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68 Cards in this Set

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What is NOT true regarding the small and large intestine?


a) the duodenum is the portion of the small intestine connected to the large intestine


b)the large intestine will absorb water from the remaining indigestible food


c) The small intestine finishes the chemical digestion process of the ingested nutrients


d)the small intestine will go through peristalsis and segmentation motility

a) the duodenum is the portion of the small intestine connected to the large intestine

Which cell creates and secretes hydochloric acid?


a) parietal cells


b) chief cells


c) mucous cells


d) enteroendocrine cells

a) parietal cells

what is NOT found in gastric juices?


a) sodium bicarbonate ions


b) Pesinogen


c) intrinsic factor


d) Hydrochloric acid (HCI)

a) sodium bicarbonate ions

What is not true regarding salvia?


a) it contains the digestive enzyme amylase


b)it contains intrinsic factor that assist with protein digestion


c) It dissolves food molecules so they can bind to the taste buds


d) It is mostly composed of water

b)it contains intrinsic factor that assist with protein digestion

t/f the uvula is a projection of the soft palate that assists in closing of the nasopharynx during chewing and swallowing ?

true

what is not an anatomical feature of the small intestine's mucosa that increase its surface area?


a) special folds of mucosa called circular folds


b) microvilli found on the absorptive cells.


c) finger linke extensions, called villi, or the mucosa


d) Special cells called rugae that are tall in height.

d) Special cells called rugae that are tall in height.

What is NOT true regarding the liver,gallbladder and bile


a) the liver produces the bile and it is stored and concentrated in the gallbladder.


b) Gallstones can develop within the gallbladder due to increased levels of cholesterol of bile salts in the bile


c) The liver also helps to detoxify chemicals int he blood and is involved in the creation of various hormones and molecules.


d) the bile is needed to assist in the chemically digestion of fiber

d) the bile is needed to assist in the chemically digestion of fiber

What is true regarding the digestive system?


a) mechanical digestion occurs in the small intestine


b) mechanical digestion only occurs in the mouth


c) most of the nutrient absorption occurs in the large intestine


D) mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach

D) mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach

What are true about proteins?


a) they are produce by the mitochondria of the cells.


b) enzymatic function is one of their functions


c) they are commonly used an energy source


d) they are only found in animal products such as meats.



b) enzymatic function is one of their functionsf

What is NOT true regarding metabolism?


a) catabolism is hte process of breaking down larger structures/molecules into smaller ones


b) the production of ATP through the breakdown of glucose to efficiently make ATP requires oxygen molecules


c) cellular respiration is the catabolic reactions in the cells utilized to make ATP.


d) protein metabolism for the production of ATP produces harmful ketone bodies as a by-product

d) protein metabolism for the production of ATP produces harmful ketone bodies as a by-product

What is true of the gastric secretion process?


a) Gastrin secreted stimulates the production and release of hydrochloric acid (HCI)


b)on the taste of food can stimulate the cephalic phase of gastric secretion


c) the sympathetic nervous system stimulates further gastric secretion and digestive processes


d) the entrerogastric reflex helps to stimulate further secretion of hydorchloric acid (HCI)

a) Gastrin secreted stimulates the production and release of hydrochloric acid (HCI)

What is not true of lipids


a) lipids are utilized to produce certain molecules like hormones


b) animal fats are commonly solid at room temp


c) lipids are utilized as energy storage


d)increased consumption of saturated and unsaturated fats can increase and individuals risk for cardiovascular disease.

d)increased consumption of saturated and unsaturated fats can increase and individuals risk for cardiovascular disease

What is NOT true of Carbohydrates


a) complex carbohydrates are quickly absorbed by the digestive system and are commonly found in candy and pop


b) excess carbohydrate intake is stored within fat cells


c) carbohydrates are utilized as primary source of energy by the body


d)fiber is a form of indigestible carbohydrate that is important for overall health and function of the body.

a) complex carbohydrates are quickly absorbed by the digestive system and are commonly found in candy and pop

t/f the esophagus is anterior to the trachea

F

What is true about essential nutrients


a) the body can use vitamins as an energy source if needed


b) insoluble fiber intake can lead to diarrhea


c) minerals in our diet are used to make ATP


d) Certain vitamins need lipds present to be absorbed.

d) Certain vitamins need lipds present to be absorbed.

What is NOT true of the male and female urethras?


a) the male's urethra passes through the prostate gland


b) the female's urthra is much shorter than a males and therefore doesn't have an external urethral sphincter


c) if there is urinary retention, then a catheter is inserted within an individual


d) incontinence can occur due to weaken pelvic muscles.

b) the female's urthra is much shorter than a males and therefore doesn't have an external urethral sphincter

t/f relaxation of both the internal and external urethral sphincters is done through conscious awareness

False

What is true of a nephron?


a) the blood is filtered in the renal tubule section


b) nephrons are only found in the cortex of the kidneys


c) the collecting duct primarily reabsorbs the nutrient glucose


d) They are the structural and functional units of the kidneys.

d) They are the structural and functional units of the kidneys.

