United States of Ameris prescribes that gun salutes are fired only by ships and stations. The President is informed of through the Secretary of the Navy.
False. The gun salutes prescribed by Navy Regs are fired only by ships and stations designated by the Secretary of the Navy. A national salute of 21 guns is fired on Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, and Independence Day, and to honor the President of the United States and heads of foreign states.
How many gun salutes is an Admiral, Vice Admiral, Rear Admiral and a Commodore honored with, respectively.
Admiral: 17 Gun Salute
Vice Admiral: 15 Gun Salute
Rear Admiral: 13 Gun Salute
Commodore: 11 Gun Salute
Salutes are fired at intervals of 5 seconds, and always in odd numbers
Discuss the importance of the Battle of Coral Sea conflict as it relates to Naval History.
Battle of Coral Sea- 7-8 May 1942: Thanks to the breaking of the Japanese Navy code, the U.S. was alerted to a large Japanese force moving to the Coral Sea to seize Port Moresby on the southwest coast of New Guinea. It was to be the first step of a planned invasion of Australia. The Japanese operation centered around three aircraft carriers and dozens of troop transports, but the Americans met them with two carriers of their own.
On May 7, the Japanese planes sank two minor ships, while U.S. planes sank an isolated enemy carrier. The next day, both sides launched all their planes against the other. The aircraft passed each other unseen in the clouds, in the world's first carrier verses carrier battle. One Japanese carrier was damaged. The U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk, and the carrier Yorktown was damaged. After this action, both sides withdrew. Although a tactical victory, Coral Sea was a strategic set-back for the Japanese who never again threatened Australia.
Discuss the importance of the Voyage of the Great White Fleet as it relates to Naval History.
Voyage of the Great White Fleet In pre-World War I days, the Navy carried out its role as a diplomatic arm of the government. On December 16, 1907, the Great White Fleet left Hampton Roads, Virginia, for a round-the-world cruise to show the flag. The exercise demonstrated the strength of the U.S. Navy
Discuss the importance of the Midway conflict as it relates to Naval History.
Midway- 3-5 June 1942: Midway was the turning point of the Pacific war. The U.S. breaking of the Japanese naval code was again the key element as it had been at Coral Sea a month earlier. A huge Japanese armada of 160 warships was involved, but commander-in-chief Admiral Yamamoto split his force, sending some ships north to the Aleutian Islands in a diversionary attack. The Japanese retained superior numbers approaching Midway which included 4 aircraft carriers and 11 battleships. At Midway the U.S. had 3 carriers and no battleships. The Americans knew what was coming because of the broken codes, and Admiral Nimitz positioned his 3 carriers, the Hornet, Enterprise, and Yorktown, out of Japanese reconnaissance range. As the Japanese carriers launched their planes to assault the Midway defenses, the U.S. planes headed for the enemy carriers. It took attack after attack, but finally the U.S. crews got through and sank 3 Japanese carriers. The next day the fourth carrier was sunk. Japanese planes sank the Yorktown. In one day Japan lost its bid for control of the Pacific.
Discuss the importance of the Guadalcanal conflict as it relates to Naval History.
Guadalcanal - 13-15 November 1942: After three days of bitter fighting, the Japanese naval forces retreated and U.S. Marines were able to secure the island of Guadalcanal. The Japanese lost 2 cruisers and 6 destroyers. The U.S.S. Juneau was involved in the battle. Navy policy was to place members of the same family on different ships, but the five Sullivan brothers, from Waterloo, Iowa, insisted on staying together. An exception was made and they all became crewmen onboard the Juneau. The Juneau was damaged during the battle in a close-range night encounter. As it limped off for repairs, it was torpedoed. The Sullivans along with 700 others were lost. Because of this tragedy, Navy policy concerning family member separations was reinstated. A ship was later named in their honor. With the fall of the island, the southern Solomons came under Allied control and Australia was in less danger of attack.
