Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

206 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is associated with the sense of touch?
Merkel cells, located at the base of some hairs. These cells are believed to function as touch receptors.
Keratin is an important protein for the skin. Which organelle is most prominent in cells that manufacture it?
A disorder not associated with oil glands is _____.

Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. ...whiteheads, blackheads,
What structures are associated with a hair follicle?
A painful inflammation of the fingertip may result from infection starting in a hangnail.
The small-celled and relatively bloodless tissue near the base of the nail forms a white, crescent-shaped spot called the
lunula, or moon.
The hard material in nail cells is the tough protein material,
If the root is destroyed, the nail ceases to grow. Otherwise, growth from root to tip is achieved in about
four months.
the horny outgrowth shielding the tip of the finger and the toe in humans and most other primates
No pigment occurs in nail cells, but since they are translucent, their appearance is pink because of blood vessels beneath
Pressure from improperly fitting shoes may cause the large toenail to cut into the skin along its edges
(the so-called ingrown toenail) Horny derivatives of the integument, homologous to the primate nail, have evolved into various structures in other animals, e.g., the hooves of horses and cattle and the claws of birds and reptiles.
also known as the cuticle, is the thickened layer of skin surrounding fingernails and toenails. Beneath the cuticle is a thin layer of a membrane known as the pterygium. The function is to protect the area between the nail and epidermis from exposure to harmful bacteria. The vascularization pattern is similar to that of perionychium.
Which structure is not associated with a hair?

eponychium = aka. nail cuticle
Epidermal cells that aid in the immune response include _____.

pacinian corpuscles
meissners corpuscles
langerhans' cells
spinosum cells
Langerhans' cells help the immune system by processing antigens (foreign bodies).
pacinian corpuscles
The reticular layer also contains Pacinian corpuscles, sensory receptors for deep pressure. This layer contains sweat glands, lymph vessels, smooth muscle, and hair follicles, described in the discussion on hair follicles later in this overview.
Keratinocytes produce keratin, a protein that gives skin its strength and flexibility and waterproofs the skin surface. Melanocytes produce melanin, the dark pigment that gives skin its color.
spinosum cells
Cells that move into the spinosum layer (also called prickle cell layer) change from being columnar to polygonal. In this layer the cells start to synthesize keratin.
produce melanin, the dark pigment that gives skin its color.
Merkel's cells
involved with touch reception.
Langerhans' cells
help the immune system by processing antigens (foreign bodies).
What Causes Fingerprints?
Fingerprints are caused by the bodies natural oils that collect in the whorls of the finger tips. When you touch something, that oil is transferred to what you touched.

an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. These are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary (rete) pegs of the epidermis. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered, for example, when fingertips brush across an uneven surface, better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception. These ridges also assist in gripping rough surfaces, as well as smooth wet surfaces.
Fingerprints are caused by the genetically determined arrangement of dermal papillae?
The outer part of the dermis has fingerlike projections, called dermal papillae, that indent the lower layer of the epidermis. Dermal papillae cause ridges in the epidermis above it, which in the digits give rise to fingerprints. The ridge pattern of fingerprints is inherited,and is unique to each individual. The dermis is thick in the palms and soles, but very thin in other places, such as the eyelids.
The skin discoloration most likely to result from anemia ia ______.

In thick skin, the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial, respectively, are the stratum _______________________.
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum
Pattern baldness is relatively rare in women because _______.

it only occurs in people with two Y chromosomes
it is caused by a dominant X-linked allele
women have lower testosterone levels than men
it only occurs in people with an X and a Y chromosome
it is inhibited by estrogen
it is inhibited by estrogen
Which of the following is stored in bones?

Vitamin C
What is the structural unit of compact bone?