What is NOT true of the urinary bladder


a) the bladder is expandable to accommodate and store the incoming urine


b) it has a think smooth muscle layer called the detrusor muscle


c) the trigone is a gegion of the bladder that is common for infections to develop


d) it is located within the abdominal cavity





d) it is located within the abdominal cavity

t/f the flomerular filtration rate (GFR) is highly regulated because if the GFR increases the amount of urine output decreases.

false

Tubular secretion within urine formation is when


a) the renal tubules secrete proteins into the blood vessels


b) atrial natriuretic peptide hormone causes the glomerulus to secrete proteins into the bowman's capsule


c) only occurs in the nephron loop


d) when the blood vessels secrete larger molecules, such as various drug metabolites, into the renal tubules.

d) when the blood vessels secrete larger molecules, such as various drug metabolites, into the renal tubules.

t/f aldosterones' main effect is the raise the blood pressure by increasing sodium ion absorption in the nephrons leading to increased water absorption and increase water volume?

true

in health kidneys, what is not a common substance filtered out of the glomerulus?


a) glucose


b) erythrocytes


c) sodium ions


d) Vitamin C

b) erythrocytes

t/f the nephrons drain the filtrate into the minor and major calyxes that converge to form the renal pelvis and ultimately the ureter

True

What is NOT true of hormonal control on the nephron?


a) Aldosterone, Artial Natriuretic Peptide and ADH will all lead to changes with water absorption in the kidneys


b) Aldosterone increases soldium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct


C) ADH is secreted when there are low water levels in the boyd


d) atrial natriuretic peptide will increase blood volume and blood pressure

d) atrial natriuretic peptide will increase blood volume and blood pressure

t/f the kidneys secrete a hormone that influences red blood cell production

true

Diuretics are a class of drugs that increase the activity of ADH?

False

What is NOT true about urine?


a) urea is the highest solute concentration in urine


b)red blood cells and proteins are normally found in urine


c) it is mainly composed of water


d) crystals are commonly found in microscopic examination of urine sediment

b)red blood cells and proteins are normally found in urine

t/f hypernatremia can result from an increase water intake

f

t/f Non-electrolyte solutes create positively or negatively charge ions in water?

f

t/f Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone will cause an increase secretion of sodium ion of body resulting a decrease of blood pressure

T

t/f The renal system has the greatest influence on the acid-base balance within the body, but takes the longest time to make changes

T

t/f Metabolic alkalosis can occur from a person vomiting excessively which will result in a decrease of blood pH levels

F

t/f If the body is hyperventilating, releasing more carbon dioxide from the body than being produced H+ion concentration will decrease

T

t/f both hypokalemia and kyperkalemia can cause and lead to cardiac arrhythmias

T

t/f Edema is abnormal accumulation of fluid that occurs within the cells

F

t/f A rise in plasma osmolality (an increase in electrolytes) will lead to an increase thirst sensation and increase of secretion of ADH

T

t/f If the carbon dioxide levels increase within the body, blood pH levels increase

F

t/f solutes, especially electrolytes, can change the plasma osmoality that influeences the movement of water

T

t/f hypercalcemia will result in muscle spasm and tetany

f

t/f if a condition causes an increase amount of carbonic acid due to an increase of carbon dioxide, the overall blood pH will decrease

T

t/f Blood pressure will increase with the increased reabsorption of sodium ions

T

t/f extracellular fluid is about 2/3 of the overall body water content

F

What is NOT true of the seminiferous tubules?


a) they are found in the testes


b)the cells inside of the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone


c) the sertoli cells inside of the seminferous tubules assist sperm production and maturation.


D) the cells inside of the seminiferous tubules produce sperm cells.

b)the cells inside of the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone

t/f The majority of smen content is composed of seminal vesicle fluid

true

what is NOT true of the epididymis


a) located on the posterior aspect of each testicle


b)sperm are stored within the tail of the epididymis til ejaculation.


