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100 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

The digestive tract has four major layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and ______________.

serosa

Which of the following abdominal organs does not assist in the digestive process?



A. pancreas


B. gallbladdder


C. liver


D. spleen

spleen

What is the normal path that food takes through the digestive tract?

oral cavity,


pharynx,


esophagus,


stomach,


small intestine,


large intestine,


rectum, &


anus

The part of the intestine that is responsible for controlling and coordinating contractions of the smooth muscle is located in the _________.

submucosa

The _________ covers the muscularis externa along most portion of the digestive tract within the paritoneal cavity.

serosa

The network of nerves that is responsible for sympathetic and parasympathetic functions is located in the _________.

muscularis externa

Most of the digestive tract is lined with _________.

simple columnar epithelium

The type of epithelial tissue found in the oral cavity, esophagus, and anus is called _________.

stratified squamous epithelium

The process of using waves of muscular contraction to propel material from one part of the digestive tract to another is called __________.

peristalsis

Functions of the oral cavity include __________.



A. mechanical processing


B. begins the digestion of carbohydrates and lipids with salivary enzymes


C. lubricates material by mixing it with mucus and saliva


D. all of the above

all of the above

The cranial nerve that innervates the tongue is the _________ nerve.

glossopharyngeal

The function of the tongue is ________.



A. the mechanical processing of food


B. the senory analysis of food


C. manipulating food in the mouth to assist with chewing


D. all of the above

all of the above

There are three pairs of salivary glands that secrete fluid into the oral cavity. Which of the following is not an example of a salivary gland?



A. parotid


B. sublingual


C. submandibular


D. subpalatine

subpalatine

Salivary amylase released by the salivary glands helps to digest_________.

carbohydrates

Salivary secretions are normally controlled by the ______.

autonomic nervous system

The bulk of each tooth consists of ________.

dentin

During the process of swallowing, all of the following actions occur except the ____________.



A. epiglottis folds


B. larynx moves upward


C. soft palate moves upward


D. glottis opens up

glottis opens up

The smallest part of the stomach is called the ________.

cardia

The _________ regulates the flow of chyme between the stomach and the small intestine.

pyloric sphincter

The ridges and folds found within the stomach provide a greater surface area for the breakdown of food. This area is called the __________.

rugae

Hydrochloric acid lowers the pH of the stomach contents. Which of the following cells is responsible for secreting hydrochloric acid?



A. gastric pits


B. parietal cells


C. chief cells


D. gastric glands

parietal cells

__________ secrete pepinogen into the small stomach lumen to help break down proteins.

Chief cells

The bacteria __________ was found in apporximately 80 percent of all cases of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Aggressive treatment has helped to eradicate the bacteria and decrease the incidence of peptic disease.

Helicobacter pylori

The phase that is intitated by the sight, smell, or taste of food is called the _________.

cephalic phase

_______ is an endocrine hormone released from the gastric glands in the stomach to help churn or mix gastric contents.

Gastrin

What is the correct order of swallowing phases?

orgal,


pharyngeal,


esophageal

The common name for backflow of stomach contents toward the esophagus is ___________.

heartburn

The phase where the chyme begins to enter the duodenum is called the ______.

intestinal phase

All of the following statements are true regarding why there is a limited amount of digestion that occurs in the stomach except:



A. the epithelial cells are covered by a blanket of acidic mucus and are not directly exposed to chyme


B. the epithelial cells lack the specialized transport mechanisms normally found in cells lining the small intestine


C. the gastric lining is impermeable to water


D. digestion is not completed in the stomach because most carbohydrates, fats, and proteins have only been partially broken down

the epithelial cells are covered by a blanket of acidic mucus and are not directly exposed to chyme

What is the correct oder that chyme travels through the small intestine?

duodenum,


jejunum,


ileum

A gastrointestinal (GI) bleed is considered to be in the upper portion of the GI tract when it is proximal to the __________.

ligament of Treitz

Regional movements of the muscle that churn and fragment the digestive material is called ___________.

segmentation

The valve that connects the small and large intestine is called the ________.

ileocecal valve

Nutrients from the small intestine enter the bloodstream through a network of projections called ___________.

villi

The majority of the absorption of nutrients occurs in what part of the small intestine?

jejunum

The hormone that stimulates the release of insulin into the blood when glucose is present is called ___________.

gastric inhibitory peptide


(GIP)

What hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile?



cholecystokinin


(CCK)

The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate ions is called _________.

secretin

___________ is a hormone that stimulates chief cells and parietal cells in the stomach.

Gastrin

The pancreas is an essential organ when it comes to digestion. Not only does it release insulin and glucagon, but it also releases ______________ to aid in digestion.

lipases,


pancreatic amylase,


proteases

Within the pancrease, the pancreatic islets are responsible for producing ____________.

carbohydrates,


glucagon, &


insulin

Which of the following is the most common cause of portal hypertension?



