Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/324

Click to flip

324 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Timecode Rate: 23.976 FPS
Used for HD projects to be edited using NTSC (standard def) video.
Timecode Rate: 24 FPS
International Film standard, also used for some HD video projects.
Timecode Rate: 25 FPS
PAL standard definition A/V format usually used for video projects (in Europe, Asia, and Australia).
Timecode Rate: 29.97 FPS
NTSC Nondrop frame standard definition A/V format usually used for film projects converted to NTSC (used in North America and some parts of South America).
Timecode Rate: 29.97 FPS Drop
NTSC drop frame standard definition A/V format usually used for TV NTSC broadcast (in North America and some parts of South America).
How can you tell when you've chosen a clock source that is valid and a consistent speed for your hardware to clock to?
The Session Setup window will display the Locked and Speed Cal indicators lit solid.
When using Auto LTC/VITC, how does it decide whether it uses LTC or VITC?
Play speeds or slower (including paused/parked) will be VITC.

Normal playback and higher (including shuttle speeds) will be LTC.
What is a post-production clock reference?

What are examples of post-production clock references?
A post-production clock reference tells both sync devices (i.e. Pro Tools and a video deck) how fast to go.

Examples: black burst, video reference, word clock..
What is a positional reference?

What is usually the designated positional reference?
The positional reference tells both sync devices where to locate to prior to beginning synchronized playback or record.

Usually, the positional reference is timecode.
When changing the Session Start time, a dialog box appears that gives you two options:
Maintain time code: Choose this if you want to insert more time at the start of your session and if you have regions in your session that have already been placed at specific timecode numbers that must not change.

Maintain relative position: Choose this option to apply a global offset to all regions placed in your session. All regions will remain in the same position relative to the start of the Session and to each other.
Where would you navigate to to verify your online recording preferences?
Setup > Preferences > Operation
When verifying your online recording preferences, you're given two Online Options. What are they?
Record Online at Time Code (or ADAT) Lock: Pro Tools will start recording on any tracks that are REC-enabled as soon as timecode is received, ignoring the position of the cursor or any selections you might have made.

Record Online at Insertion/Selection: Pro tools records online only at the current cursor position or later. If you make a selection, it only records within your selection, regardless of where timecode is received.
** What is the name of the connector on both the SYNC I/O and SYNC HD that is used to connect blackburst or house sync?
Video Reference.
** What is the name of the connector on both the SYNC I/O and SYNC HD that would be used to distribute a common clock to multiple HD-series audio interfaces?
Loop Sync.
** What is the difference between clock reference and positional reference?
Clock reference involves speed, positional reference involves location.
** List the most commonly used timecode frame rates for each of the following:

- PAL
- NTSC
- FILM
PAL - 25 FPS
NTSC - 29.97 FPS
FILM - 24 FPS
**When changing the Session Start time, what happens to existing audio in your session when you choose the option "maintain relative position"?
All regions will remain in the same position relative to the start of the Session and to each other.
** What does the acronym "LTC" stand for and how is it used by Pro Tools?
Longitudinal timecode. A common positional reference used for Pro Tools music production.
** What does the acronym "VITC" stand for and how is it used by Pro Tools?
Vertical Interval timecode. A positional reference often used with post-production.
** How is the Positional Reference "Auto LTC/VITC" useful?
It "intelligently" chooses LTC for playing speed or faster, and VITC for slower.
What are the ways in which you can put Pro Tools online?
- Click the ONLINE button in the Transport window or Avid Worksurface.
[ OR ]
- Press COMMAND + J.
[ OR ]
- Press OPTION + SPACEBAR.
Machine Control Supported Connections:

Which of these are supported by MAC?
- COM1 Port
- COM2 Port
- Keyspan USA28x USB-Serial Adapter
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 1
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 2
- COM1 Port: N/A
- COM2 Port: N/A
- Keyspan USA28x USB-Serial Adapter: YES
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 1: YES
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 2: YES
Machine Control Supported Connections:

Which of these are supported by WINDOWS?
- COM1 Port
- COM2 Port
- Keyspan USA28x USB-Serial Adapter
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 1
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 2
- COM1 Port: YES
- COM2 Port: YES
- Keyspan USA28x USB-Serial Adapter: NO
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 1: YES
- SYNC 9-Pin Out 2: YES
To trigger Pro Tools playback or recording from an external source, what must be done with Pro Tools?
To trigger Pro Tools playback or recording from an external source, you must put Pro Tools online.
Machine Control Shortcuts!