Discuss the importance of the Battle of Leyte Gulf conflict as it relates to Naval History.
Battle of Leyte Gulf -The final blow to the Japanese navy came October 23, 1944. In a last-chance effort to salvage the Phillippines, the Japanese sent a naval force to Leyte Gulf to attack the U.S. Fleet. Their plan backfired and the operation was a complete failure-the deciding catastrophe for their navy. The loss of the Phillippines severed their empire, and the homeland was cut off from its main source of supply from the south. With the losses at Okinawa and Iwo Jima, the war in the Pacific was approaching its final days.
Discuss the conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy
The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. The king of England allowed the colonies to trade only with England. Problems arose between the colonists and England as the years passed. English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation". The colonists formed Committees of Correspondence to communicate the problems to England. They convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met in 5 September 1774. At the meeting, the Congress produced a statement of rights it believed England should grant to the colonists. Then in October of 1774 the statement of rights was presented to the king. A second Continental Congress convened on 10 May 1775. The colonists appointed George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental American army on 15 June 1775. The Continental Congress felt forced to act as the provisional government for the colonies. They issued money, established a postal service, and created a Continental navy. The U.S. Navy has its birth on 13 October 1775. On this date the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels. The first commander in chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continental Navy to sea in February 1776.
State the qualities that characterize the Navy/Marine Corps team as instruments
to support national policies.
Naval forces have been organized for fighting at sea - or from the sea - for more than two thousand years. The qualities that characterize most modern naval forces as political instruments in support of national policies are the same as those that define the essence of our naval Services today. These qualities are readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility. They permit naval forces to be expeditionary - that is, being able to establish and maintain a forward-based, stabilizing presence around the world. Naval expeditionary operations are offensive in nature, mounted by highly trained and well-equipped integrated task forces of the Navy and Marine Corps, organized to accomplish specific objectives. Naval expeditionary forces draw upon their readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility to provide the National Command Authorities4 the tools they need to safeguard such vital national interests as the continued availability of oil from world producers and maintenance of political and economic stability around the globe. Through these qualities, naval forces reassure allies and friends, deter aggressors, and influence uncommitted and unstable regimes.
State the three levels of war.
The concept of "levels of war" can help us visualize the relative contribution of military objectives toward achieving overall national goals and offer us a way to place in perspective the causes and effects of our specific objectives, planning, and actions. There are three levels: tactical, operational, and strategic - each increasingly broader in scope. Although the levels do not have precise boundaries, in general we can say that the tactical level involves the details of individual engagements; the operational level concerns forces collectively in a theater; and the strategic level focuses on supporting national goals. World War II, for example, a strategic-level and global war, included operational-level combat in the Pacific theater consisting primarily of U.S. led maritime, air, and supporting allied land campaigns. Within each specific campaign were a series of important and often decisive battles. At the tactical level, each contributed to the achievement of that campaign's objectives. The culmination of these campaign objectives resulted in overall victory in the Pacific theater.
State the mission of Naval Logistics.
Sustained naval and joint operations are made possible by a logistic support system that has two major components: fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic sustainment assets. Fleet-based sustainment assets include replenishment ships of the combat logistics force providing direct fleet support, combat service support units, mobile repair facilities, and advanced logistic support hubs. Strategic sustainment is provided by air and sea assets that are shared by all Services. Successful global response to contingencies depends upon our ability to project and sustain U.S. forces in all theaters of operations. Integrated support resources in the form of fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic assets provide naval expeditionary forces and joint and multinational forces the ability to operate in peacetime and in war wherever and whenever our national interests demand. Our ability to move and sustain forces at great distances from our shores is critical to the forward presence component of our military strategy
State the importance of planning to Naval Operations.
