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16 Cards in this Set

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GLYCOLYSIS
: the first set of reactions in cellular respiration in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid. From “sweet” and lysis “to loosen” During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. ATP and NADH are also made.
NAD+:
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: an electron carrier involved in glycolysis.
KREBS CYCLE:
The second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reactions.
MATRIX:
the innermost compartment of the mitochondrion where the Krembs cycle takes place.
What happens during the process of glycolysis?
During glycolysis, 1 molecule of glucose, which has 6 carbon atoms, is changed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, when each have 3 carbon atoms.
What happens during the Krebs cycle
During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of steps that releases chemical energy.
how does the electron transport chain use high-energy electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to change ADP into ATP.
How much ATP does cellular respiration generate?
Together, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain make about 36 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose.
Glucose is first split during the first set of reactions in cellular respiration known as
glycolysis. In one of the reactions of glycolysis, a 6 carbon sugar made from glucose is split into two. _.
NAD+
is an electron carrier that is used during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
During the Krebs Cycle,
pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide.
The Krebs cycle takes place in
the matrix.
How is the function of NAD+ similar to that of NADP
Like NADP+ in photosynthesis, each, NAD+ molecules can pick up a hydrogen ion and carry a pair of high energy electrons. This new molecules is known as NADH. It holds the electrons until they can be moved to other molecules. Later on, when there is oxygen present, these high-energy elecytrons can be used to make even more ATP. ,
Why do you often breath faster during heavy exercise?
There are two reasons: in the middle stage of cellular respiration, or the Krebs cycle, oxygen is present and pyruvic acid mide in glycolysis passes to this stage. So this stage of cellular respiration needs oxygen in its series of energy extracting reactions. The other thing that happens is that as the cycle keeps going, carbon dioxide leaves. Carbon dioxide is not useful to the cell, it is expelled every time you breath out. When oxygen is present, the electron carrier molecules are used make huge amounts of ATP (breathing in) then carbon dioxide is produces as a waste product (breathing out to expel).
How is the cell like a furnace?
Like a furnace, a cell can use more than one type of reactant, not just glucose, to produce energy. Both the cell and the furnace release heat
How do whales and humans differ in their ability to stand CO2 buildup in blood?
Whales can also tolerate a far higher level of carbon dioxide in their blood than we can; and due to this tolerance, they can remain underwater while their oxygen supply is used up almost entirely. For instance, while the oxygen content of the air exhaled by a human is about 16-18 percent, it’s a mere 1.5 percent for a whale.