- Toggle Transport Master
- Rewind
- Fast Forward
Toggle Transport Master: COMMAND + \

Rewind: SHIFT + ,

Fast Forward: SHIFT + .
Machine Control Shortcuts!

- Shuttle Backward
- Shuttle Forward
- Cue to Selection Start
- Cue to Selection End
Shuttle Backward: OPTION + ,

Shuttle Forward: OPTION + .

Cue to Selection Start: COMMAND + <--

Cue to Selection End: COMMAND + -->
Machine Control Shortcuts!

- Frame Bump Backward
- Frame Bump Forward
Frame Bump Backward: COMMAND + OPTION + ,

Frame Bump Forward: COMMAND + OPTION + .
If you get a Machine Control Error Message, what should you check?
- Is the 9-pin cable connected to the deck?

- Is the 9-pin cable connected to the serial port you specified in the "Machine Control" section of the "Peripherals" dialog box?

- Is the deck turned on and set to Remote or External control?
To access the Machine Control Preferences:
Choose Setup > Preferences, and then click the "Synchronization" tab.
What are the different options under Machine Control Preferences?
- Machine Chases Memory Location
- Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub
- Machine Cues Intelligently
- Stop At Shuttle Speed Zero
- Non-Linear Error Suppression
Machine Control Preferences:

What is "Machine Chases Memory Location"?
Machine Chases Memory Location: When enabled, navigating to a specific location with a Memory Location causes a connected transport to chase to that location.
Machine Control Preferences:

What is "Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub"?
Machine Follows Edit Insertion/Scrub: When enabled, navigating to a specific location by moving the selection point or by scrubbing a track causes a connected transport to chase to that location.
Machine Control Preferences:

What is "Machine Cues Intelligently"?
Machine Cues Intelligently: When enabled, if you navigate to a cue point more than 10 sec from the current location, Pro Tools will command a connected transport to shuttle to the desired location at full speed within 10 seconds of the cue point. Cueing will then slow to normal speed until the point is reached. This significantly speeds up tape cueing.
Machine Control Preferences:

What is "Stop At Shuttle Speed Zero"?
Stop at Shuttle Speed Zero: When enabled, Pro Tools sends a Stop command when shuttle speed equals zero.
Machine Control Preferences:

What is "Non-Linear Error Suppression"?
Non-Linear Error Suppression: When enabled, Pro Tools will ignore any 9-pin errors received from non-linear audio and video devices.
To spot a region to a specific timecode start frame:
1.) If the region you wish to Spot is not already on a track, place the region on the desired track.
2.) Identify the timecode location where you want to trigger playback of your region by pausing your video deck or digital video on that frame.
3.) Right-click in the region and choose "Spot" in the Right-click menu.
In the Spot Dialog, "Current Time Code" is referring to..
Incoming timecode.
Focus Key Mode Key Commands!

