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48 Cards in this Set

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Where in the brain are emotions mainly processed?
Limbic system
Which structures are most often considered part of the limbic system?
- Hippocampus (+ gyrus dentatus, fornix)
- Gyrus parahippocampalis
- Gyrus cinguli
- Corpus amygdaloideum (amygdala)
- Corpus mamillare

Sometimes also:
- Parts of olfactory cortex
- Parts of thalamus
- Indusium griseum
Hippocampus: Location, afferences, efferenzes and function.
Location: Floor of the cornu temporale of the ventriculus lateralis. Mostly located in lobus temporalis.

Afferences:
- From gyrus parahippocampalis (area entorhinalis).
---- impulses from olfactory cortex, amygdala and neocortex
---- somatosensory, visual, auditory and olfactory info
- Also: thalamus, gyrus cinguli, fornix

Efferences:
- Circle: Run in fornix to the corpora mamillaria -> thalamus (ncl. anterior) -> gyrus cinguli -> back to hippocampus

Function:
- Transfer contents from short term to long term memory
- Endocrine, visceral and emotional processes
Fornix: Location, function
Location: Crescent-shaped group of fibers running over the roof of the ventriculus tertius. Connects the hippocampus with the corpus mamillare.

Function: Plays important role in learning: Storage of memory contents from STM into LTM.
Commisura fornicis
The commisure between the fornix on either side. Connects the two hemispheres.
Where in the brain are emotions mainly processed?
Limbic system
Which structures are most often considered part of the limbic system?
- Hippocampus (+ gyrus dentatus, fornix)
- Gyrus parahippocampalis
- Gyrus cinguli
- Corpus amygdaloideum (amygdala)
- Corpus mamillare

Sometimes also:
- Parts of olfactory cortex
- Parts of thalamus
- Indusium griseum
Hippocampus: Location, afferences, efferenzes and function.
Location: Floor of the cornu temporale of the ventriculus lateralis. Mostly located in lobus temporalis.

Afferences:
- From gyrus parahippocampalis (area entorhinalis).
---- impulses from olfactory cortex, amygdala and neocortex
---- somatosensory, visual, auditory and olfactory info
- Also: thalamus, gyrus cinguli, fornix

Efferences:
- Circle: Run in fornix to the corpora mamillaria -> thalamus (ncl. anterior) -> gyrus cinguli -> back to hippocampus

Function:
- Transfer contents from short term to long term memory
- Endocrine, visceral and emotional processes
Fornix: Location, function
Location: Crescent-shaped group of fibers running over the roof of the ventriculus tertius. Connects the hippocampus with the corpus mamillare.

Function: Plays important role in learning: Storage of memory contents from STM into LTM.
Commisura fornicis
The commisure between the fornix on either side. Connects the two hemispheres.
Fornix
Fornix, sagittal view
Fornix, coronal view
Gyrus cinguli: Location, parts, function
Location: Above corpus callosum. Part of the telencephalon. Along with hippocampus largest structure of the limbic system.

Parts:
- Pars posterior (BM 23)
- Pars anterior (BA 24)
- Area subcallosa (BM 25)
- Cingular motor areas (BM 32)

Function:
- Affects vegetative parameters (e.g. nutrition uptake)
- Psychomotor & locomotor drive
> Via connections with other limbic structures, association cortex and striatum
> Controls emotionally triggered facial movements such as laughing and crying
Which functions do the different parts of the limbic system have?
Hippocampus: Memory, behavior, emotional & vegetative functions.

Gyrus parahippocampalis: Memory, leading on sensory information to the hippocampus.

Gyrus cinguli: Psycho- & locomotor drive, vegetative modulation.

Corpus amygdaloideum: Affective behavior, affective motivity, emotional learning, affects vegetative functions.

Corpus mamillare: Memory, affective behavior, vegetative functions.

NB! Work together with other regions!
Lateralization
Some processes take place mainly in one of the cerebral hemispheres.

LEFT:
- Language: left side dominant in most people (right handers: always left. left handers: can be either)
- Abstract skills (e.g. mathematical operations, word recognition)

RIGHT:
- spatial visualization, memory for faces, musical skills
Corpus callosum: function and parts
Function: Connects cortical areas (M1, S1, association areas) of the two hemipheres
=> le-ri connection of memories, aquired skills & intellectual efforts

Parts: Rostrum, genu, truncus, splenium.
What structure is 1-4?
What structure is 1-4?
Corpus callosum
Corpus callosum
Callosotomie
= split brain: Severing the Corpus callosum.