When military action is one of the potential responses to a situation threatening U.S. interests, a plan is prepared using either the joint deliberate-planning process or crisis-action procedures10. Although military flexibility demands a capability to conduct short-notice crisis planning when necessary, U.S. military strength is best enhanced by deliberate peacetime analysis, planning, and exercises. An operation plan is a commander's complete description of a concept of operation. It is based on the commander's preparation of the battlespace,11 a formal evaluation, supported by intelligence, that integrates enemy doctrine with such factors as physical and environmental conditions. From this evaluation, the commander identifies the forces and support needed to execute the plan within a theater of operations. Naval forces operation plans are integrated into the complete inventory available to the Joint Force Commander. For execution, plans become operation orders. Operation plans include: the theater strategy or general concept and the organizational relationships; the logistics plan shows ways the force will be supported; and the deployment plan sequences the movement of the force and its logistical support into the theater. Elements of planning that produce a concept of operations include the commander's estimate, deciding possible courses of action, preparation of the mission statement and its execution strategy, situation analysis, and formulation of the commander's intent. These elements are applicable up, down, and across chains of command.
Discuss the National Security Act of 1947, especially as it relates to the
Information Warfare chain-of-command.
The act established the National Security Council (NSC) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which grew out of World War II era Office of Strategic Services and small post-war intelligence organizations. The CIA served as the primary civilian intelligence-gathering organization in the government. Later, the Defense Intelligence Agency became the main military intelligence body. The 1947 law also caused far-reaching changes in the military establishment. The War Department and Navy Department merged into a single Department of Defense under the Secretary of Defense, who also directed the newly created Department of the Air Force. However, each of the three branches maintained their own service secretaries. From which grew the Naval Intell branch (DNI).
Describe the historical significance and the impact of Information Warfare on the following historical event: 1. On the Roof Gang
a. The On-the-Roof Gang [ref. h] - A total of 176 (150 Navy and 26 Marines) enlisted radio operators were specially trained at a unique school located on the roof of the old Navy Department Building during 1928-1941. Known as the "On-The-Roof" Gang (OTRG), they were trained to intercept and analyze foreign radio communications. This group of dedicated and skilled operators formed the vanguard of the U.S. Naval Communications Intelligence efforts and laid the cornerstone of Naval Cryptology.
Describe the historical significance and the impact of Information Warfare on the following historical event: The Purple Code
The Purple Code [ref. i] - Purple was the name used by the US military to identify the most secure diplomatic cryptographic system used by the Japanese Foreign Office during, and just before, World War II. It was not a code, but an electromechanical cypher. The color name referred to binders used by US cryptanalyists for material in this cypher; there had been a Red 'code' (also a cypher) used by the Japanese Foreign Office and purple was the next available color. The Japanese also used the Coral and Jade stepping switch cyphers; it's not clear whether whoever named them kept to the binder color system. The Purple machine was a successor to, and improvement on, both the Red machine and what the Americans called the M machine (used in some embassies and consulates by attaches). All were designed by a Japanese Navy captain. The information gained from decryptions was eventually code-named Magic within the US government.
