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54 Cards in this Set

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What are the symptoms of cervical rib?

Cervical Rib (Thoracic Outlet Syndrome)


- ischemia


[lack of blood supply to tissue]


- pain in the medial aspect of arm


[lower brachial plexus affected]


- palpable mass near clavicle


[compression to Subclavian Artery]

Which rib contains a costal groove?

Rib 1 - the costal groove is where the intercostal arteries/veins/nerve lie. 
     - found b/w the internal surface & inferior border of Rib1

Rib 1 - the costal groove is where the intercostal arteries/veins/nerve lie.


- found b/w the internal surface & inferior border of Rib1



The angle of Louis corresponds to what level?

Angle of Louis


(Sternal Angle) = T4

Angle of Louis


(Sternal Angle) = T4

What aids movement of the Rib (thoracic) Cage during respiration?

1) Movement of the Manubriosternal Joint


2) Elasticity of Costal Cartilage


3) Contraction of the sternocleidomastoid, Scalene and Respiratory Muscles


4) Elevation by Sternum


5) Mobility in Costovertebral Joints


6) Increase of Kyphosis (normal convex curvature of spine) of the Thoracic Column


What part of the sternum is used for bone marrow biopsy?

Upper 1/3



The scalene gap is formed between the ___________ and the _______________.

Scalenus Anterior and Scalenus Medius

Scalenus Anterior and Scalenus Medius

What is found in the Scalene Gap?

The Brachial Plexus:


- C5


- C6


- C7


- C8


- T1


Subclavian Artery 

The Brachial Plexus:


- C5


- C6


- C7


- C8


- T1


Subclavian Artery

The Origin of the Inferior Epigastric Artery (IEA) is the _____________.

External Iliac Artery [located Anterior]

External Iliac Artery [located Anterior]



Coarctation of the Aorta is often associated with ____________ ___________________.

Turner's Syndrome



- (in Females) is the absence of an entire sex chromosome: X.


- Coarctation of the Aorta is Dilation of:


- Internal Thoracic Artery


- Musculophrenic Artery


- Superior Epigastric Artery


The root of the Subcostal Nerve is _______.

T12



["Least Splanchnic Nerve"]

Intercostal Nerve Block is performed near the _______ border of the rib while Thoracocentesis (Pleural Tap) is performed near the ________ border of the rib.

Lower, Upper



- Intercostal Nerve Block is Lower Rib because the nerves, veins and arteries are located there.


- Thoracocentesis/Pleural Tap is Upper Rib because there is nothing above the rib and it avoids damage to the intercostal Vein/Artery/Nerve.

Which of the following is not a dermatome of the Thorax?



a) T1


b) T2


c) T3


d) T4

     
 
             T4



T4



What hormone is involved in milk production?

Prolactin - produces milk & helps in metabolism and regulation of immune system.



Other Hormones & Their Functions:


- Oxytocin (helps release milk from thalamus)


- FSH (growth in pubertal maturation)


- LH (triggers ovulation & corpus luteum development)

The nipple dermatome is at the level of ______.

                  T4

T4

What 3 arteries make up the blood supply of the breast?

Breast Blood Supply
1) Internal Thoracic Artery
2) Axillary Artery (Lateral Thoracic Artery)
3) Intercostal Artery

Breast Blood Supply


1) Internal Thoracic Artery


2) Axillary Artery (Lateral Thoracic Artery)


3) Intercostal Artery

The ____________ lymph nodes directly receive the majority of breast lymphatics from the subareolar plexus of Sappy.

Pectoral
---------------------
Pectoral - (breast, lower pect. minor)
Subscapular - (axilla)
Humeral - (humerus)
Apicial - (upper pect. minor)

Pectoral


---------------------


Pectoral - (breast, lower pect. minor)


Subscapular - (axilla)


Humeral - (humerus)


Apicial - (upper pect. minor)

Gyenecomastia is associated with ___________.

Klinefelter's Syndrome



Terms:


- Gyenecomastia (endocrine disorder: enlargement of breast tissue in males)


- Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXY, genetic disorder with at least one extra 'X Chromosome')

What are examples of content found in the Posterior Mediastinum?

Posterior Mediastinum Contents:


- Thoracic part of Descending Aorta


- Azygos Vein


- Hemiazygos Vein


- Vagus Nerve


- Splanchnic Nerves


- Sympathetic Chain


- Esophagus

Intrapleural Pressure at rest is ___________.

-3 mm water (at rest)
 
*In contrast, IP when breathing in is -7mm*

-3 mm water (at rest)



*In contrast, IP when breathing in is -6mm*

Thoracocentesis (Pleural Tap) usually is NOT supposed to puncture the _______________.



a) skin


b) fat


c) parietal pleura


d) visceral pleura

   Visceral Pleura

Visceral Pleura

Where is the inferior border of the rib in the midclavicular line in an adult?

     6th rib

6th rib


----------------


Other info:


- midaxillary line (8th)


- scapular line (10th)


*it is one rib higher in children*

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium is found in the ______________.

Trachea
-----------------------
Stomach - Sim. Colum.
Breast - Adipose CN
Heart - Sim. Squam.
*CN = conn. tissue*

Trachea


-----------------------


Stomach - Sim. Colum.


Breast - Adipose CN


Heart - Sim. Squam.


*CN = conn. tissue*

The epithelium of the alveoli (sacks in the lungs) is ___________ ______________.

Simple Squamous

Simple Squamous


The width of the blood-air barrier is approximately ____________.

0.5 micrometers

0.5 micrometers

What is found in the Bronchopulmonary Segment?

Bronchopulmonary Segment:
1) Pulmonary Vein (tributary)
2) Bronchial Artery 
3) Pulmonary Artery

Bronchopulmonary Segment:


1) Pulmonary Vein (tributary)


2) Bronchial Artery


3) Pulmonary Artery

Total Lung Capacity is approximately _________.

5.9 liters (TLC)
-------------------
Other Info:
- TV = 0.5 liters
- IRV = 3.0 liters
- IRV = 1.2 liters
- RV = 1.2 liters
- FVC = 4.7 liters

5.9 liters (TLC)


-------------------


Other Info:


- TV = 0.5 liters


- IRV = 3.0 liters


- IRV = 1.2 liters


- RV = 1.2 liters


- FVC = 4.7 liters

The erythrocytic (RBC) partial pressure of oxygen is __________.

   40 mm Hg


--------------------------------


Capillary (blood)


- PO2 = 40 mmHg


- PCO2 = 46 mmHg


Alveoli (tiny air sacs) 


- PO2 = 100 mmHg 


- PCO2 = 40 mmHg

40 mm Hg


--------------------------------


Capillary (blood)


- PO2 = 40 mmHg


- PCO2 = 46 mmHg


Alveoli (tiny air sacs)


- PO2 = 100 mmHg


- PCO2 = 40 mmHg

In relation to Lung innervation, what are results of Sympathetic activity?

Sympathetic (T1-T4/5) results:


*Efferent* [conducting outward]


- Bronchodilation


- Vasoconstriction


- Inhibitory to Glands


*Afferent* [conducting inward]


- Pain


- Pleura & Bronchi

In relation to Lung innervation, what are results of Parasympathetic activity?

Parasympathetic (Vagus N.) results:


*Efferent* [conducting outward]


- Bronchoconstriction


- Vasodilation


- Secretomotor (mucus secretion)


*Afferent* [conducting inward]


- Pain (stretch)


- Respiratory Epithelium & Trachea

What are the Types of COPD's (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases)?

COPD = less flow in airways


1) Asthma


- inflammation of bronchial wall


- tightened bronchioles


- Increased of mucus (narrowed lumen)


2) Emhysema [pink puffers]


- Damage to lung tissue (difficulty breathing)


3) Chronic Bronchitis [blue bloaters]


"Blue Bloating" is a characteristic of ____________ _______________.

Chronic Bronchitis


- Inflammation/ Swelling of bronchial wall


- Increased mucus secretion


- Hypertrophy of seromucous glands


- Scarring of terminal airways


- "Blue Bloaters"


- Coughing


- Chronic Infections


In relation to Heart innervation, what are the results of Sympathetic activity in the?

Sympathetic (T1-T5) results:



- Increases Heart rate



- Contraction force & Impulse Conduction



- Vasodilation of Coronary Artery

In relation to Heart innervation, what are the results of Parasympathetic activity?

Parasympathetic (Vagus N.) results:



- Decreases Heart Rate & Force



- Vasoconstriction of Coronary Artery

Where is the apex of the Heart found?

5th intercostal space @ Midclavicular Line (Mitral Valve)


--------------------------------


- 5th @ Sternum (Tricuspid)


- Left 2nd (Pulmonary)


- Right 2nd (Aortic)


 

5th intercostal space @ Midclavicular Line (Mitral Valve)


--------------------------------


- 5th @ Sternum (Tricuspid)


- Left 2nd (Pulmonary)


- Right 2nd (Aortic)


The valve of Eustachius covers the opening for the _______.

IVC (Inferior Vena Cava) 


 

IVC (Inferior Vena Cava)


The Valve of Thebesius covers the __________.

CS (Coronary Sinus) 

CS (Coronary Sinus)

What are the cusps of the Aortic Valve?

Cusps of the Aortic Valve:


1) Left Aortic Cusp


2) Right Aortic Cusp


3) Posterior Aortic Cusp

Cusps of the Aortic Valve:


1) Left Aortic Cusp


2) Right Aortic Cusp


3) Posterior Aortic Cusp

The impulse frequency of the Bundle of His is ______.

25-45 ipm (impulses per minute)


-----------------------


Other Info:


     - Normal H.R. =


           50-60 ipm


     - SA Node = 70 ipm

25-45 ipm (impulses per minute)


-----------------------


Other Info:


- Normal H.R. =


50-60 ipm


- SA Node = 70 ipm

What part of an EKG (ECG) represents ventricular depolarization?

T-Wave (ventricular repolarization)


------------------


Other Info:


- P Wave (Atrial Repolarization)


- QRS Complex (Ventricular Depolarization)


- ST Segment (isoelectric, ventricular depolarization)

What EKG pattern is a characteristic of Prinzmetal (Vasospastic) Angina?

ST Elevation


---------------------


- EKG/ECG (monitors electrical activity of Heart)


- P.A (cardiac chest pain at rest)


- cause: vasospasm


 

ST Elevation


---------------------


- EKG/ECG (monitors electrical activity of Heart)


- P.A (cardiac chest pain at rest)


- cause: vasospasm


The Aortic Valve can be heard ____________.

Parasternal @ Right 2nd Intercostal Space


-----------------------------------------------------------------------


Other Info:


- Pulmonary (parasternal @ Left 2nd I.S.)


- Tricuspid (Over Sternum @ Left 5th I.S.)


- Mitral (Apex of the Heart on the


Midclavicular Line @ Left 5th I.S.)

The right marginal artery supplies the ________.

Right Ventricle 


 


and


 


Apex of the Heart

Right Ventricle



and



Apex of the Heart

There are NO anastosomes between the coronary arteries.



True or False

False


 


--------------------------------


Anastosome


     - cross connection between adjacent channels, fibers, etc... 

False



--------------------------------


Anastosome


- cross connection between adjacent channels, fibers, etc...

The upper part of the Esophagus is supplied by the _____________.

Inferior Thyroid Artery


-------------------------------------------------------------


Blood Supply: (Esophagus)


- Upper (Inf. Thyroid A.)


- Middle (4-5 Esophagus A. & Bronchial A.)


- Lower (Left Gastric A. & Inf. Phrenic A.)

What are the roots of the Phrenic Nerve?

Phrenic Nerve Roots:


     - C3


     - C4


     - C5


     - L1


     - L2


     - Intercostal (sensory) Nerve

Phrenic Nerve Roots:


- C3


- C4


- C5


- L1


- L2


- Intercostal (sensory) Nerve

The Aortic Hiatus for the thoracic diaphragm is at the level of _______.

T12


-------------


Hiatuses of the Thoracic Diaphragm:


1) Aortic: T12


2) Esophageal: T10 


3) IVC: T8 

T12


-------------


Hiatuses of the Thoracic Diaphragm:


1) Aortic: T12


2) Esophageal: T10


3) IVC: T8

What are the roots of the Splanchnic Nerve?

Greater Splanchnic:


- T5-T9


 


Lesser Splanchnic:


- T10-T11


 


Least Splanchnic:


- T12

Greater Splanchnic:


- T5-T9



Lesser Splanchnic:


- T10-T11



Least Splanchnic:


- T12

A ______________ ________________ is performed to visualize the coronary vessels by injecting contrast medium into a catheter which is inserted through the femoral artery and or the brachial vein (NOT artery). The contrast can be viewed by an X-Ray.

Coronary Angiography

Auscultation (listening to heart by stethoscope):


1st sound is the closing of the AV Valves


- _________ Valve = over sternum, left 5th i.s.


- _________ Valve = apex of heart on midclavicular left 5th i.s.


2nd sound is the closing of the SemiLunar Valves


- ___________ Valve = parasternal right 2nd i.s.


- ___________ Valve = parasternal left 2nd i.s.

Tricuspid


Mitral or Bicuspid


Aortic


Pulmonary

Anterior _________ _____________ ossification can cause restriction to the mobility of the rib cage.

Costal Cartilage

What intercostal space is Thoracocentesis performed in?

9th Intercostal Space (on the MidAxillary Line)

___________________ is the presence of more than one nipple on a breast.

Polythelia

___________________ is the presence of more than 2 breasts.

Polymastia

A tumor in the ___________ ____________ of the breast may cause an orange peel appearance (dimpling).

Cooper's (Suspensory) Ligament