Y? U? I?
Y: To snap the selected region(s) start to the incoming timecode.
U: To snap the selected region(s) sync point to the incoming timecode.
I: To snap the selected region(s) end to the incoming timecode.
How can you scrub a sync point?
- Using the Scrub tool
- Changing the Selector tool into the Scrub Tool by pressing the Control-key.
To spot or backtime a point within a region to a timecode location:
1.) Place your cursor at the desired sync location within a region.
2.) Choose Region > Identify Sync Point or COMMAND + ,
3.) Identify the timecode location where you want to trigger playback of your region by pausing your video deck on that frame.
4.) Enter a timecode number into the Sync Point field and hit OK.
To change the location of a sync point in a region..
1.) Click the selector in the region at the new location for the sync point.
2.) Choose Region > Identify Sync Point
[ OR ]
COMMAND + ,
[ OR ]
Place your Scrubber or Grabber tool directly on the sync point and drag/scrub the sync point to the new location.
To remove a sync point from a region..
1.) Select the whole region with the Grabber tool.
2.) Choose Region > Remove Sync Point, or COMMAND + ,
What is the key command to Auto-Spot a region?
OPTION + COMMAND + P
To trim audio using Spot mode..
1.) Enable Spot mode by pressing F3 or using your Avid Worksurface.
2.) Enable the standard trim tool.
3.) Click the region's head or tail with the Trim tool.
4.) The Spot Dialog appears. Enter a timecode # specifying exactly where you wish to have the region's beginning or end trimmed to. Then, click OK.
To automatically trim regions..
1.) Locate and pause your timecode source at the ending or starting frame you want to trim to.
2.) Choose Options > Auto-Spot Regions.
3.) Enable the Trim tool.
4.) Click the head or tail of the region (as desired), and the region will be automatically trimmed to the frame you indicated.
What does the Edit Lock icon look like?
A little grey lock in the bottom left corner of a region.
How do you Edit lock or Edit unlock a region?
1.) With the Time Grabber, select the region or regions to Edit lock (or unlock). They can reside on multiple tracks.
2.) Choose Region > Edit Lock/Unlock.
[ OR ]
COMMAND + L
How do you Time lock or Time unlock a region?
1.) With the Time Grabber, select the region or regions to Time lock (or unlock). The regions can reside on multiple tracks.
2.) Choose Region > Time Lock/Unlock.
[ OR ]
CONTROL + OPTION + L
What is the key command to Time lock/unlock?
CONTROL + OPTION + L
What is the key command to Edit lock/unlock?
COMMAND + L
What are the two types of timestamps?
Original time stamp and user time stamps.
Which timestamps can be modified?
User time stamps can be modified, while original timestamps can't be changed.
How do you show the Main Time Scale start and end points inside all of the regions placed on tracks in the Edit window?
1.) Change the Main Time Scale (if necessary) to the desired display units.
2.) Choose View > Region, and then choose Current Time, Original Time Stamp, User Time Stamp, or No Time.
To replace regions on a track..
1.) Make a selection containing one or more regions in a track's playlist that you want to replace (or extend selection further to include material from the replacement region that's longer than the original region).
2.) Hold COMMAND + SHIFT and drag the replacement region from the Region List to the selected region.
3.) Select the desired settings in the Replace Region dialog box, and click OK.
What options does the Replace Region dialog box give you?
- Replace Original Region Only
- Replace All Instances of the Original Region
- Replace all regions that Match Original Region's:
~ Start Position
~ End Position
~ Name
- Replace on: This Track Only
- Replace on: All Tracks
- Replace Regions Within the Selection
- Fit To: Original Region Length
- Fit To: Original Selection Length
- Fit To: Replacement Region Length
What does the Replace Region function work on?
The Replace Region function works on a selection that includes single or multiple regions on one or more tracks.
** What is the technical standard name for 9-Pin serial machine control?
RS-422.
** Name a keyboard shortcut and an Avid Worksurface shortcut for putting Pro Tools online.
Keyboard shortcut: COMMAND + J

Worksurface shortcut: ONLINE
** List two reasons that cause a machine control communication error in Pro Tools.
1.) 9-Pin not connected to the deck.
2.) 9-Pin not connected to the serial port you specified in the Machine Control section of the Peripherals dialog box.
3.) The deck is not turned on or set to Remote or External control.
** Give at least one post-production example of how the Replace Region command is useful.
If you put an incorrect sound in on multiple instances, you can quickly fix it with Replace Region.
** How is "Edit Locking" regions different from "Time Locking" regions?
With Edit Locking, you can't move or edit the region without Pro Tools alerting you. With Time Locking, you can move it up/down and edit it without any alerts.
What does the Time Lock icon look like?
An inverted version of the Edit Lock icon. It has a dark grey lock with a light grey border.
** What is the "Auto Spot Regions" option used for in Pro Tools?
It auto spots your regions to incoming timecode.
** What are Timestamps and how are they useful?
It allows Pro Tools to remember the original timecode/timescale for each sample of audio that was recorded online (or synched to timecode). It's useful if you've moved a region out of sync.
What is needed to output video?