Describe the historical significance and the impact of Information Warfare on the following historical event: The Battle of Midway
The Battle of Midway [ref. i] - Apart from tactical or strategic considerations, the Battle of the Coral Sea was a significant triumph for United States communications intelligence(by intell group called “OP-20-G”). Comint passed its first test under fire and proved it could provide accurate, timely intelligence. But, Midway, and its intell with a little comms deception proved its true worth. It reveled the target, date to attack and approx task force size. The turning point of the war. (ref: http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq81-3.htm)
Describe the historical significance and the impact of Information Warfare on the following historical event: The Attack on the USS Liberty
'Liberty,' a World War II freighter, had been converted into an intelligence vessel by NSA. At 0800 hrs, 8 June, 1967, eight Israeli recon flights flew over 'Liberty,' which was flying a large American flag. At 1400 hrs, waves of low-flying un-marked Israeli Mystere and Mirage-III fighter-bombers repeatedly attacked the American vessel with rockets, napalm, and cannon fire. The air attacks lasted 20 minutes, concentrating on the ship's electronic antennas and dishes. At 1424 hrs, three Israeli torpedo boats attacked, raking the burning 'Liberty' with 20mm and 40mm shells. At 1431hrs an Israeli torpedo hit the 'Liberty' midship, precisely where the signals intelligence systems were located. Israeli gunboats circled the wounded 'Liberty,' firing at crewmen trying to fight the fires. At 1515, the crew were ordered to abandon ship. The Israeli warships closed and poured machine gun fire into the crowded life rafts, sinking two. Fifteen years after the attack, an Israeli pilot approached Liberty survivors and then held extensive interviews with former Congressman Paul N. (Pete) McCloskey about his role. According to this senior Israeli lead pilot, he recognized the Liberty as American immediately, so informed his headquarters, and was told to ignore the American flag and continue his attack. He refused to do so and returned to base, where he was arrested.Later, a dual-citizen Israeli Major told survivors that he was in an Israeli war room where he heard that pilot's radio report. The attacking pilots and everyone in the Israeli war room knew that they were attacking an American ship, the major said. The pilot's protests also were heard by radio monitors in the U.S. Embassy in Lebanon. Then -U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon Dwight Porter has confirmed this. Two theories as to why the attack occurred: One; attack and sink the Liberty and blame Egypt. Second; take out any intelligence gathering capabilities of the U.S. Officially, listed as an accident.
Describe the historical significance and the impact of Information Warfare on the following historical event: The Capture of the USS Pueblo
The Capture of the USS Pueblo [ref. i][ ref http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Pueblo_(AGER-2)#cite_note-USCryptHist-0] – On 23 Jan 1968 the USS Pueblo was challenged and was finally boarded and captured by 6 boats from forces of DPRK . After trying to evade capture, for an hour, only a small percentage of total classified material aboard the ship was destroyed. This case showed the extreme need for drills and the need to minimize sensitive material on board.
f. Old Crows [ref. j] The name “Old Crows” emerged from the first large-scale use of Electronic Warfare during the WWII Battle of Britain and the US and allied bombing raids over Europe. The Allied Radar Countermeasure operators used the code name “Ravens” and employed receivers and transmitters to monitor and jam threat frequencies. Military jargon later changed “Ravens” to “Crows.”. RADM March award [ref. k, l] –During his tour as CNSG, he standardized requirements for CTI’s and training needed. Later an award (in his name) was established for outstanding linguist.
State when and why the current Navy Core Values were developed?
Oct 12, 1997 - The recruits also received instruction on the Marine Corps' core values - honor, courage and commitment - and what the words mean in guiding personal and professional conduct.
Nov 23, 1997 - The US Navy's officially proclaimed core values urge all who wear the uniform.
Feb 3, 1998 - Recruits first received instruction at boot camp on the Navy's core values honor, courage and com.
In May 26, 1996 – CNO Boorda represented the "core values" that are the Navy's road map for honor and integrity.
State Grace Hopper's contributions to the U.S. Navy
She help revolutionize computers. Help found the first electronic digital computer, invention of the compiler, develop COBOL and other languages. Helped pioneer many advances in computer science.
Discuss the history of the National Cryptologic Veterans Association.
The NCVA is a unique organization of active, retired, and honorably discharged U.S. Naval Cryptologists, past and present, whose primary focus is the preservation of our rich cryptologic history. Our uniqueness is founded in the pioneering spirit of our oldest members who were trained in the 1930's to intercept and decode Japanese Katakana transmissions. Originally know as "On-the-Roof" Gang, members of that pioneering generation of Naval Cryptologists were trained on the roof of the old Navy Building in Washington, DC.
Explain the history of NNWC.
NNWC [ref. q] - In 2002, some 23 organizations from several commands, including the former Naval Space Command, Naval Computer and Telecommunications Command, Fleet Information Warfare Center, and Navy Component Task Force - Computer Network Defense were brought together to form Naval Network Warfare Command, emphasizing the organization's focus on the operation and defense of the Navy’s networks. In 2005, with the alignment of Naval Security Group, NETWARCOM brought the former Naval Security Group Activities (NSGAs) under its umbrella and the mission of the command fundamentally changed, making it the Navy’s lead for Information Operations, as well as Networks and Space. The assumption, alignment and integration of Fleet Intelligence Type Commander duties, responsibilities and functions at NETWARCOM in 2008 began a measured and evolutionary process to improve integrated Fleet Intelligence and ISR readiness.
Explain the history of NSA
NSA [ref. r] – Since 4 Nov 1952 by President Truman, The National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is home to America's codemakers and codebreakers. The National Security Agency has provided timely information to U.S. decision makers and military leaders for more than half a century. The Central Security Service was established in 1972 to promote a full partnership between NSA and the cryptologic elements of the armed forces.
Explain the history of ONI
ONI [ref. s] - By the early 1880’s the government finally acknowledged the need to address the situation. Lieutenant Theodorus Bailey Myers Mason was a young naval officer who was part of a group of reformers intent on modernizing the U.S. Navy.Mason advocated the creation of an intelligence office to collect and disseminate information on the latest technological developments abroad to support the modernization of the U.S. Navy. ONI's first naval attachés went abroad and acquired as much data and materiel as they could collect about the latest foreign technological advances in naval warfare. ONI played an important role in transforming the American fleet from a wooden ship Navy into a world-class naval power by the turn of the century. The year 1916 marked a significant turning point for the Office of Naval Intelligence. Congress authorized the first major expansion of ONI's personnel and budget to support domestic security operations, including protecting America's ports, harbors and defense plants from enemy infiltration, subversion and sabotage. ONI worked closely with the departments of State, War, Justice, Commerce and Labor. ONI also censored radio and mail communications to prevent unauthorized disclosure of sensitive defense information. Over the years ONI has expanded on the successful signal intell; as it continues today.
Explain the history of NSG.
NSG [ref. http://coldwar-c4i.net/NSG/NAVSECGRU-history.html] - Historically, the Naval Security Group began in 1916 when the Code and Signal Section was established in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. In 1918 our first modern codes were issued. They were copied after British codes used by us during World War I.
After the armistice was signed, an intelligence clerk from the Cable Censor's Office was transferred to the Code and Signals Section for research work in the development of codes and ciphers. This was the beginning of communications intelligence research. It became apparent at once that in order to learn the weakness of codes and ciphers, and hence how to construct secure ones, the first essential was to learn to solve them by cryptoanalysis. (part 1)
Explain the history of NSG (more info)
There is no evidence that the Navy engaged in radio intercept during World War I, but the Navy definitely has been engaged in radio intercept since the early 1920s. In 1923 the Office of Naval Intelligence requested that all ships of the Asiatic Fleet forward intercepted Japanese and commercial code messages. In 1924 and possibly before, the naval radio station at the Navy Purchasing Office, Shanghai, China was intercepting and forwarding Japanese traffic. In 1924 the Naval Radio Station San Francisco was forwarding all official Japanese traffic to the Code and Signals Section and in that same year the first Navy intercept station was established in the U.S. Consulate at Shanghai. In early1935, in accordance with joint action of the Army and Navy, radio intelligence was determined to be a function of communications and the Navy portion of radio intelligence was assigned to the Office of Naval Communications. On 11 March 1935, Op-20G became the "Communication Security Group." This date commemorates the birth of the Naval Security Group. (part 2)
Explain the history of NSG (more info)
