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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Identify greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.
*CO2- fossil fuel burning, deforestation, plant burning
*Methane- rice paddies, guts of cattle and termites, landfill, coal production
*nitrous oxide (n20) Fossil fuel burning, fertilizers, livestock wastes.
*CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)- air conditioners, refrigerators, plastic foams
*Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)-air conditioners, refrigerators, plastic foams
*Halons- fire extinguishers
*Carbon tetrachloride- cleaning solvent.
Explain the Greenhouse Effect and why it can be good and bad.
*Greenhouse Effect- A natural process that warms the Earth's lower troposphere and surface.
*good- keeps the temperature on earth stable enough for life to thrive, it controls weather pattern (climates).
*bad- can alter weather patterns and cause climate change.
Describe potential impacts of global warming over the next 50 years.
Tempuratures would rise. Climates would change. Agriculture will have problems with feeding the worlds population due to climate change. Changes in sea level and water supplies
Describe the trend in CO2 emissions over the last 200 years.
CO2 really increased during the industrial era due to inovation of machines.Thus the increase of CO2 emissions occured.
Explain the relationship between CO2 in the atmosphere and global tempuratres.
As CO2 increases, so does the tempurature. the increase of CO2 causes the tempurature because the UV rays are being trapped within the gas and due to more gases. the heat increases.
Describe the structure of the atmosphere being sure to include the troposhere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and the boundries between each set of layers.
The troposphere- aka the weather breeder causes different climates in different parts of the world along with weather patterns it is also where we live.
The stratosphere- is basically where ozone is produced and filters UV rays.
The mesosphere- the third layer of the atmosphere.
The boundries between each set of layers- tropopause, mesopause
Distinguish between primary and secondary pollutants, stationary and mobile sources, photochemical and industrial smog.
Primary pollutants- are those imitated directly into the troposphere in a potentially harmful form.
Secondary pollutants- Primary pollutants that react with one another or with the basic components of air to form new pollutants.
Stationary sources- Are places such as, power and industrial plants.
Mobile sources- are cars
Photochemical Smog- formed when a mix of NOX or nitrogen oxides and VOC's
Indusrtial Smog- consitsts of mostly sulfur dioxide, aerosols containing suspended droplets of sulfuric acid formed from sulfur dioxide and a variety of particles.
List out major classes of outdoor pollutants.
*carbon monoxide (CO)- poisonous to air breathers;comes from cigarette smoke, fossil fuels. can cause respiratory diseases, heart diseases, even neurological damage.
*Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)- part of photochem. smog and component to acid deposition. from fossil fuel burning, and health effects: causes mostly respiratory diseases. Reduces visiblity and increases acid deposition.
*Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)-component of acid deposition. From coal burning in power plants and industrial processes; health effects: respiratory diseases, environmental: loss of visiblity, and acid depostion cause catastrophic damage to plants and animals.
* Suspended Particulate Matter- variety of particles caused by burning fossil fuels and agriculture. Health effects: Nose irritation, respiratory problems, cancer, and reproduction problems.Environmental: visiblity depletion, acid rain effects animals and plants.
*Ozone(O3)- highly reactive gas that form in troposphere as major component of photochem. smog. Sources: chemical reactions
Describe smog formation.
Pollution enters the atmosphere. Then light and heat make secondary pollutants from a series of chemical reactions. Thus a gas with choking odor and a dark haze hangs over many cities during afternoons of sunny days. For industrial it is pretty much the same except chemicals are different and the reactants are different (Oxygen and water vapor)
Explain thermal inversion.
Thermal inversion- Layer of dense, cool air trapped under a layer of dense, warm air. This prevents upward-flowing air currents from developing. In a prolonged inversion, air pollution in the layer may build up to harmful layers.
Define acid deposition- impacts on ecosystems, human health, and the complexity of interactions that can be set in motion by acid deposition.
Acid deposition- Acid rain.
Impacts on ecosystems- Saps soil of nutrients which kills plants because there are no more nutrients. Also makes plants and animals weaker.
Human health- It conributes to human respiratory diseases EX: asthma. Can leach toxic meatls from water pipes into drinking water.
The Complexity of interactons that can be set in motion- Can cause crops to depleat and livestock to die off thus harming humans.
List 6 strategies to prevent acid deposition.