- No serious loss of aquired skills, memory of intelligence.
- Motor skills can later be learned with each hemisphere separately

- However, still medically verifiable:
>> Optic information can only be reproduced using language (verbally and in writing) when the information is registered by the dominant hemisphere (i.e. coming from the contralateral visual hemifield).
>>> Thus, information from the left visual hemifield, processed in the right hemisphere, can't reach the left-dominant language center!
>>> However, affected persons are able to identify a similar object with the left hand (controlled by the right hemisphere = same side as visual processing of object).
What structures surround the diencephalon?
WTF? I don't get this one. 

Slide: Abgrenzungen
• kaudal,
ventral,
dorsal:
Mesencephalonstrukturen
• Abgrenzung
zum
Telencephalon
wesentlich
schwieriger,
weil
im
Laufe
der
Embryonalentwicklung
diese
beiden
Teile
des
Neuralrohres
par
WTF? I don't get this one.

Slide: Abgrenzungen
• kaudal, ventral, dorsal: Mesencephalonstrukturen
• Abgrenzung zum Telencephalon wesentlich schwieriger, weil im Laufe der Embryonalentwicklung diese beiden Teile des Neuralrohres paraIell zusammen wachsen: („Vermischungsgebiete“).
What centers can be found in the diencephalon?
Centers for:
- Olfactory pathway
- Visual pathway
- Auditory pathway
- Tactile and proprioceptive information
- Emotions
How is the diencephalon subdivided?
- Epithalamus
- Thalamus
- Hypothalamus (+pituitary)
- Subthalamus
What structure?
What structure?
Epithalamus
Epithalamus
Epithalamus: location and parts
Location: Dorsal-most part of the diencephalon. Above the thalamus.

Parts:
- Stria medullaris thalami
- Nuclei habenulae
- Corpus pineale (epiphysis/pineal gland)
- Area pretectalis
- Commisura posterior
Stria medullaris thalami: structure & function
STRUCTURE:
- Narrow bundle of fibers medial to the thalamus (though mostly unrelated)
- Ends dorsally next to the two nuclei habenulares

FUNCTION:
- Passes information (afferences) on to the nuclei habenulares
Habenula: structure & function
STRUCTURE:
- Two rein-like structures connecting the epiphysis with the thalamus
- Contains the ncll. habenulares

FUNCTION:
- Not clear
- Probably relay station for impulses from the olfactory cortex, passing them on to the brain stem, where they reach vegetative cranial nerve nuclei
= how smell can influence food intake (salivation at pleasantly smelling foods, nausea and disgust at unpleasant smells)
Corpus pineale: names, structure, function, malfunction
NAMES: Corpus pineale, Zirbeldrüse, Gld. pinealis, Epiphyse.

STRUCTURE:
- Name < shaped like pine cone (though not really...)
- Grey-reddish neuro-endocrine gland, a few mm large
- No direct afferences from the rest of the diencephalon

FUNCTION:
- Specific cells produce the hormone serotonine, which via intermediate steps becomes melatonin.
>> Hormone production controlled by circadian rhythm:
>> Melatonin ("zeitgeber-hormone") mainly produced at night
>> Sleep-wake cycle and other time dependent bodily rhythms are controlled by melatonin
>> Also appears to have inhibitory influence on genital system

MALFUNCTION:
- impaired daily rhythm (SAD, sleep disorders, ++)
- absence or premature appearance of sexual maturity
Area pretectalis: structure, function, afferences, efferences
txt
Consensual light response
txt
Commisura posterior: Location, structure
txt
Structure? Function? Associated cortical areas?
Structure? Function? Associated cortical areas?
VNG = ventral nuclear group of thalamus
VNG = ventral nuclear group of thalamus
Structure? Function? Associated cortical areas?
Structure? Function? Associated cortical areas?
Anterior-medial-lateral nuclear group.
-> limbic system, PFC, parietal cortex

ANTERIOR: Part of limbic thalamus
- learning, memory, emotions

MEDIAL: regulates excitability of forebrain, emotions, cognitive learning, memory

LATERAL: not really a
Anterior-medial-lateral nuclear group
-> limbic system, PFC, parietal cortex

ANTERIOR: Part of limbic thalamus
- learning, memory, emotions

MEDIAL: regulates excitability of forebrain, emotions, cognitive learning, memory

LATERAL: not really a group (= posterior region + VNG)
Structure? Function? Associated cortical areas?
Structure? Function? Associated cortical areas?
Dorsal nuclear group
-> visual cortex, auditory cortex, language processing
Dorsal nuclear group
-> visual cortex, auditory cortex, language processing
Fornix