A. splenomegaly


B. cirrhosis


C. pancreatitis


D. gallbladder disease

cirrhosis

The three segments of the large intestine are ___________.

ascending,


transverse,


descending

Which of the following organs is responsible for the storage of glycogen?



A. pancreas


B. liver


C. gallbladder


D. appendix

liver

Which of the following forms of hepatitis is most commonly transmitted via the fecal/oral route?



A. hepatitis A


B. hepatitis B


C. hepatitis C


D. hepatitis D

hepatitis A

Which of the following forms of hepatitis is most commonly transmitted via blood, saliva, or semen?



A. hepatitis A


B. hepatitis B


C. hepatitis C


D. hepatitis D

hepatitis B

Bacteria within the large intestine produce an important vitamin that assits with glucose metabolism. The vitamin is called _________.

biotin

One of the main functions of the large intestine is to _______.

absorb water

Which of the following vitamins is necessary for blood coagulation, and is deficient in the presence of chronic liver failure?



A. vitamin D


B. vitamin K


C. vitamin A


D. vitamin B-12

vitamin K

Which of the following forms of cancer are more common in the elderly who smoke?



A. lung and liver


B. colon and lung


C. oral and pharyngeal


D. skin and liver

oral and pharyngeal

The __________ is the inner lining of the digestive tract.

mucosa

The __________ layer of the intestinal wall contains large blood vessels and parasympathetic motor neurons.

submucosa

The muscularis externa propels food from one part of the digestive tract to the other by way of _________.

peristalsis

The mechanical mixing of the food in the digestive tract is called ___________.

segmentation

__________ is an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates into smaller molecules.

salivary amylase

Each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix simliar to bone called _________.

dentin

The _________ is the common passageway for food.

pharynx

The _________ is a muscular tub approximately 10 inches long that transports food to the stomach.

esophagus

The other term for swallowing is _______.

deglutition

A weakened esophageal sphincter can cause ___________, which is a type of inflammation.

esophagitis

Ingested food that has turned into a soupy mixture is called _________.

chyme

_______ is the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

Ascites

__________ is a condition caused by bacterial toxins, viral infections, or various poisons and characterized by vomiting and diarrhea.

gastroenteritis

The stomach is lined by a ____________ epithelium that is dominated by mucous cells.

simple columnar

Each day gastric glands secrete about _________ of gastric juice into the stomach.

1500 mL

Parietal cells in the stomach secrete ____________ and ____________.

Intrinsic factor &


hydrochloric acid

Newborn babies produce ______ to coagulate milk to slow digestion.

rennin

___________ are erosions in the stomach causd by gastric acid.

Gastric ulcers

The __________ phase is when the chyme moves from the stomach to the small intestine.

intestinal

The ___________ plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients.

small intestine

The transverse folds within the intestinal wall are called _________.

plicae

__________ is the neurotransmitter that is released from the lining of the intestinal wall and from neurons in the brain that stimulate vomiting.

serotonin

__________ is released when the pH decreases in the duodenum.

secretin

________ is released when fats and carbohydrates enter the small intestine.

gastric inhibitory peptide

__________ is released in the duodenum in response to a large quantity of impletely digested proteins.

Gastrin

As chyme begins to enter the duodenum, _____________ is released to increase bile in the duodenum.

cholecystokinin

The right and left loves of the liver are divided by a tough connective tissue called the ___________.

falciform ligament

The phagocytic cells found within the liver are called ________________.

Kupffer cells

Bile released from the gallbladder is responsible for the ____________ of fats.

emulsification

The most common cause of chronic viral hepatitis in the United States is _____________.

Hepatitis C

The main function of the gallbladder is __________

bile storage

The most common location of abdominal pain in the case of an acute gallbladder attack is the ______________.

right upper quadrant

The appendix primarily functions as an organ of the __________ system.

lymphatic

The feature of the large intestine that makes it look differently than the rest of the intestine is the presence of large pouches called ___________.

haustra

Three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle called ___________ run along the oustide of the colon beneath the serosa.

taeniae coli

Vitamin K is a fat-soluable vitamin needed by the liver to synthesize the clotting factor ___________.

prothrombin

Digestive enzymes break bonds between molecules in a process called _________.

hydrolysis

Vitamin _________ is an essential vitamin in the first step of Kreb's cyle and for other metabolic processes.

B1

In the elderly, a decrease in the motility of the intestinal tract leads to ____________.

constipation

____________ is a disease that is characterized by widespread destruction of hepatocytes.

cirrhosis

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneal membrane

polyps

mucosal tumors

ascites

accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

inflammatory bowel disease

chronic inflammation of the digestive tract

mastication

chewing

chyme

partially digested food

pepsin

proteolytic enzyme

gastrectomy

surgical removal of stomach

achalasia

bolus cannot reach stomach due to a constriction of the esophagus

colectomy

removal of all or a portion of the colon