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49 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 major nerves that supply the lower extremity?
femoral nerve, sciatic nerve, & obturator nerve
This nerve supplies the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh.
Femoral nerve
This nerve supplies the muscles of the medial (adductor) compartment of the thigh.
Obturator nerve
This is really 2 nerves that are bundled into 1 nerve in the thigh (tibial n. and common fibular n.).
Sciatic nerve
This nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the thigh, leg, & plantar surface of the foot.
Tibial nerve
This nerve supplies the anterior & lateral compartments of the leg and doral surface of the foot.
Common fibular nerve
The external iliac artery passes deep to the inguinal ligament and is then termed the _______________. This is the main artery to the lower extremity.
femoral artery
This artery supplies anterior of the thigh.
Femoral artery
This branch of the femoral artery supplies the posterior compartment of the thigh.
Profunda femoris artery
As the femoral artery passes 「adductor hiatus 」 behind the knee it is renamed___________ and supplies around the knee.
popliteal artery
As the popliteal artery enters the leg, it branches into the________ and________.
anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries.
The anterior tibial artery ends as the ________ of the foot.
dorsalis pedis artery
A branch of the posterior tibial artery that supplies the lateral compartmet of the lef.
fibular artery
The posterior tibial artery ends as the _________.
medial and lateral plantar arteries of the foot.
Innervaterd by Anterior rami of lumbar nn This muscle acts conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint & in stabilizing this joint.
Iliopsoas

psoas major m.
psoas minor m.
iliacus m.
Innervated by Inferior gluteal n This muscle extends thigh & assists in its lateral rotation; steadies thigh & assists in rising from sitting position
Gluteus maximus
Innervated by Superior gluteal n Abducts & medially rotates thigh
Gluteal medius, Gluteal minimus m.
O: Iliac crest, between ant. & post. gluteal line
I: Greater trochanter
Sup. gluteal n.
Extension / Med. rotation / Abduction
Innvervated by Femoral nerve
This muscle flexes, abducts, & laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flexes leg at knee joint
Sartorius m.
These muscles are innervated by the femoral nerve. They extend leg at knee joint; rectus femoris also steadies hip joint & helps iliopsoas flex thigh
Quadriceps femoris
Rectus femoris m. , Vastus medialis m.
Vastus intermedius m., Vastus lateralis m.
These muscles are innervated by the sciatic nerve. They flex leg & rotate it laterally when knee is flexed; extends thigh
Biceps femoris
These nerves are innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve. They extend thigh; flex leg & rotate it medially when knee is flexed
Semimembranous & Semitendinosus
Innervated by obturator nerve.
Adducts thigh; flexes leg; helps rotate leg medially
Gracilis
Innervated by Obturator neve. Adducts thigh.
Adductor longus m.

O: Inf. ramus of pubis,
ramus of ischium
I: Linea aspera
Obturator n. (Ant.)
Adduction (Thigh)
Flexion (Thigh)
Lat. rotation (Thigh)
Innervated by Obturator nerve & tibial part of sciatic nerve. Adducts thigh; flexes thigh & extends thigh
Adductor magnus m.
O: Inf. ramus of pubis
I: Linea aspera
Obturator n. (Post.)
Adduction (Thigh)
Flexion (Thigh)
Lat. rotation (Thigh)
Innervated by obturator nerve.
Adducts thigh; to some extent flexes it
Adductor brevis m.
O: Inf. ramus of pubis
I: Inf. to lesser trochanter
Obturator n. (Ant.)
Adduction (Thigh)
Flexion (Thigh)
Lat. rotation (Thigh)
Adducts & flexes thigh; assist w. medial rotation of thigh
Pectineus m.
O: Sup. ramus of pubis
(Pecteal line)
I: Pecteal line of femur
Femoral n.
Adduction (Thigh), Flexion (Thigh),
Lat. rotation (Thigh)
Innervated by deep fibular nerve. Dorsiflexes ankle & inverts foot.
Tibialis anterior m.
O: Lat. condyle
Lat. surface of tibia
Interosseous memb.
I: Med. cuneiform
1st metatarsal
Deep peroneal n.
Dorsiflexion (Foot), Inversion (Foot)
Innervated by deep fibular nerve.
Extends lateral 4 digits & dorsiflexes ankle
Extensor digitorum longus m.
O: Lat. condyle of tibia
Ant. fibula
Interosseous memb.
I: Extensor expansion, Lat.4 digits
Deep peroneal n.
Dorsiflexion (Foot)
Extension (4 toes)
Innervated by deep fibular nerve.
Extends great toe & dorsiflexes ankle
Extensor hallucis longus m.

