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27 Cards in this Set

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General _______ ____ was the commander of a disciplined, well trained, and well equipped British army.
William Howe
The ___________ ____ was inexperienced, poorly equipped, and had difficulty keeping soldiers
Continental Army
The Continental Congress lacked the power to tax, so it had a difficult time paying for the war. A wealthy Pennsylvania merchant, ______ ______, pledged large sums of money to the war effort
Robert Morris
The British forces had to fight the Continental Army and local militias. These militias often used _________ _______, in which they hid among trees and behind walls and then ambushed the British troops.
guerrilla warfare
In order to win, the British had to convince Americans that the war was a hopeless cause and to make it safe for them to surrender. General Howe’s strategy had two parts:
- to build up a massive military to intimidate the Americans
- to invite delegates from the Continental Congress to a peace conference
George Washington’s troops showed their inexperience by fleeing when British troops landed on Long Island in 1776. The British moved slowly, allowing the surviving American troops time to escape to Manhattan Island. The British captured ___ ____ ____, which became their headquarters for the rest of the war.
New York City
Disguised as a Dutch schoolteacher, American Captain ______ ____ was sent to spy on the British. He was caught and hanged by the British. His last words were “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
Nathan Hale
The British troops forced Washington and his troops to retreat at the ______ __ _____ ______ in October 1776
Battle of White Plains
______ _____ wrote the pamphlet American Crisis to help boost American morale
Thomas Paine
George Washington planned unexpected winter attacks against the British troops at _______ and _________, New Jersey. Washington and his troops won the attacks and then headed into the hills of northern New Jersey for the remainder of winter
Trenton and Princeton
In 1777 King George III approved a plan developed by _______ ____ ________ to isolate New England from the other American states. The British, however, did not coordinate their efforts, and the three-pronged attack on New York was a failure
General John Burgoyne
On September 11, 1777, British General Howe’s troops defeated Washington at the ______ __ __________ _____ and captured Philadelphia. The Continental Congress, which he had hoped to capture, had escaped. Howe had failed to destroy the Continental Army, which camped at ______ _____ for the winter.
Battle of Brandywine Creek; Valley Forge
Brutal conditions at Valley Forge did not stop Washington from training his army. European military officers, _______ __ _________ from France and Baron Friedrich von Steuban from Prussia, helped Washington increase morale and improve discipline among the American troops.
Marquis de Lafayette
General Burgoyne surrendered at ________, and over 5,000 British troops were taken prisoner. The American victory was a turning point because it improved American morale and convinced France to send troops to the American cause
Saratoga
In February 1778, Americans signed two treaties with ______. As a result of the treaties, France became the first country to recognize the United States as an __________ ______, and the United States and France formed an alliance
France; independent nation
By February 1779, the British in the West surrendered to Patriot ______ ______ _____, giving the United States control of the region
George Rogers Clark
Chief Joseph Brant convinced four ________ nations to help the British.
Iroquois
The ________ attacked settlers in Virginia and North Carolina. By 1780 American militias had burned hundreds of ________ towns
Cherokee
American warships attacked British merchant ships to disrupt trade. Congress began issuing _______ __ ______, or licenses, to private ship owners authorizing them to attack British merchant ships. The cargo seized by privateers seriously hurt Britain’s trade and economy
letters of marque
An American naval officer, ____ ____ _____, was involved in the most famous naval battle of the war
John Paul Jones
After being defeated at Saratoga, the British focused their attention on the South where they felt they had the strongest _________ support
Loyalist
In December 1778, British troops captured ________, _______, and returned _______ to British power
Savannah, Georgia
British General Henry Clinton was sent to capture Charles Town, South Carolina. It became the greatest American defeat as British troops surrounded the town, trapping the American forces. _______ _______ __________ took over for Clinton
General Charles Cornwallis
Loyalist troops commanded by two British cavalry officers were known for brutal attacks. The Loyalists troops went too far when they tried subduing people in the Appalachian Mountains. Americans in this region formed a militia force. The militia intercepted the Loyalist forces at the ______ __ _____ ________. The militia destroyed the Loyalist army. This battle was a turning point in the South. Southern farmers began organizing their own militia forces.
Battle of Kings Mountain
American commander General Nathaniel Greene organized the militia in the South into small units to carry out hit-and-run raids against British camps and supply wagons. “Swamp Fox” _______ ______ led the most famous of these units
Francis Marion
In the spring of 1781, the British invaded Virginia, hoping to keep control of the South. British General Cornwallis and his forces linked up with British commander Benedict Arnold (formerly an American commander) to conquer Virginia. In June 1781,
American General _______ _____ and his troops forced Cornwallis to retreat to Yorktown.
Anthony Wayne
In March 1792, Parliament voted to begin peace negotiations. The ______ __ _____ was signed on September 3, 1783. In the treaty, the British recognized the United States as a new nation with the Mississippi River as its western border. Britain gave Florida back to Spain. The French received colonies in Africa and the Caribbean
Treaty of Paris