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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conventional dimensions (pelvimetry) used in evaluating the birth canal include:
1. transverse diameter (#5)
2. conjugate diameter (#4)
3. vertical diameter (#9)
What structure of female repro system is Very large in horse? (about the largest and longest among domestic species)

What size?

up to 9 cm diameter at oestrus
location of equine ovary
Sublumbar (under L4 or L5 vertebra) close to abdominal roof.
shape of equine ovary
Bean-shaped with marked concavity on ventral side (non-peritoneal side).
The depression on ovary is called the ________?
The depression - ovulation fossa or ovarian fossa [a peculiar equine feature].
Ovarian follicles, within the deep substance of the ovary which is the ____ unlike species
Ovarian follicles, within the deep MEDULLA of the ovary
(not in the cortex, as in other spp.)
Another equine unique feature regarding follicle formation:
At ~40 days of pregnancy:
-- new set of follicles dev.
-- may not ovulate, but form new corpora lutea (sec. corpora lutea), which (w/primary ones) persist until ~150 days of pregnancy, then regress.
Pregnancy thereafter is maintained in the absence of corpora lutea.
shallow peritoneal pocket neighboring the ovary

what ligament binds it?
ovarian bursa
bounded by the (1) proper ligament of the ovary and peritoneum suspending it medially,
what are borders of ovar.bursa?
The ovarian bursa - shallow
(a peritoneal pocket bounded by the
(1) MEDIAL: proper ligament of the ovary and peritoneum suspending it ,
(2) LATERAL: mesosalpinx ,
(3) cranial: OVARY + mesosalpinx
(4) CAUDAL: uterine horn

Ventral opening.
What structure is ovarian end of uterine tube?
Fimbriated, funnel-shaped end is the infundibulum.
What is located on the cranial border of the ovary?
thick, long and mobile MESOVARIUM (homologous to suspensory ligament in dog)
Ovary lies ____ to uterine tube
ovary MEDIAL to uterine tube
Fimbriated, funnel-shaped end of uterine tube is _____?
Fimbriated, funnel-shaped end is the infundibulum

this is where uterine tube meets ovary.

note: infundibulum means "funnel" in latin!
Describe other parts of uterine tube closer to uterine horn
Coiled, ampulla and isthmus portions. Joins uterine horn abruptly at a sphinctered papilla (at uterotubal junction).

Mucosa thrown into longitudinal folds (also secondary and tertiary folds).
Describe Uterine horn (cornu) :
* 2 horns in flattened T-shape arrangement

* Oviductal end is rounded and blunt
* Relatively short, sublumbar suspension by broad ligaments (has remnant of round ligament of the uterus, laterally).
only place where there is not attachment to the mesovarium
ovulation fossa - is the only place where there is not attachment to the mesovarium
(actually on ventral side)
From Upper Term Review Sheet:
• Ovarian bursa formed by the ____ and ______.
Ovarian bursa formed by mesosalphix and mesovarium
ligament from the ovum to the uterine horn is _____
proper lig. of the ovary
remnant of the umbilical artery
• Round ligament of the bladder
cervical canal in the mare is ___ and contains ____
cervical canal in the mare is <straight> and contains Longitudinal Folds.
main blood supply to uterus?

(name is order of significance)
• Main arteries of the reproductive system #1 UTERINE ARTERY, then also Ovarian and the uterine branch of the Vaginal Artery

Uterine body is what size in relation to uterine horns?

Compare to UB in other spp?
Only slightly shorter than the horn;

Largest, largest compacity
In pregnant mare, the fetus lies where?
fetus lies in one uterine horn and the body of the uterus

Only occasionally is fetus carried in body and both uterine horns, equally -> (transverse presentation).
Does other horn (w/o fetus) have more fetal membranes in it?
cervix uteri
neck of the uterus
Describe cervical canal :
What lines it?
Easy to do what with it?
* cervical canal is straight
(has longitudinal folds lining it;
* easy to catheterize e.g. in artificial insemination (AI)
Vaginal part of cervix is ___ hence the conspicuous _____
Vaginal part is rounded and projects into vagina, hence the conspicuous (obvious) annular vaginal fornix;
with radial folds (continuous with mucosal folds lining the cervical canal).
Vaginal part of cervix AND annular vaginal fornix looks like what under normal circumstances? during estrus?
Normally like "Rose-bud"
During estrus is open like "wilted rose"
part of vagina that's intraperitoneal?
cranial part
outer part of Vestibule?
labia of vulva

(caudal part of vestibule)
top part of vestibule?
Extermal urethral orifice
(cranial border at level of urethral orifice also has hymen but hardly intact :\ )
Which glans of vagina is largest in horse?
Horse has a large glans clitoridis (largest in horse),

glans clitoridis is exposed during urination (micr
glans clitoridis is covered by?
Surrounded or even covered by the fossa clitoridis
How many rows of vestibular glans?
During estrous, the clitoris ?
This occurrence is referred to as ?
protrudes or extrudes periodically, the so-called “winking” of the mare at estrus
May harbor the contagious equine metritis organisms.
clitorial sinuses
(Has deep and superficial sinuses)
Ovarian a.branches off of ?

Has what branches?
From aorta directly

From aorta directly; ovarian and uterine branches.
Which branch of ovarian a. winds tortuously through mesovarium?

What happens when it reaches ovary?
Ovarian branch is tortuous in mesovarium
(divides into several branches on ovarian surface - equine peculiarity)
ovarian VEIN in horse?

what is size and structure compared to other spp.?
ovarian v. is large, but NOT as complexly and intimately intertwined with the artery, as in other species
uterine a. branches off from?

has several branches in the ?
external iliac a. (rarely internal iliac a)

Several branches within mesometrium.
incision site for Caesarian sections
Opposite (antimesometrial) side of mesometrium and away from many branches of uterine artery, so relatively less vascular
vaginal a. branches off from?

* From the internal pudendal a.
* Supplies vagina, cervix, caudal part of uterus, urinary bladder and pelvic urethra.
Vestibular branch of internal pudendal a. supplies what ?
Vestibular branch of internal pudendal a. also supplies VAGINA and VESTIBULE.
Does the mare have vaginal fornix (cies)? What's it called?
Yes, there is a conspicuous annular fornix
Mammae of the Mare

how many teat orifices are present per teat?
What is the name of the groove between the 2 glands?
* Has a pair of mammae, closely associated
* each teat has 2 orfices
* Conical; compressed on sides (M/L), not round
* longitudinal groove (intermammary groove) between the two glands
Equine ovaries are located in the abdomen, midway between the ___ and the _____, and a few cm lateral to _____.
Located midway between *last rib* and *tuber coxae*, and few cm lateral to *median plane*.
mesovarium attaches the ovaries to the ____?
sublumbar wall
Oviductal end is ___ and _____ ? (regarding their shape)
Oviductal end is rounded and blunt

Relatively short, sublumbar suspension by broad ligaments (has remnant of round ligament of the uterus, laterally).
The Uterine horn (cornu) has remnant of what?
has remnant of round ligament of the uterus, laterally.
Which sections have longitudinal folds?
1. UTERINE (Fallopian) tube
2. CERVICAL CANAL : so easy to catheterize e.g. in artificial insemin. (AI)
3. VAGINA: capacious cavity, lined by mucous membrane w/longitudinal folds (continuous w/ cervix).
Why it was easy for the mare to give birth (relative to the cow).
According to Erica:
1 - pelvic entrance is wide and round most important!
2 - Pelvic axis is horizontal
3 - Pelvic exit is relatively free
Ligaments in mammae?
Elastic medial and fibrous lateral suspensory ligaments, as in the cow, but less developed.

Fibrous laterally
Elastic medially
main source of blood to mammae?
external pudendal a.
drains mammary glands? (2)
The external pudendal v. drains the gland, as also does the superficial caudal epigastric vein.
mammary (superficial inguinal) lymph nodes

where found?
efferent vessels go where?
There are several mammary (superficial inguinal) L.N. scattered betw. ventral abdominal wall and caudal portion of mammary gland!

Efferent vessels go to thr. inguinal canal to empty into deep inguinal lymph nodes
Innervation of mammae comes via ?
Cutaneous innervation from L2 – L4 and S2 – S4.
Udder parenchyma/substance : genitofemoral (L3+4)
Vulva shape?
dorsally - pointed
ventrally - Rounded

DPVR = Deep Pussy Very Rough