In 1942 Op-20G expanded into seventeen subsections and its chief became as Assistant Director for Communication Intelligence in the Office of Naval Communications. This coincided with the inclusion of all COMINT functions, including direction finding, under one officer. On 7 February 1943 Op-20G moved from the Army-Navy Building on Constitution Ave. to the new Communication Supplementary Annex, 3801 Nebraska Ave., Washington D.C. This location was later renamed Naval Communication Station Washington, D.C. and in Sept. 1950 it became the Naval Security Station.On 28 January 1950 the following functional organizations were designated the Naval Security Group: Communications Supplementary Activities, Communications Security Activities, and Special Electronics Search Projects. In June 1960 the Registered Publication Section was added. In 1953 the organization now designated the Naval Security Group included Naval Communication Units, Security Group Departments of Naval Communication Stations, Naval Security Detachments and Registered Publication Issuing Offices. (part 3)
Explain the history of NSG (more info)
In 1956, the U.S. Naval Security Group Headquarters Activity was established and in 1961 it was redesignated Naval Security Group Headquarters under the Director, Naval Security Group. The Naval Security Group Command, now under a Commander, reporting directly to the Chief of Naval Operations was activated l July 1968. The Naval Security Group Command moved from the Naval Security Station to Fort Meade, Maryland in November 1995. The Naval Security Group Command was disestablished Sept 30, 2005, and on October 1, 2005 it was aligned with the Naval Network Warfare Command, Norfolk, Virginia. This action abolished the Naval Security Group after 70 years of service to the nation. (Part 4)
Explain the history of CID.
CID [ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corry_Station_Naval_Technical_Training_Center] In 2003, Naval Technical Training Center, Corry Station officially became the Center for Cryptology Corry Station, as part of the Chief of Naval Operations establishment of Navy Learning Centers in support of the Revolution in Training.In 2005, Center for Cryptology Corry Station and the Center for Information Technology San Diego merged to become the Center for Information Dominance Corry Station. As of 2007, the Center for Information Dominance Corry Station is home to itself, the parent command, as well as the learning site Center for Information Dominanace Detachment Corry Station.
Explain the history of DIA
DIA [ref. v] - The Defense Intelligence Agency was created in 1961 as the Nation's preeminent military intelligence organization. The Agency did not have long to wait for a major crisis to test its mettle. Its first test was the discovery of Soviet missiles on bases in Cuba. Today, DIA continued to build over four decades on its proud traditions and remains "Committed to Excellence in Defense of the Nation."
State the name of the first computer and where was it located.
In 1942, Lt. Herman H. Goldstine, a former mathematics professor, was stationed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania where he assisted in the creation of the ENIAC, the first electronic digital computer.
Identify who the key players were that broke the Japanese code during WWII. State where they broke it and the outcome of this action.
Sept. 20, 1940 - Genevieve Grotjan completed the decryption of the Japanese Purple code at the Army's SIS, and shared the decoding with the Navy's OP-20-G (Navy on odd days). RCA provided equipment for a room at the Mayflower Hotel for the messages to be photographed and distributed to top government officials. May 1942 - U.S. Navy codebreakers broke the JN25b code, "'JN' for Japanese Navy, '25' for the 25th code they had worked on, 'b' for its second edition. It had come into use near the end of 1940, and by early 1942 the Americans had recovered enough codegroups to read bits and pieces of Japanese messages." (Kahn)
April 18, 1943 - "Communications intelligence contributed in two other major ways to the Allies' Pacific victory. It stepped up American submarine sinkings of the Japanese merchant fleet by one third. This cutting of Japan's lifelines was, Premier Hideki Tojo said after the war, one of the major factors that defeated Japan. And, secondly, it made possible in 1943 the dramatic mid-air assassination of Admiral Yamamoto." (Kahn)
Discuss ARPNET and when it was developed.
In late 1966 Mr. Roberts went to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop the computer network concept and quickly put together his plan for the "ARPANET", publishing it in 1967. ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), created by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense, was the world's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the contemporary global Internet. The packet switching of the ARPANET was based on designs by Lawrence Roberts, of the Lincoln Laboratory
Discuss how electronic and cryptologic warfare has evolved.