Haversian canal
Bones do not have a role in:
glycogen production.
Choose the correct pairing.:
Paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is::
growth hormone.
Flat bones consist of compact bone sandwiched between spongy bone.:
Hyaline Cartilage:
found at the ends of bones that are located at movable joints.
In adults, hematopoietic tissue is mainly found in::
the hip bones.
In adults, yellow marrow is located::
in the medullary cavity of the long bones.
form new bone.
The axial skeleton includes:: ribs.
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is::
Hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling.
The epiphyseal plate is::
where bone elongation occurs.
The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support body parts:

Their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of locomotion, digestion, excretion, and reproduction.
The notable hardness of bone is attributed to::
the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites
The osteon is::
the structural unit of compact bone
What bone shape is the patella?: short bone
What controls bone remodeling?:
mechanical stress and hormones
What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?:
closure of the epiphyseal plate
What is endochondral ossification?:
the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models
What is osteoid?:
the organic part of the matrix of bone
What is the final stage in the healing of a bone fracture?:
bone remodeling
What is the most common type of cartilage found between bones in freely moveable joints?:
hyaline cartilage
What is the structural unit of compact bone?:
When chondrocytes divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called::
interstitial growth.
Which bone cells form bone?:
Which of the following is a bone projection?:
Which of the following is correctly matched?:
Compound fracture: the bone ends penetrate the skin
Which of the following is mismatched?:
Short bones: examples include the vertebrae
Which of the following is stored in bones?:
Which of the following is unlikely to trigger bone remodeling?:
Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?:
Blood cell formation
Mature bone cells
Location of red bone marrow
Spongy bone
Cartilage cells
Bone-forming cells
Shaft of a long bone
Hollow space in the shaft
Medullary cavity
Expanded portion of the long bone at its ends
Fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the outer surface of long bone
Thin connective tissue membrane that lines the medullary cavity
Process of bone formation
Replacement of connective tissue membranes with bony tissue
Intramembranous ossification
Replacement of hyaline cartilage with bony tissue
Endochondral ossification
Growth region (in length) of the long bone
Epiphyseal plate
Growth of bone in diameter
Appositional growth
Narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes
Basic functional unit of compact bone
Tiny plates of bone material found in spongy bone
Concentric rings that surround the Haversian canal
Perforating canals that carry interconnected blood vessels to the Haversian canal
Volkmann canals
Structures contained in the central canal of an osteon
Blood vessels
The substance contained in the medullary cavity of bones in an adult
Yellow bone marrow
Substance contained in the spaces of the spongy bone
Red bone marrow
The inorganic minerals contained in the intercellular matrix of bone
Calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite)
The hormone that functions to decrease the level of calcium in the blood
The hormone that raises the level of calcium ions in the blood
Parathyroid hormone
The hormone that is used in hormone therapy to reduce osteoporosis
Elevated levels of a hormone that could cause premature closure of the epiphyseal plates
A hormone that is necessary for proper bone formation
Thyroid hormone
A painful infection of the bone often caused by bacteria
A condition occurs with aging that causes a gradual reduction in bone mass
Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone would produce changes in the bone similar to those associated with this disorder
A condition causing bow legs in a child
A painful condition that occurs when the bones become weak and thin and tend to fracture easily
A fracture in which the bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate the skin
Simple fracture
A fracture that has broken ends of the bone protrude through the soft tissues and the skin
Compound fracture
A fracture in which the bone is crushed
Compression fracture
A fracture in which bone fragments into many pieces
Comminuted fracture
Long bone
Femur of the leg
Short bone
Carpals of wrist
Flat bone
Sternum of breastbone
Irregular bone
Vertebrae of spinal column and hip bones
Sesamoid bone
Patella of knee
Large, rough, rounded projections
Narrow ridge of bone
Very large, blunt, irregularly-shaped process
Small rounded projection or process
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface
Rounded articular projection
Arm-like bar of bone
Canal-like passageway
Cavity within a bone
Shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
Narrow, slit-like opening
Round or oval opening through a bone
Formation of compact bone plates and red marrow
Stage 4
Formation of bone matrix within the fibrous membrane
Stage 2
Formation of an ossification center in the fibrous membrane
Stage 1
Formation of woven bone and the periosteum
Stage 3
Calcification of cartilage in the center of the diaphysis
Stage 2
Formation of bone collar around the diaphysis of the hyaline model
Stage 1
Ossification of the epiphysis
Stage 5
Formation of the medullary cavity as ossification continues
Stage 4
Invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation
Stage 3
Cartilage cells undergo mitosis
Stage 1
Dead cartilage cells appear; matrix begins deteriorating
Stage 3
Ossification occurs on the epiphyseal plate next to the medullary cavity
Stage 4
Cartilage cells undergo hypertrophy followed by calcification of the matrix
Stage 2
Hyaline cartilage
Most abundant skeletal cartilage
Able to withstand large amounts of compression
Elastic cartilage
Located in the external ear and epiglottis
Encloses brain and other soft organs
Site of attachment for skeletal muscles
Mineral storage
Calcium phosphate repository
Blood cell production
Bone-building cell
Bone-destroying cell
Mature bone cell
Bone stem cell
Osteoprogenitor cell
Primary ossification center
Secondary ossification center
Epiphyseal plate
Site of length increase in long bones
Endochondral ossification
Process of long bone development
Caused by tearing of blood vessels in and around fracture site
Hematoma formation
Activity of fibroblasts and osteoblasts creates an overgrown splint around the fracture site
Fibrocartilage callus
Trabeculae invade callus and begin to replace fibrous tissue
Bony callus formation
Excess bony material is removed from the external and internal surfaces of the diaphysis
Bone remodeling
Layers of bone
Cavities in bone where bone cells live
Major organic fiber of bone
Major inorganic component of bone
Calcium phosphate
Has length greater than width
Long bone
Equal length and width
Short bone
Bone with complex shape
Irregular bone
Thin bone
Flat bone
Ovoid bone found in tendon
Sesamoid bone
A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is:

Osteoporosis, or porous bone, occurs when the rate of bone reabsorption exceeds the rate of bone formation. The loss of bone mass makes bones so porous and weakened that they become deformed and prone to fracture.
Which of the following statements concerning the periosteum of a bone is NOT true?
All bone surfaces in the body are covered by periosteum.

Periosteum does not cover sesamoid bones or the articular surfaces of bones, and it does not extend around tendon and ligament insertions on bone.
During fetal development intramembranous ossification takes place in:
fibrous connective tissue membranes.

Intramembranous ossification begins at approximately the eighth week of development. Cells cluster within the mesenchymal membrane and become osteoblasts (bone-forming cells).
Mary is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show signs of osteoporosis. After reviewing the test results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone is prescribed for Mary?

In postmenopausal women, the decreased production of estrogen can cause osteoporosis. Estrogen is secreted by the ovaries; it maintains normal bone mass by inhibiting the stimulatory effects of parathyroid hormone on osteoclast activity.
The bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas of:
yellow marrow

Yellow marrow is adipose tissue where energy is stored in the fat cells.
The cells that maintain mature compact bone are:

Osteocytes are mature bone cells that are embedded in the matrix.
The lacunae of bone contain:

Lacunae are small pockets found between narrow sheets of calcified matrix, and osteocytes (bone cells) are found in lacunae.
The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to:
endochondral ossification.

In a long bone, bone growth and elongation occur at the epiphyseal plate where new cartilage is formed and eventually calcified by osteoblasts (the bone-forming cells. The osteoblasts later mature into osteocytes
The two types of osseous tissue are:
compact bone and spongy bone.

Both compact and spongy bones make up the bone tissue.
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone:
long bones have reached their adult length.

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone (ossified), the epiphyseal plate becomes the epiphyseal line that is the closure of the epiphyseal plate. Growth in bone length ceases.
Intramembranous ossification:
begins within a connective tissue membrane.

Some flat bones form from a membrane by intramembranous ossification.
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in the:

The parts of a long bone include the diaphysis, or shaft, and epiphysis, or ends.
Growth of a cartilage in which the chondrocytes within the matrix become active and proliferate is known as:
interstitial growth.

Growth from inside out is interstitial growth.
Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal through:

The lacunae and central canal are continuous through the connection of canaliculi.
Spongy bone contains all of the following, except:
true osteons.

Only compact bone contains osteons.
The bones in the long axis of the body make up the:
axial skeleton.

The skeleton is divided into the axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial is the center of the body.
Which of the following is a canal-like passageway?

Of these features of bone, only the meatus is a hole, or canal-like passageway.
Which of the following characteristics of skeletal cartilage limits its thickness?
It is avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium that surrounds it.

