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34 Cards in this Set

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CHEMISTRY
the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes
EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
depend on the amount of matter that is present
INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
do not depend on the amount of matter present
MIXTURES
a blend of 2 or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties
HOMOGENEOUS/SOLUTIONS
uniform in composition

(ex: salt-water solution)
HETEROGENEOUS
not uniform throughout

(ex: clay-water mixture)
PURE SUBSTANCE
has a fixed composition
PHYSICAL PROPERTY
a characteristic that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance

(ex: melting/boiling point)
PHYSICAL CHANGE
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity the substance

(ex: grinding, cutting, melting, boiling)
CHEMICAL PROPERTY
relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
CHEMICAL CHANGE/REACTION
a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
VOLUME
the amount of 3D space an object occupies
MASS
a measure of the amount of matter
ELEMENT
a pure substance that is made of 1 type of atom
COMPOUND
a substance that is made from 2 or more elements chemically bonded in a fixed ratio
DENSITY
the ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume
PERIOD
horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table
METAL
an element that is a good electrical conductor and a good heat conductor
NONMETAL
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
METALLOID
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals
NOBLE GASSES
elements in group 18 of the periodic table; generally non-reactive; gases at room temperature
SOLID STATE
matter has a definite volume and definite shape
LIQUID STATE
matter has a definite volume, but an indefinite shape
GAS STATE
matter has neither definite volume nor definite shape
REACTANTS
the substances that react in a chemical change
PRODUCTS
the substances that are formed by the chemical change
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
energy can be absorbed or released in a change, but it is not destroyed or created
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
ACCURACY
refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
PRECISION
refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated
QUALITATIVE
descriptive
QUANTITATIVE
numerical
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
written in the form M × 10n, where the factor M is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number