In the late 20’s the first schools trained OTRG to intercept and analyze radio communications(ref h). As our use of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum has developed over the years, so has the recognized need for military forces to have unimpeded access to and use of the EME creates vulnerabilities and opportunities for electronic warfare (EW) in support of military operations. EW includes three major subdivisions: electronic attack (EA), electronic protection (EP), and electronic warfare support (ES)(p. into V ref z) Broken down; the need to control, detect, denial, deception and disruption & degradation of enemy targets. (p I-5 ref z)
Explain how Naval communications evolved prior to the 1910 time frame.
Still in use today is the use of pennants, lanterns (light), and gunfire, but this is only good for line of sight or hearing distant, and this was ‘start’ of communication in the Navy. The Navy adopted the use of the telegraph and Morse code, even making it available in many ports. But, before the turn of century, the first wireless message is sent using a Marconi antenna. Soon, with in a few years these antenna’s are being mounted on ship and Navy shores sites. Even ‘Mock’ battles using this wireless communicates showed its worth.
Explain how Naval communications evolved between 1910-1920
The early part of the twentieth century(10’s-20’s) saw the Navy building and deploying strings of sites with radio’s on all platforms, with the Navy having the strongest transmitters of the day. TV and facsimile are developed. Additionally, say the experimentation of radio controlled aircraft.
Explain how Naval communications evolved in the 1930's.
1930’s saw the development of Radar and the first experiments with transmition of voice by light.
Explain how Naval communications evolved in the 1940's
1940’s had the 1st radio proximity fuses in bombs tested and radio teletypewirters.
Explain how Naval communications evolved in the 1950's.
1950’s established first comms circuit by reflection off the moon, punch cards, SSB voice comms,
Explain how Naval communications evolved in the 1960's.
1960’s 1st satellite’s.
What was the major significant contribution to communications in the 20th Centruy.
20th Centruy saw more powerful equipment, fast processing capabilities and smaller equipment to assist in all communicaitons endeavors.
Discuss the role cryptology played in the Battle of Midway.
Lead by Commander Rochefort, the ‘OP-20G’ group was successful in breaking the Japanese code. So, accurate was the intelligence, the American’ when and approximate size of force. And with a little open communication’s deception, OP-20G was able to show the target was “AF”, Midway. With this, Nimitz was able to strike a decisive Naval blow to the Japanese advance in the Pacific.
Define EHF.
EHF [ref. ee] - Extremely High Frequency 30GHz-300GHz (p1-11), is used in experimental equipment, may be used for radar and satellite comms
Define Radar
Radar [ref. ff] Uses SHF frequencies. Radar sends out an electrical ‘pulse’ and by the time calculated by the ‘return’ echo, an object can have its distance calculated
Define Frequency Hop
Frequency hop [ref.ee] “Hops” The distance between microwave systems (more so today with high frequencies capabilities) usually 31-to-95 miles, to relay networks, TV, comms …etc…
Define Uplink
Uplink [ref. ee] – This is the Frequency to the satellite
Define Downlink
Downlink [ref. ee] – This is the Frequency from the
State the role communications played in the Battle of Midway.
With OP-20G breaking Japanese code and ‘open’ communication deception, the plans to attack Midway was easily deduced, and countered by Adm. Nimitz
Explain the contributions the “Windtalkers” made during WWII
"Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, and Iwo Jima have one thing in common: they were captured by the Wind Talkers unit. The Wind Talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945--serving in all six Marine divisions. Many American soldiers staked their lives on the success of the Navajo code and view the Wind Talkers' contributions to the war effort as nothing short of monumental The original Navajo Code Talkers also created and learned approximately 450 words that represented military terms. The first group, 29 recruits in May 1942, developed a dictionary, and also numerous words for military terms that did not exist in their native tongue. The dictionary and code words had to be memorized before training was complete. The Navajo Code was used in open comm’s and never broke by the Japanese.
