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89 Cards in this Set

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developmental Psychology
examines how people are continually developing - physically,cognitively and socially- from infancy through old age.
3 major issue of developmental psychology
Nature V. Nurture- how does nature or nurture influence our development

Continuity and Stages- is development gradual and continuous or is it a sequences of separate stages

Stability and Change-do early personality traits persist throughout life or do we become different people as we age
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

will attach to uterine wall and become the embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrom
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women heavy drinking. in severe cases symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions and brain abnormalities
formed as the zygote outer cells attached to the uterine wall transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus
a decrease in responding with repeated stimulation as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
Novelty-Preference Procedure
asked 4 month olds to recognize cats and dogs
suggests that infants like adults focus first on the face not the body
early brain development
when first born a child's developing brain cortex actually overproduces neurons
from ages 3-6 there was rapid growth in your frontal lobes - which enable rational planning
the association areas- memory/thinking/language are the last areas to develop
pruning process
when you hit puberty fiber pathways supporting language and agility proliferate but then the pruning process shuts down excess connections and strengthens others
the orderly sequence of biological growth processes
it causes many of our commonalities - standing before walking, to using nouns before adjectives
motor development
Universal sequences for most because its based on the maturing nervous system

we begin to walk at around 1 years old

crawling, standing, walking, running
back-to-sleep position
putting babies to sleep on the backs to reduce risk of a smothering crib death
infantile amnesia
we cannot remember our childhood
our earliest conscious memory is 3.5 years and by 4-5 childhood amnesia is giving way to remembered experiences
our memories are still developing into adolescense
all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating
Jean Piaget
studied young children and found a correlation in their thinking
his studies lead him to believing that a childs mind develops through a series of stages
he thought that intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences
Concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences
how we interpret new experiences in terms of our current understandings (schemas)
how we incorporate information provided by new experiences into our schemas

how we adapt our current understandings to incorporate new information
Sensorimotor stage
from birth o nearly age 2

babies take in the world though their senses and actions - through looking,hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping

- object permanence
-stranger anxiety
Object Permanence
young infants lack the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
Preoperational Stage
from age 2 to 6-7

the stage where children are too young to perform mental operations or logic, however they are able to learn language

- pretend play
- egocentrism
the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in-shape
the preoperational (Piaget) stage where children experiances difficulty taking in another point of view
Theory of Mind
peoples ideas about their own and others mental states- about their feelings,perceptions,and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict

between ages 3 1/2 and 4 1/2 children begin to realize that other people lie
Concrete Operational Stage
by about 6-7 to around 11

children begin to grasp conservation
and they fully gain the mental ability to comprehend mathematical transformation and conservation
Formal Operational Stage
by age 12 our reasoning expands from the purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols) such as solving hypothetical propositions

Systematic Reasoning : If ... then
Zone of Proximal development
the zone between what children can learn with and without help
Stranger anxiety
at about 8 months
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, begin at 8 months
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver (those who satisfy their need for nourishment) and showing distress on separation

around 12 months
Critical Period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produce proper development
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
secure attachment
when placed in a strange situation children while accompanied by their parents they will play comfortably but when she leaves they will be distressed
insecure attatchment
when placed in a strange situation children while accompanied by their parents they will cling to their mother and when she leaves they will cry loudly and be very upset or seem indifferent
a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Basic Trust
according to Erik Erikson a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
our understanding and evaluation of who we are

at about 15-18 months a child will realize that they are the person in the mirror
Authoritarian Parenting Style
Parents impose rules and expect obedience
parents submit to their children's desires. thye make few demands and use little punishment
Parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules, And especially with older children, they encourage open discussion when making rules and allow exceptions
in psychology the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
Women v. Men
enter puberty sooner
live 5 years longer
more fat than muscle
smell fainter odors
express emotions freely
are more likely to be depressed/ have eating disorder

more likely to be alcohol dependent/ commit suicide
autism, color blindness, ADD and antisocial more common
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

Males - physically aggressive
Females- relational aggressive (verbally/socially)
male answer syndrome
males dont want to admit they dont know or are wrong
X chromosome
the chromosome found in both men and women. Females have 2 X chromosomes, males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child
Y Chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from a female it produces a male child
the most important of the male sex hormones. both male and females have it but the addition testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender Roles
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females
Gender Identity
our sense of being male or female
Gender typing
the acquisition of traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
selection effect
kids seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests
the years spent morphing from child to adult

starts with the physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult stasis
the period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

is around a 2 year period of rapid physical development
11 in girls
13 boys
Primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries,testes,and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary sex characteristics
the nonreproductive traits, such as breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
first menstrual period
mens first ejaculation
moral reasoning
thinking that occurs as we consider right and wrong
preconventional morality
before age 9 children's morality focuses on self-interest
conventional morality
by early adolescence morality focuses on caring for others on upholding laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules
Postconventional morality
with the abstract reasoning of formal operation thought people may reach a third level of morality. Actions are judge "right" because they flow from peoples rights or from self-defined basic ethical principles
a tingly warm and glowing feeling in the chest when seeing people display exceptional generosity compassion or courage
Eriksons 8 stages of psychosocial development
1. trust v. mistrust - (0-3) kids need schedule
2. autonomy vs. shame -(3-6) do they have sense of pride in work
3. initiative vs. guilt - (6-12) are they ambitious
4. industry vs. inferiority (12-14) they want to use their skills and are eager to finish project
5. identity vs. role confusion (14-20)- future?
6. intimacy vs. isolation (20-30) important relationships
7. generativity vs. stagnation - (30-50) help society
8. integrity - (65+) - proud of life so far?
self-definition that unifies the various selves into a consistent and comfortable sense of who one is.

our sense of self the adolescent task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group
in Erikson theory the ability to form close loving relationships a primary development task in late adolescence and early adulthood
emerging adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
end of womens menstrual cycles
fraying of chromosome tips happens with age
death-deferral phenomenon
people tend to die after they have reach a new milestone such as birthday,Christmas, new year
a series of small strokes, a brain tumor or alcohol can progressively damage the brain causing mental erosion
Alzheimers disease
not caused by normal aging
memory deteriorates than reasoning
loss of brain cells
Prospective memory
(remember to...) helps older people remember if its based on a schedule or gives them triggers
cross-sectional studies
reasearches at one point tested and compared people of various ages thus they found that intelligence decreases with age
wasnt correct
retesting the same people over a period of years
found that intelligence remains stable until later in life
crystallized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

fluid intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly
tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood and retirement
terminal decline
in last 3-4 years in life cognitive declines accelerates
being productive and supporting future generations
a behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
a simple automatic response to as sensory stimulus knee jerk response
geminal stage
1st phase encompassing the 1st 2 weeks after conception
zygote is created
motor development sequence
- head holding
- body tuck sitting up on their own
- arms and legs - crawling and walking
Kubler-Ross theory of Death and dying 5 stages
1. denial
2. anger
3. bargaining
4. depression
5. acceptance