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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Memory
mental process involved in acquiring, storing and recovering info
Encoding
acquiring info into memory system
storage
retaining info
retrival
recovering info
sensory memory
all the senses, first stage memory enters
large-not unlimited
images 1/2 sec- auditory 2 to 4 sec
Iconic memory
visual info
echoic memory
auditory info
Short term memory holds how many things?
7 items
Chunks and chunking
grouping info into new unit
maintenance rehersal
repeating info until in short term in order to remember
elaborative rherasal
related to different info already in long term so you can remember
Long term
storehouse of info
unlimited-permanent
procedural memory
motor skills, habits, how things are done memory,
declarative memory
episodic- personal events and experiences
semantic-facts and general knowledge
primacy effects
first is remember better than middle
recency effect
last is remembered better than middle
recall
general cue to retrieve a memory
recognition
use of specific cue to retrieve memory
forgetting curve
Herman Ebbinghaus- initial plunge of lose of short term memory-levels off- slowly declines
Interference theory
when 2 similar memories compete and interfere. Altered memory
proactive interference
old memories interfere with new info
retroactive interference
new info interferes with old info
encoding failure
short term to long term error
pay attention to what you are doing
retrieval failure
info in long term but unavailable
Amnesia
severe loss of memory
retrograde amnesia
cant remember past
antergrade amnesia
unable to form new memories
memory distortion
changed-deleted-exaggerated
ELIZABETH LUFTUS
Elizabeth Loftus
personal memories can be altered if given misleading info
Mnemonics
making connections with old and new info
Acronyms
code word for 1st letters
Language
communication spoken and written words, and gestures
Phonemes
smallest unit of sound
morphemes
smallest unit of meaning
syntax
grammatical rules for putting words in correct order
Chomsky
different cultures learn same stages of languages
Benjamin Whurf
Language shapes thoughts-
linguistic relativity hypothesis
Mental Images
mental pics of stored sensory experience
Heuristic
general rule of thumb, shortcut
mental set
to use what worked before
functional fixedness
think to only function normally
confirmation bias
confirms preexisting beliefs
availiability heuristic
judging likelihood based on personal experience
representative heuristic
judging event on if materials match example
creativity
produce novel solutions to a problem
divergent thinking
problem solvers come up with many solutions
creative thinkers
resist social pressure, willing to grow, change, motivated, and complex