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61 Cards in this Set

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Signs and Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction
Obstruction of coronary artery by clot or thrombus. Signs and Symptoms or the same as Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Sudden onset of chest pain, often described as pressure and heaviness. Radiates to arm and or jaw. Also likely to have shortness of air, diaphoresis, pale, mottled, cool skin, weakness, lightheaded, nausea, vomitting, and or impending feeling of doom.
page 197
Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction
The accronym MONA is often used to remind us of treatment.
Morphine, Oxygen, Nitro, ASA. Not particular in order. Oxygen and ASA are the only two prehospital treatments to show improve survival rates.
page 200
Signs and Symptoms of Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity response with hypotensive, dyspnea, wheezing, rales, rhonchi, anxiety, urticaria, and pruritus which can begin within mins or 1 hour after exposure. Can cause distributive shock with peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia.
page 161
Treatment of Anaphylaxis
Remove allergen and reverse effects. ABCs, epinephrine, corticosteroids, and benadryl. Epi binds with Alpha and Beta receptors increasing BP, heart rate, and bronchodilation. Benadryl blocks H1 providing relief of symptoms.
page 163
Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of Angina Pectoris
Chest pain 2nd to inadequate blood supply from a narrowed coronary artery blockage. Stable angina comes and goes with exercies or stress, and only last 3 to 5 mins, possibly up to 15 mins. Relieved by rest or nitro. Unstable last longer than usual, and may be caused by coronary spasms. May lead to AMI.
Treatment is same as AMI, CAS, in prehospital with MONA.
page 195-196
Signs and Symptoms of Appendicitis
Pain localizied to right lower quadrant or right lower back. Pain classically begins in the periumbilical region than becomes more localized to RLQ and worse. Positive psoas sign or streatching increases pain. Other signs are fever, nausea, and vomiting.
Treatment prehospital includes pain control and antimetics.
page 269
Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of Asthma
Dyspnea, wheezing or absent lung sounds, chest tightness, cough, signs URI such as rhinorhea, congestion, headache, pharyngitis, and myalgia.
Treatment include inhaled Beta agonist such as Albuterol or Xopenex, subQ epi, and corticosteroids. Mag Sulfate has been shown to control severe exacerbations of asthma given very slowly causing relax smooth bronchial muscles.
page 121-122
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Bowel Obstruction
Crampy abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, inability to pass flatus, distended abdomen, absent or high-pitched bowed sounds. No specific treatment for bowel obstruction prehospital.
page 274
Signs and Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Depends on concentration and duration of exposure. Typical signs and symptoms are fatigue, headache, myalgia, nausea, voming, shortness of air, syncopal, ataxia, seizures, alter level of consciousness, coma, death. Cherry red skin is a late sign, pallor is more common.
page 376
Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Most important is immediate removal of patient from environment. High-flow oxygen along with standard treatment. The higer FIO2 decreases the half life of carbon monoxide. Pt may be hypotensive, give fluid bolus via IV.
They will require hyperbaric oxygen chamber depending on severity.
page 376-378
Signs and Symptoms of Cardiac Tamponade
When fluid accumulates inside the layered pericardial sac arround the heart. This causes compression forces around the heart and resistricts heart cause obstructive shock. Can be caused by trauma or midcal condition.
Signs and Symptoms are remember with Beck Triad:
Low BP 2nd to low cardiac output, distended JVD, and muffled heart tones. Often have chest pain and dyspnea, possibly with a cough. Along with signs of shock.
page 193
Treatment of Cardiac Tamponade
Prehospital includes basic management, follow chest pain protocol, but hold anything that would lower BP. Fluid bolus can buy time.
They willl need a pericardiocentesis to remove fluid.
page 194
Signs and Symptoms of Chicken Pox(varicella)
Fever, malaise, anorexiaanf headache. The patient will develop a rash or itchy blisters. Treatment is standard. Pt may have antiviral, corticosteroids, and antihistamines PRN.
page 306
Signs and Symptoms of COPD
Chronic bronchitis or loss of alveolar surface area associated with emphysema.
Signs and Symptoms include dyspnea, wheezing to absent lung sounds, cough possibly productive, intolerace of exertion, and chest discomfort. Cigarette smocking is primary cause of COPD. Same treatment as Asthma. Consider CPAP as needed.
page 122-123
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Clostridium Difficile
Otherwise know as C-Diff is a direct result of antibiotic therapy, which suppresses the normal flora in the GI tract allowing C diff to predominate.
Treatment is to stop unnecessary antibiotic treatment. May need Flagyl or Vancocin for 10 days.
page 324-325
Signs and Symptoms of Cocaine Overdose
Tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hyper or hypotensive, tachy or hyperpnea, MI, pallor or cyanosis, hyperexcitability and anxiety, headache, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, N/V/D, dilated but reactive pupils, confusion, delirium, halluncinations, seizures, coma, death.
page 353
Treatment of Cocaine Overdose
Swab nose to remove residual if cocaine was snorted. Standard treatment. Be ready for erratic or violent behavior. Higher risk for cardiac ishemia and hypothermia.
page 370
Signs and Symptoms of Cyanide Poisoning
Anxiety, bradycardia followed by tachycardia, hypertension followed by hypotension, dysrhythmias, bitter almond odor to breath, cherry red mucus membranes, nausea, dyspnea, headache, dizziness, dilated pupils, confusion, seizure, coma, death.
Page 353
Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning
Supportive care for anxiety, hyperventilation.
Antidotes for more severe including Amyl nitrite IV, Sodium nitite IV, & Sodium thiosulfate IV. May need gastric lavage and or hyperbaric oxygen.
Page 353
Signs and Symptoms of Deep Frostbite
Superficial frostbite includes numbness, paresthesia, poor fine motor control, pruritus (itching), and edema. With deep frostbite includes hemorrhagic blisters, diminished range of motion, mottled gray area, hard or immobile tissue.
Page 239
Treatment of Deep Frostbite
Primarily supportive, along with protecting extremity. Do not allow pt to use extremity, example walk on it. Remove jewelry and wet clothing. Cover with blanket. Rapid rewarming is not recommended prehospital because of the risk of refreezing.
Page 239
Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Insulin deficiency and excessive glucagon levels combine to create hyperglycemia, acidotic, volume depleted state. Pt is very dehydrated, polyphagia, polydispsia, and polyuria. Signs of shock like tachycardia, tachypnea, shallow breathing, and orthostatic changes.
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fruity breath odor, fatigue/weakness, alter LOC, seizure, coma, death.
Page 227
Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Mostly supportive care prehospital. They need insulin therapy to definitively treat. Pt does usually require 3 to 6 liters of fluid during initial resuscitation so 2 large bore IVs is recommended for severe cases.
Page 227-228
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy
Implantation of fertilized icing (egg) outside of the uterus. Vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal pain, may put pt into shock.
Prehospital treatment is supportive, may require surgical intervention.
Page 227
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Encephalitis
Encephalitis is general inflammation of the brain that causes focal or diffuse brain dysfunction. Signs and syptoms are similar to meningitis including fever, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, headache, and stiff neck. Key findings are alteration in brain function including disorientation, behavior chabe, motor or sensory deficits.
Treatment is standard, antivirals are usually given at the ER. ICP may be treated with diuresis, mannitol, and/or steroids.
Page 75-76
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Epidural Hematoma
Accumulation of blood between the inner table of the skull and the dura matter, the outer most meninges. Usually caused by trauma.
Head trauma, headache, nausea, vomiting, unilateral dilated pupil fixed or slow to react to light, dizziness, weakness, alter LOC.
Treatment standard with emphasis on spinal immobilization and not increasing ICP.
Page 71-72
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Epiglotitis
Infection causing inflammation of the epiglottis and supraglottic region.
Begins with sore throat processing to pain with swallowing and muffled voice. Difficulty bleeding, fever, drooling, and stridor.
Treatment should be supportive. Intubation is likely to be difficult so it should be last resort. Usually positive pressure ventilation is successful. Pt will need antibiotics.
Page 116-117
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Bleed
Signs of shock, loss of blood, syncopal, tachycardia, hypotension, weakness, confusion, with or without abdominal pain.
Treatment supportive prehospital.
page 265
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of H1N1 Influenza
Flu symptoms sudden onset fever, chills, weak, and body aches. H1N1 symptoms include diarrhea. Pts can worsen with respiratory distress, chest pain, alter LOC, etc.
Prehospital treatment is supportive. Pt may receive antiviral drug therapy.
Page 310-311
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Hyperosmotic Hyperglycemic Non-ketotic Syndrome
High blood sugar causing dehydration and decline mental status, often progressing to a coma. Other signs and symptoms are fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, seizures, and hypotension.
Treatment is standard with emphasis on fluid bolus for dehydration.
Page 228-229
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar. Diaphoresis, alter LOC, tremors, tachycardia, pale, cold, clammy skin. If not treated leads to seizures and alter LOC.
Treatment is sugar either oral or IV. Glucagon IM if no IV.
Page 225-226
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Malaria
A mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia (caused by hemolysis), hemoglobinuria, retinal damage,[13] and convulsions. The classic symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting four to six hours.
Prehospital treatment is supportive pt will need drug therapy for a full recovery.
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Menigitis
Menigitis is inflamaiton of the menigies which surround the brain and spinal cord. The CSF will show signs of infection. Can be caused by infectious and nonifectious disease but common life threat is bacterial infection. CSF lacks white blood cells or antibodies so infection goes uncontrolled.
Classic symptoms include headache, nuchal rigidity, fever and chills, and photophobia. Can also cause seizures, alter LOC, coma, and death.
Treatment is standard ABC, oxygen, IV, EKG, etc. IV antibiotics and steroids will be given at hospital once diagnosis is definitive.
page 73-75
Signs and Symptoms of Mild and Moderate Hypothermia
Mild hypothermia includes shiver vigorously along with dizziness, lethargy, nausea, and weakness. May also include hyperventilation and tachycardia.
With moderate hypothermia clinical signs of deterioration become apparent with bradypnea and bradycardia, alter LOC, and diuresis.
page 239
Treatment of Mild and Moderate Hypothermia
Most cases will resolve with passive rewarming (warm environment, out of wet clothing, etc). Warm fluid hydration is ok but avoid caffine beverages due to their diuretic effects.
Page 241
Signs and Symptoms of Severe Hypothermia
Alter LOC, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension, ventricular arrhythmias with J wave present. Usually unconscious with dilated to minimally responsive pupils. Pt is very susceptible to V-Fib and cardiac arrest.
Page 239
Treatment of Severe Hypothermia
Stabilize ABCs. With pulpable pulse avoid abrupt movement and gently move patient. Without a pulse emphesis is on compressions as meds and defibrillation will have limited effects at this temp.
page 241
Signs and Symptoms of Mononeucleosis
Mononucleosis is a viral infection causing fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the neck.

Mononucleosis, or mono, is often spread by saliva and close contact. It is known as "the kissing disease," and occurs most often in those age 15 to 17. However, the infection may develop at any age.

Mono is usually linked to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but can also be caused by other organisms such as cytomegalovirus (CMV).
Mono may begin slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Your tonsils become swollen and develop a whitish-yellow covering. The lymph nodes in the neck are frequently swollen and painful.

A pink, measles-like rash can occur and is more likely if you take the medicines ampicillin or amoxicillin for a throat infection. (Antibiotics should NOT be given without a positive Strep test.)

Symptoms of mononucleosis include:
General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling
Loss of appetite
Muscle aches or stiffness
Sore throat
Swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck and armpit
Swollen spleen
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Pancreatitis
An inflammatory process in which premature activation of pancreatic enzymes causes the pancreas to begin to digest itself, resulting in pain and necrosis as inflammation spread. Typical signs and symptoms are constant midepigastic pain radiates to the back. Generally not exacerbated by eating. Cullen sign, a blue discolration around umbilicus, and Grey Turner sign, a blue discoloration around the flanks, may be present. May also have fever, nausea, and vomiting. Can lead to shock.
Treatment is mainly supportive prehospital with pain control.
Page 268-269
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Pneumonia
Lung infection causing fluid to collect in the alveoli.
Can cause, fever, chills, cough (often productive), malaise, nausea vomiting, chest pain, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, and abnormal breath sounds inculding rales, rhochi, and even wheeze.
Treatment is mainly supportive with oxygen at rate needed. Severe dyspnea consider CPAP to alleviate need for intubatio. Patient may need hydration and will need antibiotics at ED.
page 124-125
Signs and Symptoms of Pneumothorax/Tension Pneumothorax
Gas in the pleual cavity which is usually filled with a small amount of fluid which lubricated the pleura to minimize friction. Can be spontaneously or by trauma ie positive pressure ventilation.
Causes tachypnea, tachycardia, pulsus paradoxus (weak or no pulse during inspiration), decreased or absent breath sounds especially unilateral, hypoxia, cyanosis, JVD, and alter LOC.
Page 126-127
Treatment of Pneumothorax/Tension Pneumothorax
Supportive if patient is stable.
Thoracostomy (Thoracentesis) if unstable.
2nd intercostal space above the third rib of affected side. Needle should be at least 2 inches long.
Page 128-129
Treatment of Seizure
Place padding and remove hazards. Oxygen especially during seizure if possible as pt breathing stops or is ineffective during seizure, providing ventilaiton.
During postictal state, supportive care is the best treatment. They may be hostile, be patient.
