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75 Cards in this Set

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fingerlike projections within the small intestine
villi
Heart muscle receives blood through what arteries?
coronary
membrane that prevents friction between the rib cage and lungs
pleura
process in which bacteria reproduces by dividing
binary fission
What tumor shows no tendency to spread through the body?
benign
long bone of the upper arm
humerus
type of vascular tissue that carries sugar from a plant's leaves to the roots and stem
phloem
body system that transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and carries away waste products
circulatory system
body system consisting of various glands that produce hormones
endocrine system
two broad divisions of the skeletal system
axial and appendicular skeletons
hormone produced by the thyroid gland to regulate body metabolism
thyroxine
ingested food is stored and mixed with gastric juice here
stomach
starch and dietary fiber are made from long chains of smaller molecules called:
monosaccharides
club fungi produces spores in club-shaped:
basidia
The stigma, style, and ovary make up what part of a flower?
pistil
main pigment responsible for skin color
melanin
What states that every infectious disease is caused by a specific germ?
germ concept
oil that waterproofs the skin and keeps it soft and flexible
sebum
Main reproductive organs are the gonads, which are the testes in men and what in women?
ovaries
substance that stimulates the body to develop immunity to a pathogen as it would if infected with that pathogen
vaccine
tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow gases to be exchanged between the air and the blood
alveoli
light-driven process to manufacture glucose from water and carbon dioxide, used by green plants
photosynthesis
time between a person becoming infected and displaying symptoms of disease
incubation
What does the central nervous system consist of?
brain and spinal cord
bulged end of a long bone such as the femur
epiphysis
structures of the skin that help regulate body temperature
sweat glands
portion of a root that absorbs water and minerals from the soil
root hairs
In what type of joint does the rounded head of a bone fit into an indentation of another bone?
ball-and-socket
nonflowering plants that reproduce by seeds not covered by the walls of an ovary
gymnosperms
Hormones insulin and glucagon regulate the level of what in the blood?
glucose
light-sensitive layer of the eye that converts light rays into nerve impulses and transmits them to the brain
retina
portion of a plant embryo that stores food for germination
cotyledon
liquid portion of the blood
plasma
lymph node groups located in the ileum of the small intestine
Peyer's patches
Antibodies and the white blood cells that produce them are the body's ____ defenses.
specific
working units of the kidneys that do the work of filtering wastes from the blood
nephrons
microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries and veins and supply body tissues with blood
capillaries
part of the brain primarily responsible for thought, memory, and consciousness
cerebrum
occurs during development in the mother's womb and is present at birth
congenital disease
occurs when the immune system attacks the body
autoimmune disease
can be spread from person to person
communicable disease
recurrent or long lasting
chronic disease
caused by a lack of an essential nutrient
deficiency disease
individual contracting units of a skeletal muscle cells
sarcomeres
What disease does HIV cause?
AIDS
largest and strongest muscle in the body
gluteus maximus
organ that filters blood from the digestive system and manufactures many chemical substances
liver
Artificial kidneys work by using a membrane to separate molecules of different sizes. what is this process of separation called?
dialysis
simple dry fruit that consists of a pod that splits open upon ripening
legume
strong bands of connective tissue that connect bones to each other
ligaments
What is the purpose of ATP in the body?
storing energy
blood vessels that carry blood from the ventricles of the heart to the lungs
pulmonary arteries
Through what process does water enter a root?
osmosis
What sac of blood vessels connects a mother and child?
placenta
contracting and pumping phase of the cardiac cycle
systole
part of the ear that translates sound vibrations into nerve impulses
cochlea
long extension of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body to other neurons
axon
Some white blood cells produce _____, a chemical messenger that causes inflammation.
histamine
catalysts produced by living cells are
enzymes
a plant with parallel veins, flower petals in multiples of three, and a fibrous root system is most likely a
monocot
a set of guidelines that can be used to determine if a particular bacterium is the cause of a specific disease are ____ postulates .

Koch's

A _____ is an animal that transmits an infectious disease.
vector
a fertilized egg cell repeatedly divides to form a hollow ball of cells called a

blastocyst

the iron-containing protein that allows blood cells to transport oxygen is
hemoglobin
the primary reproductive hormone in men is
testosterone
The antibodies a newborn receives from his mother provide a form of ____ immunity.
acquired
Sympathetic nervous system signals the body to prepare for stress and emergency situations. which would the sympathetic nervous system be most likely to stimulate?
adrenal glands
What hormone could potentially be used to treat disorders in which a person has difficulty falling asleep?
melatonin
Why is the amount of fluid filtered by the glomerulus much greater than the amount of urine produced?
reabsorption returns water to the blood
Botulism is an extremely rare and often-lethal type of food poisoning. the toxin that causes botulism is produced by the anaerobic bacterium "Clostridium botulinum." what types of food packaging would this bacterium be most likely to grow in, if it is present?
airtight plastic bag sealed in a vacuum
What BEST explains why some shallow cuts of the skin bleed little, if at all?
the epidermis contains no blood vessels
What BEST explains why viruses are often not considered living things
viruses do not carry on life processes
What BEST explains why the lymphatic system does not include a pimp?
the lymphatic system does not transport oxygen
Tf a person's body produces too much renin, what effects would be MOST likely to occur?
high blood pressure
In the Linnaean system of classification, what level comes between the phylum and the order?
class