Describe the history of Naval cryptology
Starting in WW I the US Navy was engaged with “radio intelligence” and direction finding and just before the end of World War I a section to engage in cryptanalysis with ONI. In 1922, the office was given the designator OP-20-G, which it would carry until shortly after World War II. There was an increased emphasis on COMINT … and role that it made during WW II, OP-20-G decided many outcomes of the WW II. As a result NSA and the NSGA’s (later NETWARCOM) were established to help with ‘Cold War’ to follow.
What did we learn from the USS Pueblo incident?
a. USS PUEBLO [ref. I & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Pueblo_(AGER-2)] – The specific orders were to intercept and conduct surveillance of Soviet naval activity in the Tsushima Strait and to gather signal and electronic intelligence from North Korea. Lessons learned; get rid of excessive unneeded classified material, have better plans and drills in emergency destruction have a escort in the area or better armed.
What did we learn from the USS Liberty incident?
b. USS LIBERTY [ref. i] – Was ordered to the area for rising tension in the middle east. Lessons learned; Again, get rid of excessive unneeded classified material, have better plans in emergency destruction have a escort in the area or better armed.
What did we learn from the Hainan Island EP3 Crash?
c. Hainan Island EP-3 crash [ref. I & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hainan_Island_incident] Was on a routine surveillance flight in inter-national air when a collision with a Chinese J-8 fighter forced an emergency landing on the island of Hainan. Had next 26 minutes the crew of the EP-3 carried out an emergency plan which included destroying sensitive items on board the aircraft, such as electronic equipment related to intelligence gathering, documents and data. But, Part of this plan involved pouring freshly-brewed hot coffee into disk drives and motherboards, this could have been better planned.
What did we learn from the Bletchley Park incident?
Bletchley Park [ref. dd & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bletchley_Park ] - The success of Bletchley Park did not become know till the 1970’s, because the participants remained silent for decades, even though thousands had been involved with the deciphering efforts with the German ‘Enigma’ and the first electronic computers, such as ‘Colossus’, that was constructed in order to break the German teleprinter on-line Lorenz cipher know as Tunny.
Define the term Network Centric Warfare (NCW) and explain its concept.
NCW focuses on using computers, highspeed data links, and networking software to link military personnel, platforms, and formations into highly integrated local and wide-area networks. Within these networks, personnel will share large amounts of critical information on a rapid and continuous basis. DOD believes that NCW will dramatically improve combat capability and efficiency; and units in the network share a common, composite, real-time picture
Explain the negative impact that the John Walker espionage case had on the Navy.
Along with his brother, son, and friend, Walker compromised US Navy cryptographic systems and classified information from 1967 to 1985. John Walker, himself, compromised the Fleet Broadcasting System (FBS) during the period 1967-1975, which was used to transmit all US Navy operational orders to ships at sea. Communication Security (COMSEC) system was completely defenseless, making it possible, for far too many people to have access to the keys and sensitive materials, and the auditing methods were incapable, even in theory, of detecting illicit copying of classified materials; Far too many people had access to the keys and sensitive materials, and the auditing methods were incapable, even in theory, of detecting illicit copying of classified materials, which Walker and his crew had access to and sold.
Discuss when and why the Sailor’s Creed was developed.
Written by a “Blue Ribbon Recruit Training Panel” in 1993 at the direction of CNO Kelso, who personally participated in the final edit of the working group's proposal. Admiral Kelso then directed that every recruit be given a copy and required to commit it to memory. In 1994, CNO Boorda approved a minor change which made the creed inclusively descriptive of all hands. The change involved replacing the word “bluejacket” with "Navy," which describes the lowest enlisted rate, E-1, through the highest officer rank, O-10. After 1997 another change to the text occurred when the words "my superiors" were replaced with "those appointed over me."All of the personnel in the uniform of Naval Service are Sailors first and in addition, they are officers, chiefs, petty officers - aviators, Seabees, surface warriors and submariners. This is an important point impacting unity and esprit de corps.