Start IV and give bezodiazepines per protocol.
Pay special attention to EKG initially because V-Tach can mamic seizure like activity.
page 78
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Sepsis
Massive systemic inflammatory response to infection.
Two are more must be present for diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):
Temp above 100F (38C) or below 97F (36C)
heart rate above 90bpm
resp rate above 20 or PaCO2 less than 32
High White Blood count

Septic shock also include hypotension with tachycardia.
IV bolus PRN to increase BP & decrease heart rate
hospital tx include blood work and abx
page 159-161
Signs and Symptoms of Stroke
Presentation can differ drastically base on area of brain effected.
Key findings are unilateral facial droop, unilateral weakness, speech disturbances, lack of balance/vertigo, and altered mental status.
page 64
Treatment of Stroke
Transport to a Stroke Center. Fibrinolytic agents can be given within 3 hours(some stroke centers use up to 4 and half hours) of last time patient know to be normal.
Best postion is supine with head slightly elevated if ischemic stroke is suspected. Do not over heat patient as hyperthermia accelerates ischemic brain injury. Seizure meds and ASA may be used per medical control.
page 65
Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Tuberculosis
Bacterium infecting lungs causing persistent cough for 2 or 3 weeks, night sweats, headache, weight loss, hemoptysis, and chest pain.
TB infection means exposure to TB.
TB disease means they have TB.
Use droplet precaution, oxygen PRN, pt will need antimycobacterial drugs.
Page 311-312
Identitfy the complications of meningitis
Pt may have seizures, treat per protocol. Be ready to and control airway with alter LOC.
page 74
Identify the etiologies and classifications of obstructive shock
Cardiac tamponade, PE, pnuemo
Cardinal sign decrease BP, SOA, tachycardia, tachypnea, JVD, decrease breath sounds, muffled heat tones.
Supportive tx, needle decompression for pneumo.
page 158
Identify the etiologies and classifications of distributive shock
Neurogenic, Anaphylactic, Septic, Toxins
they have different cardinal signs, tx cause.
Describe the stages of shock
Compensatory-normal BP, slight tachycardia, tachypnea, decrease cap refill, cool hands and feet, pale mucus membrane, restless anxiety.
Decompensated-BP decrease, tachycardia above 120bpm, tachypnea 30 to 40 bpm. Cool, clammy skin, pale dynastic mucous membrane, weakness, metabolic acidosis, decrease pulses.
Irreversible-profound hypotension, lactate above 8.
page 156
Compare and contrast the signs and symptoms and treatment for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia (DKA) and HHNS
DKA commonly causes alter LOC, metabolic acidosis, cause Kussmaul's tachypnea.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome is similar has less profound alter LOC.
Page 229
Define and give examples of various types of abdominal pain
Visceral-hollow organs are stretch, deep persistent ache, cramping, burning. Difficult to locate.
Somatic-irritation of nerve fibers, deep tissues. Easier to pinpoint. Tender to application, guarding, rebound tenderness.
page 253
Identify the components of AMLS pathwayas it relates to patient assessment
The success of the AMLS pathway depends on taking an efficient, comprehensive history and obtaining and correctly interpreting information from the physical examination and diagnostic assessments. Together with the patient's history, physical exam, risk factors, cardinal presentation suggest a possible diagnosis.
page 3
Discuss the importance of the AMLS Pathway and identifying and managing life threats
The cardnial presentation must be identified and the primary surbey performed initially so that any life-threatening medical emergencies can be identified and managed without delay.
page 4
Discuss the importance of the medical history as it relates to AMLS Pathway
Part of a thorough assessment and often done before secondary exam. This helps get the hole picture. With the history and can determine risk factors and work for a working diagnosis.
page 21
Define the most common means of prevention and transmission of infection diseases
Standard Precations, which are to be used on all patients.
-Hand hygine
-Sharps and disposal practices
page 10
Identify communication barriers that affect obtaining thorough medical history
Communication barriers include cultural differences, hearing impairment, and safety concerns. Expreience and patience is the key to over coming the communication barriers.
page 5-7
Identify the signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis
Water diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, mild abdominal pain, low grade fever. Easily transmissible. Antimetics, IV fluid.
Identify the signs/symptoms and treatment of salicylate poisoning
Common med is ASA.
Early signs and symptoms gastric irritation and pain, may develop metabolic acidosis. Supportive care, consider infant.
page 359
Describe the components of the Cushing's Triad
Systolic HTN, bradycardia, irregular respirations.
Triad means increase cranial pressure.
page 71