The high content of water in skeletal cartilage provides it with resilience, but this does not cause the cartilage to be thin.
The menisci of the knee are made of:

The menisci of the knee are made of fibrocartilage.
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth of cartilage?
Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from within the cartilage.

This is a characteristic of appositional cartilage growth.
___________ bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull.

Sesamoid bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull.
All of the following are stored in the matrix of bones, except:
vitamin D.

Insulin-like growth factor is stored in the matrix of bones.
A narrow, slit-like opening in a bone is referred to as a:

A fissure is a narrow, slit-like opening in a bone.
Which of the following structures anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone?
Perforating fibers

Perforating fibers, also known as Sharpey's fibers, anchor the periosteum to the bone.
Which of the following sites is the site where bone marrow is routinely sampled in an adult?
The sternum

In adults the diaphysis of long bones contains yellow marrow that is mainly fat.
Bone-forming cells originate from:
osteoprogenitor cells.

Osteoblasts that lay down bone tissue originate from osteoprogenitor cells
The twisting of a long bone is prevented by which of the following?
Circumferential lamella

Volkmann's canals connect blood vessels and nerves between the periosteum and the endosteum, but do not prevent the twisting of long bones.
Hydroxyapatite in bone matrix that gives bone its hardness is primarily composed of:
calcium and phosphates.

Calcium phosphate is the most abundant hydroxyapatatite.
Before eight weeks, the skeleton of the human embryo is composed of:
fibrous membrane.

Spongy bone is only found in the adult skeleton.
If a breastfeeding mother becomes vitamin D deficient, what disease is most likely to develop in the nursing infant?

Although rickets is very rare in the U.S., most cases occur when a breastfeeding mother becomes vitamin D deficient.
Osteomyelitis is a condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function.
Osteoporosis is a condition in which bone mass is reduced and develops pores in bones.

Osteomyelitis is a painful infection of the bone.
Collagen in the bone matrix provides flexible strength.
Collagen lends flexible strength to the matrix; other minerals give weight-bearing strength.
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a calcified model.
A cartilage model provides the template of the eventual mature bone.
Excess growth hormone prior to puberty would result in gigantism.
Growth hormone stimulates both skeletal and muscular growth and development.
Mature bone cells are called chondrocytes.
Mature bone cells are called osteocytes. Chondrocytes are cartilage cells.
Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoblast activity.
Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclast activity when the calcium level in the blood is low.
Scapulae are formed by intramembranous ossification.
Some skull bones, part of the mandible, and the diaphyses of the clavicles develop from membranes.
Secondary ossification centers occur in the center of the diaphysis.
Secondary ossification centers occur in the epiphyses.
The central canal of an osteon contains osteocytes.
Blood vessels run through the central canal of the osteon. Osteocytes are located in the lacunae.
The hormone calcitonin functions to decrease the calcium ion in the blood.

Calcitonin stimulates osteoblast activity by drawing calcium ions from the blood and depositing them in the bone tissues.
The most abundant mineral in the human body is calcium.
Calcium is the major mineral that makes up the skeleton.
The presence of an epiphyseal line indicates that long bone growth is still in process.
Bone growth continues when the epiphyseal plate is still present. Once the epiphyseal plate is replaced by the epiphyseal line, bone growth ceases.
The shaft of the long bone is called the diaphysis.
The diaphysis is the shaft. The epiphysis is the enlarged end.
Vitamin D is necessary for the formation of the organic framework of bone.
Vitamin D is necessary for absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions.
Osseous tissue is avascular.
Osseous tissue is very vascular and heals readily.
Appositional growth in a skeletal cartilage will increase its overall length.
Appositional growth adds girth to the cartilage.
A metacarpal is an example of a long bone.
Because their length is greater than width, metacarpals are long bones.
An increase in parathyroid hormone can cause bones to become porous and brittle.
PTH targets bone and liberates calcium into the blood.
Increasing the percentage of collagen in a bone would make it become more rigid.
Collagen is an organic molecule that adds flexibility to bone.
A bone that is imbedded in a ligament or tendon is a short bone.
Sesamoid bones are a special type of short bone that are usually found within tendons, which are made of dense connective tissue.
Spongy bone in flat bones is called diploe.
The spongy bone located in flat bones has the special name diploe.