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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A digestive organ that creates a strongly acidic environment under specific conditions is the...
stomach
A small blind tube attached to the caecum just below (inferior) to where the ileum attaches is called the
appendix
Bile is carried to the duodenum by the _________.
bile duct
Chief cells of the gastric glands secrete
pepsinogen
Clusters of lymphoid tissue found in the walls of the ileum are called ___________.
Peyer's patches
Simple carbohydrate digestion in adult humans occurs in the
mouth
Gastrin, secreted by the gastric and duodenal mucosa, acts to increase the secretions of the
gastric glands
One of your digestive glands secretes enzymes that are capable of digesting carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The gland is the _______.
pancreas
Pepsin initiates the chemical digestion of:
proteins
Teeth that shear or tear off pieces of food are the
incisors
The cells that secrete hydrochloric acid in the stomach are the _______ cells.
parietal
The finger-like projections of the small intestinal mucosa, which are so important in nutrient absorption, are the _________.
villi
The glands that frequently become inflamed when one gets the mumps are called the _______ glands.
parotid
The pyloric sphincter opens to let food into the
duodenum
This is not a salivary gland...
adenoids
The stomach lining is protected from the stomach acid by __________.
mucus
The terminal portion of the small intestine is the:
ileum
Trypsin acts to break down _______.
polypeptides
Digested molecules that leaves the stomach through the alimentary canal would next enter the:
duodenum
In general, which of the following is probably the most important factor involved in determining a person's basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
amount of thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland
Ketosis and acidosis are consequences of the incomplete oxidation of:
fats
Proteins of plant origin (i.e. beans, corn, rice):
are incomplete.
The formation of muscle proteins from food you have eaten is an example of:
anabolism
These chisel-shaped teeth are adapted for precise cutting with moderate force:
incisors
This hormone, produced by the duodenum, causes an increase in the output of bile by the liver and pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions:
secretin
What is the main digestive function occurring in the stomach?
protein digestion
What organ produces enzymes capable of digesting all of the major categories of organic compounds?
pancreas
What substance, produced by gastric glands, is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12 from the small intestine?
intrinsic factor
When cells oxidize amino acids for energy their _______ groups are removed and, ultimately, in the liver, converted to the waste _______ which is flushed from the body in urine.
amine group; urea
What is NOT a major nutrient (makes up the bulk of what we eat)?
vitamins
Which of the following is not an enzyme contained in pancreatic juice?
pepsin
Which of the following is not an enzyme associated with protein digestion?
lipase
What is NOT an important role of the liver?
excretion of urea
What is NOT characteristic of the large intestine?
It has finger-like projections called villi in its mucosa.
Which of the following is not one of the four basic layers or tunics of the wall of the alimentary canal?
mesentery
Which of the following is the body's most concentrated source of energy?
fat
Which part of the alimentary canal penetrates the diaphragm?
esophagus
The proper name for baby, or milk, teeth is:
deciduous teeth.
The two structures that keep food in the stomach during digestion are the:
cardioesophageal and pyloric sphincters.
cardioesophageal and pyloric sphincters.
Serosa, muscularis externa, submucosa, and mucosa.
food pathway through the digestive process?
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the lamina propria?
Mucosa
How many layers of muscles are found in the musclularis externa?
3
Food swallowing occurs in which of the following two phases?
Buccal and pharyngeal-esophageal phases.
In a broad sense, the digestion of food:takes place
"outside" the body proper and enters upon the actually body via the process of absorption.
The chemical digestion of food occurs by a series of reactions called:
hydrolysis.
Metabolism can be defined as:
all the anabolic and all the catabolic processes taking place in the body.
The major nutrients are:
carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
The most important factor determining a person's basal metabolic rate is the amount of __________ in the plasma.
thyroxine
The three main metabolic pathways of cellular respiration are the:
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport pathways.
What is NOT a function of the liver?
Storage of antibodies
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the body's inability to:
use phenylalanine properly.
The most common congenital feeding defect of the digestive system is:
cleft palate.
Cystic fibrosis, typically viewed as a respiratory disease, has a profound affect on the digestive system because it:
Blocks pancreatic fluid from reaching the small intestines.