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68 Cards in this Set

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What two layers make up the integument?
Epidermis, dermis
What are the three layers of skin?
Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer
What is the portion of the hair that exits out of the skin?
Hair shaft
Ventral is synonymous with what other term?
Anterior
Dorsal is synonymous with what other word?
Posterior (for bipeds)
_______ is closer to the trunk in relation to something else.
Proximal
________ is further from the trunk in relation to something else.
Distal
_____ is closer to the midline
Medial
_____ is further away from the midline
Lateral
What body cavities are lined by a serous membrane?
Ventral
What does serous mean?
Thin, watery fluid
What is a serous membrane?
thin membrane that secretes serous fluid in order to lubricate between internal organs and reduce friction
What is the purpose of a serous membrane?
Lubrication, reduce friction
Which serous membrane lines the cavity wall and which serous membrane lines the organ? Why is the space between the two membranes potential space?
Parietal membrane lines cavity wall
Visceral membrane lines the organ
The space is potential space because it's not empty, it is filled with serous fluid
What is the lining directly on the lungs called? What is the lining on the thoracic cavity around the lungs? What is the space between the two called?
Visceral pleura
Parietal pleura
Serous cavity
What body cavities have serous membranes?
Ventral
Which serous membrane layer is on the outside, against the cavity wall?
Parietal
Which serous membrane is on the organ?
Visceral layer
What does the word "viscera" mean?
Organ
What is another word for organ?
Viscera
Name the nine abdominopelvic regions
Right hypochondriac
Right lumbar
Right iliac
epigastric
umbilical
hypogastric
Left hypochondriac
Left lumbar
left iliac
What does "epi" mean?
above
Which cavity type is encased completely in bone?
Posterior aspect or dorsal body cavity
What are the two subdivisions of the posterior aspect?
Cranial, which houses the brain and is also called endocranium, and the vertebral canal, which is formed by the bones of the vertebral column and houses the spinal cord.
What are the two main cavities that are part of the ventral cavity?
Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
What organ separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
Diaphragm
What organ separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
Diaphragm
Are the cavities of the posterior aspect lined with serous membranes?
No
What three cavities are part of the thoracic cavity?
Mediastinum, pleural, and pericardial
What two cavities are part of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Abdominal, pelvic
What kind of fluid is secreted by serous membranes?
Serous fluid
The median space in the thoracic cavity is called the _____?
Mediastinum
What is contained in the mediastinum?
heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea and major blood vessels that connect to the heart
The pericardium is composed of two _____ membranes called the _______ membrane and the ______ membrane, making the pericardial cavity.
serous; visceral pericardium, parietal pericardium
What types of membranes are associated with the lungs?
Parietal pleura, visceral pleura, creating the pleural cavity.
Where do the abdominal and pelvic cavities subdivide?
plane at the level of the superior aspects of the ilia
The two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Peritoneum
Which body cavity is associated with the lungs, and what are the names of its serous membranes?
Pleural cavity; parietal pleura and visceral pleura
Homeostasis means what? (break the word down)
ABOUT the same
homeo means about
stasis means state
The body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in response to changing internal or external conditions.
Homeostasis
Describe the homeostasis process.
Change from baseline, or stimulus.
Receptors are structures that detect the stimulus
Receptors send a signal to the control center
Control centers include the brain and endocrine system
Control center sends output information to effector
An effector is a muscle or gland that brings about a change to the stimulus
Homeostasis is restored
What system includes a stimulus, receptor, control center, and effector?
Homeostasis
List and describe three components of a homeostatic system and give examples of each in the human body.
Stimulus, receptor, control center, effector.
receptor, control center, and effector are the same when the pancreas detects the sugar levels in the blood and adjusts insulin accordingly.
Most processes in the body are controlled by (positive/negative) feedback?
Negative
What is the baseline called for homeostasis around which positive and negative feedback revolve?
Set point
Body temperature is regulated by what part of the brain?
Hypothalamus
Describe how the hypothalamus reacts to low external temperatures.
The hypothalamus can be alerted to the external drop in temperature by nerve sensors in the skin, or by the lowered temperature of the blood that passes through it. The hypothalamus then alters nerve impulses to the vessels in the skin to decrease the lumen diameter, reducing the amount of blood near the surface of the skin that is radiating heat and shunting the blood to the core of the body.
Examining the superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the covering skin is called:
a. regional anatomy
b. surface anatomy
c. pathologic anatomy
d. comparative anatomy
b. surface anatomy
The _______ level of organization is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform a common function.
a. cellular
b. molecular
c. organ
d. organismal
c. organ
The term _______ refers to the sum of all chemical reactions in the body.
a. metabolism
b. responsiveness
c. stimulus
d. reproduction
a. metabolism
anabolism/catabolism is the building up of a molecule from small to large and anabolism/catabolism is the breaking down of a molecule from large to small
anabolism
catabolism
A midsagittal plane separates the body into
a. anterior and posterior portions
b. superior and inferior portions
c. right and left halves
d. unequal right and left portions
c. right and left halves
The term used to describe an appendage structure that is closest to its point of attachment to the trunk is
a. distal
b. lateral
c. superior
d. proximal
d. proximal
The _______ region is the anterior part of the knee.
a. patellar
b. popliteal
c. pes
d. inguinal
b. Popliteal
Which body cavity is located inferior to the diaphragm and superior to a horizontal line drawn between the superior edges of the hip bones?
a. abdominal cavity
b. pelvic cavity
c. pleural cavity
d. pericardial cavity
a. abdominal cavity
The _____ is the serous membrane layer that covers the surface of the lungs.
a. parietal pleura
b. visceral pericardium
c. visceral peritoneum
d. visceral pleura
d. visceral pleura
The state of maintaining a constant internal environment within an organism is called
a. reproduction
b. homeostasis
c. imbalance
d. life
b. homeostasis
In a negative feedback mechanism, which of the following events does NOT occur?
a. a stimulus is a change in some variable (eg rise in blood glucose levels)
b. a receptor perceives a stimulus
c. the control center sends output to an effector
d. the effector stimulates or increases the stimulus, so the cycle continues
d. the effector stimulates or increases the stimulus, so the cycle continues
what is the storage form of glucose in animals?
glycogen, stored in the liver and some in the muscles
The study of cells
cytology
Name three modified versions of the plasma membrane
Microvilli, flagella, cilia
What is the largest structure within the cell?
Nucleus
What is the fluid inside the nucleus called?
Nucleoplasm
What is intracellular fluid called?
Cytosol also called cytoplasmic matrix
What does the prefix cyto- mean?
Cell
What are the primary components of the cytoplasm?
Cytosol, inclusions, and organelles
Name two categories of organelles
Membrane-bound, non-membrane-bound
Name some membrane-bound organelles
endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria