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29 Cards in this Set

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List (2) types of cells populations that make up nervous tissue.
1) Neuron

2) Supporting cells- smaller cells that surrounds and wrap the more delicate neurons.
What is major functional difference between neuroglial cells and neurons?
Neuroglial cells- (glial cells) Are nonexcitable cells of neural tussue. Not able to generate and transmit nerve impulse.

Neuron- (nerve cells) Are excitable cells, specialized to generate and trasmit electrical signals
What sub-type of neuroglial would you find lining the central canal?
The epidemal cells.
What are the function of the epidemal cells?
Function in production of cerebral spinal fluid. (CSF)
What are structure and function of Dendrite?
Are receptive regions. Provide enormous surface area for recieving signals. Diffusing branching extensions.
What are structure and function of axons:
Axons generate and conduct nerve impulses. Conduct impulses away from cell body
What is structure and function of Nissel bodies:
Nissel bodies are rough endoplasmic reticulum, are involved in metabolic activities of the cells. Orderly arranged for protein synthesis, for neuron growth, and regeneration of nerve fibers.
What is structure and function of synapse:
Synapse is junction w/ neurons or effector cells. Functional junction or point of close contact between (2) neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell.
Myelin made of what substance?
Myelin is made of insulating fatty sheath of schwann. Made by individual schwann cells
What is the function of myelin sheath? (3)
1) Dramatically increase the speed of impulse

2) Act as insulator w/ the fatty material

3) Prevent leakage of charge out of the axon. Wrapping/surround larger PNS axons.
What is the neurilemma structurally?
The peripheral part of the Schwann cell and its plasma membrane.
What is function of neurilemma?
Neurilemma surrounds neural cells. surrounds the axons fo peripheral nerve.
What are the nodes of Ranvier, and where would you find the nodes?
Nodes of Ranvier are unmelinated gaps between schwann cells, along the nerve fibers. These gaps are where axons contain most of their channels, speed up conduction along axons.
What is the function of Nodes of Ranvier?
The nodes of Ravier work with the myelin sheath to increase speed of conduction
What anatomical characteristic determines whether a particular neuron is classified as unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar?
Classification of neurons based on structure # of processes extending from cell body. Structural variation within classes maybe differentiated according to # of processes attached to cell body.
Define UNIPOLAR NEURON-

structurally and functionally
S-Single short process that emerges from cell body.

F-The most distal portion of periperal process act as receptive endings the rest act as axon along w/ central process. All neuron conduct impulses are unipolar.
Define BIPOLAR NEURON-

structurally and functionally
S-Have (2) process attached to the cell body. Bipolar neuron are rare, axon and dendrite extend opposite side of cell body.

F-multiple process.
Define MULTIPOLAR NEURON-

structurally and functionally
S-have (3) or more processes. (multiple process) 2 or more dendrite in an axon.

F-Most common neuron tupe in human. Axon carry impulses away from CNS are multipolar neuron.
The neurons in the DRG are ______(structurally), and are _______(functionally.)
The neurons in DRG are unipolar neurons (structurally), and are sensory neuron (functionally.)
Define and state if each is unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar:

Sensory or afferent neuron
(Unipolar)-Neurons carrying impulses from sensory receptors in internal organsm the skin skeletal muscle, joints, or special sensory organs.
Define and state if each is unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar:

Motor or efferent neuron
(Multipolar)- Neurons carrying activating impulses from CNS to visceral.and or body muscles and gland.
Define and state if each is unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar:

Association or interneurons
(Multipolar)- Situated between and contribute to pathways that connect sensory and motor neurons.
How do neuron differ from a nerve/tract?
Nerve is a cordlike organ that is part of peripheral nervous system. Nerve vary in size, but every nerve consist of parallel bundles peripheral axons.

PNS consist of neuron process. Bundle of neuron processes are called tract in CNS and nerve in PNS.
Define the following:

afferent/sensory nerve
Never that carry only sensory process and conduct impulses toward CNS.
Define the following:

efferent/motor nerve
The ventral roots of the spinal cord, which carry only moto fibers. Nerves carrying impulses only away from CNS. RARE
Define the following:

Mixed nerve
Nerves carrying both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. All spinal nerves, majority of cranium nerves.
Define the following:

Endoneurium
Within a nerve, each fiber is surrounded by a delicate CT sheath called endoneurium. Endonerium insulate it from other neuron processes adjacent to it.
Define the following:

Perineurium
Groups of fibers are bound by coarser CT, to form bundle of fibers called fascicles.
Define the following:

Fascicles
Perineurium form bundles of this fibers. Fascicles are bound together by white fibrous CT sheath called epineurium.