c) as sperm pass through it, they maturate


d) contains interstitial (leydig) cells that produce testosterone

d) contains interstitial (leydig) cells that produce testosterone

What is true of the male reproductive system


a) the testes are temperature sensitive for optimal sperm production


b) the interstitial (leydig) assist in sperm formation


c) there is only on spermatic cord that enters the scrotum


d) the majority content of semen is sperm

a) the testes are temperature sensitive for optimal sperm production

What is NOT true of the penis


a) the urethra is surrounded by an erectile tissue


b) it contains erectile tissues that fill with blood for an erection


c) the erectile tissues are only found in the glans regions of the penis


d) the glans foreskin is removed during a circumcision

c) the erectile tissues are only found in the glans regions of the penis

What is NOT true of the female reproductive system


a) the endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus


b) the ovaries produce estrogen


c) the vagina does not contain any glands


d) the uterus produces progesterone

d) the uterus produces progesterone

t/f after ovulation the corpus luteum is formed from the remaining granulosa cells

T

What is NOT true of ovulation


a) the corona radiate surrounds the ovulated oocyte


b) it is caused by the surge of the hormone follicle stimulating hormone


c) the secondary oocyte is released from the ovary


d) it happens of day 14 of a 28 day cycle

b) it is caused by the surge of the hormone follicle stimulating hormone

t/f the menstruation phase of the uterine cycle involves the breakdown of the functional layer (stratum functionalis) of the enometrium?

t

What is true of the vagina


a) it has a slightly basic pH


b) contains glands that lubricates the vagina


c) the vagina is located anterior to the bladder


d) the vaginal orifice is found within the vestibule

d) the vaginal orifice is found within the vestibule

What is true of the female reproductive system


a) the clitoris is the erectile tissue of the female reproductive system


b) the uterus is located anterior to the bladder


c) ovulation marks the beginning of the ovarian cycle


d) Progesterone is produced endometrium

a) the clitoris is the erectile tissue of the female reproductive system

The acrosomal reaction within fertilization involves


a)period of time when the sperm and the egg cells unite


b) the sperm adjusting to the vagina's pH


c) a period of time that allows the sperm's motility to be enhance and when the membranes become fragile


d) enzymes digesting holes through the zona pellucida.

d) enzymes digesting holes through the zona pellucida.

this hormone spikes after the eff is fertilized, maintains the viability of the corpus luteum and tested for within at home pregnancy test


a)estrogen


b)progesterone


c)human chorionic godadotropin (HCG)


d) luteinizing hormone

c)human chorionic godadotropin (HCG)

This the term given to a fertilized egg


a) Oocyte


b) zygote


c)blastocyst


d) morula

b) zygote

Fertilization usually occurs in the


a) peritoneal cavity


b) Cervix of the uterus


c) vagina


d) ampulla of the fallopian tube

d) ampulla of the fallopian tube

What best describes the umbilical vein


a) carries waste products from the fetus to the placenta


b) carries waste products from the mother to the fetus


c) carries oxygen rich blood from the placenta to the fetus


d) carries waste products from the fetus to the placenta

c) carries oxygen rich blood from the placenta to the fetus

What is NOT true of embryonic development


a) the three germ layers formed are where all the body organs are derived from.


b) starts to occur after implantation


c) the dermatome is one of the three primary germ layers formed


D) This development period is very sensitive to the external factors such as alcohol and radiation

c) the dermatome is one of the three primary germ layers formed

Most of the fetus's organ systems are functional by 4-6 month; with this generalization, which system is not functional by this time frame, which can affect premature babies ability to survive without medical assistance.


a) Cardiovascular system


b) digestive system


c) urinary system


d) respiratory system

d) respiratory system

t/f an ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants outside fo the endometrium and is rarely life threatening for the mother.

f

This is the term give to a mass of cells that contains trophoblas cells and inner mass cells that implants within the endometrium


a)morula


b)blastocyte


c) cleavage mass


d) Oocyte

b)blastocyte

which of the following cannot pass through placental barriers


a)blood cells


b) glucose


c) antibodies


d) gases

a)blood cells

Cortical reactions in the process of fertilization involves


a) a period of time that allows the sperm's motility to be enhanced and when their membranes become fragile


b)enzymes digesting holes through the zona pellucida


c) reactions that occur that allow only one sperm to penetrate the egg


d) the sperm adjusting the vagina's pH

c) reactions that occur that allow only one sperm to penetrate the egg

The stage of the delivery is when crowning occurs


a) Episiotomy Stage


b)dilation stage


c) expulsion stage


d) placenta stage

c) expulsion stage

What is NOT a change to a mother's organ systems during pregnancy


a) Increase in respiration rate


b) increase urination and urgency


c) decreased cardiac output


d) Decrease gastrointestinal motility leading to constipation

c) decreased cardiac output

The process of capacitation with fertilization involves


a) reactions that occur that allows only one sperm to penetrate the egg


b)the sperm adjusting to the vagina's pH


c)enzymes digesting holes through the zona Pellucida


d) a period of time that allows the sperm's motility to be enhanced and when their membranes become fragile.

d) a period of time that allows the sperm's motility to be enhanced and when their membranes become fragile.