O: Fibula, Interosseous memb.
I: Distal phalanx of great toe
Deep peroneal n.
Dorsiflexion (Foot)
Extension (Great toes)
Innervated by Superficial fibular nerve. These muscles of the lateral leg everts foot & weakly plantarflexes ankle.
Fibularis longus & Fibularis brevis
Innervated by Tibial nerve.
Plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended; raises heel during walking; flexes leg at knee joing
Gastrocnemius m.
O: Lat. & med. condyle of femur
I: Calcaneus
Tibial n.
Flexion (Leg) Plantar flexion (Foot)
Innervated by Tibial nerve. Plantarflexes ankle independently of knee position; steadies leg on foot
Soleus m.
O: Soleal line (Tibia)
Fibula
I: Calcaneus
Tibial n.
Plantar flexion (Foot)
Innervated by Tibial nerve. Weakly flexes knee & unlocks it; medially rotates ribia of unplanted limb
功能:屈膝關節、內旋小腿。
當膝關節在伸膝狀況卡住時,此肌肉有解圍的功能。
Popliteus m.
O: Lat. condyle of femur
I: Post. aspect of upper tibia (Above soleal line)
Tibial n.
Lat. rotation (Thigh)
Med. rotation (Leg)
Innervated by Tibial nerve. Flexes great toe
Flexor hallucis longus
O: Post. surface of middle & distal end of fibula
Around med. malleolus, Groove on caleaneus (Sustentaculum tali)
I: Distal phalanx of great toe
Tibial n.
Flexion (Great toes) Plantar flexion (Foot)
Innervated by Tibial nerve.
Flexes lateral four digits; plantarflexes ankle
Flexor digitorum longus m.
O: Post. surface of middle
end of tibia
Around med. malleolus
I: Base of distal phalanx of
Lat.4 digits
(Extensor expansion)
Tibial n.
Flexion (4 toes)
Plantar flexion (Foot)
Plantarflexes ankle; inverts foot
主要功能是踝關節蹠屈(plantar flexion),在走路與跑步的過程中扮演非常重要的角色

(關節可以進行背屈(dorsiflexion)、蹠屈(plantar flexion)、內翻(inversion)、外翻(eversion))
Tibialis posterior m
O: Post. surface of upper
end of tibia and fibula
Interosseous memb.
Around med. malleolus
I: Tuberosity of navicular
Cuneiform
(Med. + intermediate)
Base of 2nd, 3rd, 4th
metatarsal
Tibial n.
Inversion (Foot)
Plantar flexion (Foot)
Innervated by deep fibular nerve.
Aides the extensor digitorum longus in extending the 4 medial toes
Extensor hallucis brevis m.
O: Calcaneus
& inf. extensor retinaculum
I: Great toe (Prox. phalanx)
Deep peroneal n.
Extension (Great toe)
Innervated by deep fibular nerve.
Aidses the extensor hallucis longus in extending the great toe
Extensor digitorum brevis m.
O: Calcaneus
& inf. extensor retinaculum
I: 2nd, 3rd & 4th phalanges
Deep peroneal n.
Extension (2nd, 3rd & 4th Toes)
Innervated by medial plantar nerve.
Abducts & flexes 1st digit (great toe, hallux)
Abductor hallucis m.
O: Calcaneus
I: Great toe (Prox. phalanx)
Med. plantar n.
Abduction (Great toe)
Flexion (Great toe)
Innervated by medial plantar nerve.
Flexes lateral 4 digits.
Flexor digitorum brevis m.
O: Calcaneus
I: 2nd ~ 5th mid. phalanges
Med. plantar n.
Flexion (2nd ~ 5th toes)
Innervated by Lateral plantar nerve.
Abducts & flexes little toe (5th digit)
Abductor digiti minimi m.
O: Calcaneus
I: Small toe (Prox. phalanx)
Lat. plantar n.
Abduction (Small toe)
Flexion (Small toe)
Innervated by Lateral plantar nerve.
Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral 4 digits
Quadratus plantae m.
O: Calcaneus
I: Tendon of
flexor digitorum longus
Lat. plantar n.
Flexion (Toes)
Flexor accessorius
Innervated by medial plantar nerve. Flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit.
Flexor hallucis brevis m.
O: Cuboid
Lat. cuneiform
I: Great toe
(Med. & lat. prox. phalanx)
Med. plantar n.
Flexion (Great toe)
Innervated by lateral plantar nerve. Adducts 1st digit
Adductor hallucis m.
Transverse head:
O: Metatarsophalangeal joint
Oblique head:
O: 3rd ~ 5th metatarsals
I: Great toe
(Lat. prox. phalanx)
Lat. plantar n.
Adduction (Great toe)
Flexion (Great toe)
Innervated by lateral plantar nerve. Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit, thereby assisting w. its flexion
Flexor digiti minimi brevis m.
O: 5th metatarsal
I: Small toe
(Lat. prox. phalanx)
Lat. plantar n.
Flexion (Small toe)
Innervated by lateral plantar nerve. Adducts digits (3-5) & flex metatarsophalangeal joints
Plantar interossei m. (3)
O: 3rd ~ 5th metatarsals
I: 3rd ~ 5th toes
(Med. prox. phalanx)
Lat. plantar n.
Adduction (3rd ~ 5th toes)
Abduct digits (2-4) & flex metatarsophalangeal joints
Dorsal interossei
What is the function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)?
It prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia & hyperextenstion of the knee joint.
前十字韌帶的功能,主要為限制脛骨向前位. 移,其次限制膝內翻及外翻彎曲,也同時限制. 脛骨內旋轉。
What is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)?
It prevents the anteriior displacement of the tibia on the femur & helps prevent hyperflexion of the knee joint. It is the main stabilizing factor for the femur.
一是當作阻止脛骨向後移位的首要限制構造。 一是與前十字韌帶合作調節膝在伸直彎曲時轉回來機轉(knee Screw-home mechanism)。另外後十字韌帶也是維持對內外翻(varus, valgus), 及旋轉(rotatory) 穩定度的第二層保護網。