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15 Cards in this Set

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Pneumothorax
entry of air into a pleural cavity causing lung collapse
spontaneous pneumothorax –
partial collapse of the lung due to a rupture of blebs on the lung surface or due to a punctured lung
open pneumothorax –
due to stab wounds of the thoracic wall which pierce the parietal pleura so that the pleural cavity is open to the outside air via the lung or through the chest wall; also called blowing or sucking wound
Info

tension (valvular) pneumothorax – air builds up on the wounded side and pushes (shifts) the mediastinum toward the opposite side because air enters the affected pleural cavity during inspiration and is trapped during expiration; a dangerous situation (MEDICAL EMERGENCY)  one lung is collapsed and the other compressed by the shifted mediastinum  decreased blood flow to the lungs and heart
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Pleuritis –
inflammation of the pleura which can lead to pleural adhesions; rough surfaces rub together and can be heard with a stethoscope (pleural friction rub),
Hydrothorax –
accumulation of significant amounts of fluid (pleural exudate) in the pleural cavities, i.e., secondary to inflammation, malignancy, or congestive heart failure
Hemothorax –
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
pneumohemothorax
combination of air and blood in the pleural cavity secondary to penetrating injuries of the pleural cavity
Info

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Pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
info

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Thoracentesis

insertion of a needle into the pleural cavity to remove air, blood or other fluids
usually done in the 7th or 8th ICS MAL (for fluids or fluids and air) or at the 2nd ICS MCL (for air alone) 


needle is inserted in an intercostal space close to the upper border of the rib below to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle
usually done in the 7th or 8th ICS MAL (for fluids or fluids and air) or at the 2nd ICS MCL (for air alone)


needle is inserted in an intercostal space close to the upper border of the rib below to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle
Lung tumors,

are mainly of ________ ? origin
epithelial origin.


Info
Conclusive evidence has been presented that squamous cell carcinoma, the principal lung tumor type, is related to the effects of cigarette smoking.
Saddle Embolus
A large embolism that straddles the arterial bifurcation and thus blocks both branches.
A large embolism that straddles the arterial bifurcation and thus blocks both branches.
Lung Tumors

Chronic smoking induces the transformation of the respiratory epithelium into a
stratified squamous epithelium, an initial step in its eventual differentiation into a tumor.