Reduce coal use
Reduce air pollution by improving energy efficiency
Tax emissions of SO2
Increase natural gas use
Burn low sulfur coal
Increase use of renew able energy resources
Compare indoor and outdoor air pollution- list the most dangerous, potential health effects, and strategies for treating/preventing
Indoor pollution- a much greater threat to human health than outdoor pollution because chemicals, such as formaldehyde and cigartte smoke. Respiratory diseases, nerve disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Cancer is a possible health effect in chlorine treated waters. Getting tested for toxic chemicals. Fix cracks, foundations, amd walls in houses or buildings and replace materials that may be toxic.
Outdoor- A lot less dangerous than indoor, but is still a killer. Things like car exhaust, power plant emissions, and VOC's fall under this catagory. Respiratory diseases and cancer. Potential health effects would be heart diseases. Preventing- turn to renewable resources and improve energy efficiency. Treatment- add lime to neutrilaze acidified lakes
Describe how air pollution affects human health, plants, aquatic organisms, and materials
Can cause lung diseases and cancer for humans
For plants can cause death due to not enough nutrients and can cause them to become weaker. Can cause calcium dificiencies.
Aquatic organisms- can cause them to die from PH levels changing and becoming more toxic
Materials- Can corrode and disolve
Summarize the Clean Air Act- list criticisms by evironmentalists and summarize controversy over stricter particle emission standards
Passed in 1970, 1977, and 1990. Established Air pollution regulations for key pollutants that are enforced by each state and major cities. Enviromentalists argued that the Clean Air Acts have continued to rely on pollution clean-up rather than prevention and have failed to increase fuel efficiency in cars, inadequate regulation of emissions from inefficient two cylce gasoline engines, there is little or no regulation of air pollution of outgoing ships in American ports, have failed to do much about reducing carbon dioxide and other green houses gases, lastly lack of need for better enforcment
List 4 prevention strategies and 3 cleanup strategies to reduce emissions from stationary sources of air pollution.
Prevention strategies:
*burn low-sulfur coal
*Remove sulfur from coal
*convert coal to a liquid or gaseous fuel
*Shift to less polluting fuels
Clean up:
*disperse emissions above thermal inversion layer with tall smokestacks.
*Remove pollutants after combustion
*tax each unit of pollution produced.
Define emissions trading policy.
*policy that enables the 110 most polluting power plants in 21 states to buy and sell so2 pollution rights.
List 8 prevention strategies and 3 cleanup strategies to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.
*Mass transit
*Bicycles and walking
*Less polluting engines
*Less polluting fuels
*Improve fuel efficiency
*Get older, polluting cars off the road.
*Give buyers large tax write offs for buying low polluting, energy efficient cars.
Clean up:
*Emission control devices
*Car exhaust inspections twice a year.
*Stricter emission standards.
List 6 prevention and 6 clean up strategies to reduce indoor air pollution.
*Cover ceiling tiles and lining of AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers.
*Ban smoking or limit it to well ventilated areas.
*Set stricter formaldehyde emissions standards for the carpet, furniture, and building materials
*Prevent radon infiltration
*Use office machines in wel ventilated areas
*Use less polluting substitues for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products.
Clean up:
*Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces
*Increase intake of outside air
*Change air more frequently
*Circulate a building's air through rooftop greenhouses.
*Use exhaust hoods for stoves and appliances burning natural gas.
*install efficient chimneys for wood burning stoves
Determine concentration of vehicle air pollutants.
about 10% of vehicles on the road in the US emit 50-70% of vehicle air pollutants.
Evaluate ozone levels in regard to the local environment and time of day/year.
From 1956 to 1993 during october we start to see a depletion in ozone in Antarctica causing ice to start melting at a much rapid pace. Areas with large CFC counts, are considered to have low ozone levels.
Define Air Quality Index
A monitoring system in the US, managed the Enivormental Protection Agency, that monitors several air pollutants because of their impact on clean air. (Examples of pollutants: particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and ozone)
Compare levels of vehicle exhaust with recommended ambient levels of AQL
levels of vehicle exhaust today probably fall under somewhere between unhealthy or unhealthy for sensitive groups on the AQL (51-150) while the recommended good or moderate would be 0-100. In other words we need to invention fuel efficent cars or invent better cars that run off of renewable energy.
Predict where acid deposition will occur in the US and Canada and explain your prediction.
Northeastern United States/Canada due to the large amounts of coal burning and industrial plants found in the midwestern United States.