What kind of systems does it work on?
A Blackmagic Design Decklink Extreme PCIe card (HD).

Only works for MAC systems.
What is the key command to create a new track?
COMMAND + SHIFT + N
What is the Blackmagic Design Decklink Extreme PCIe card?
It's a video display card used with non-linear editing software and is supported for HD systems.

The Decklink Extreme card's video inputs and audio inputs/outputs are not supported in Pro Tools.
What is the Avid Mojo SDI?
It's an Avid Digital Non-Linear Accelerator (DNA) based on the original Avid Mojo but also provides Serial Digital Interface connectors in/out for video and support for a wider range of Avid video resolutions.
What video resolutions does the Avid Mojo support?
- All standard-definition Avid OMF and MXF video files
- Avid IMX MPEG50, MPEG40, and MPEG30
- DV50, DV25/DV25P, and DVC Pro 25 resolutions compressed with the Avid codec
- All standard definition Avid Multi-Cam Resolution files
When digitizing into Pro Tools, how must video be digitized?
When digitizing video into Pro Tools, video must be digitized at NTSC/PAL frame rates using the Avid DV25 (MXF) file format.
What outs are available for the Avid Mojo SDI Video Capture Hardware?
- Composite Video Out
- S-Video Out
- Serial Digital Out
- 4 Channel AES Out
- Audio Word Clock Out

Note: The Avid Mojo SDI Audio Input/Output connectors are unused in Pro Tools.
What is are available for the Avid Mojo SDI Video Capture Hardware?
- Composite Video In
- S-Video In
- Serial Digital In
- 4 Channel AES In
- Video Reference In

Note: The Avid Mojo SDI Audio Input/Output connectors are unused in Pro Tools.
If you wish to digitize video directly into the Pro Tools timeline, you will need the following hardware (in addition to your Pro Tools|HD-series hardware):
- Avid Mojo SDI video interface (or other supported Avid video peripheral)
- Avid SYNC Peripheral
- Avid Machine Control software option (recommended)
- (NTSC or PAL) Professional Video Tape Recorder supporting RS-422 (Sony 9-Pin)
- Blackburst Generator (NTSC or PAL)
What are the two types of Video Track Views, and what do they entail?
- Frames view: The default view mode. Video data is displayed as pictures in the Video track. Does not provide a frame accurate reference.

- Blocks View: Allows you to see where your video clips begin and end, and the names of the clips. Places less load on your computer's processor when scrolling during playback and recording, since there are no video images to update.
How do you set the view for the Video track?
On the Video track, select "Frames" or "Blocks" from the Track View selector.
What is the Video Track Online Button?
It lets you select the main video track, switch that track online or offline, and see at a glance by color whether a video track is online or offline.

(Duplicates the function of the Video Online command in the Options menu.)
Regarding the Video Track Online Button, what colors indicate that your video track is online or offline?
Online - Lit in Blue (video playback enabled)

Offline - Unlit in Gray (video playback disabled)
How many video tracks can be active in a session?

With that in mind, what happens when you have multiple video tracks?
Only one video track can be active in a session.

Togging any available video track in the session online, therefore, will place all other video tracks offline.
What is "video engine rate"?

Where is it displayed?
The video engine rate represents the # of video frames output by Pro Tools per second and is determined by the frame rate of the first video file added to a session.

The Video Engine Rate indicator displays only in the main video track (whether on/offline) and shows the video engine rate.
When does the Video Engine Rate text turn red?
- If the video engine rate does not match the session's current Time Code Rate setting.
[ OR ]
- If a pull-up has been applied to the video, causing the video engine rate to differ from the session Time Code Rate.
What are the key commands and Focus Key shortcuts for the following:

- Snap audio region's start to the cursor?
- Snap audio region's sync point to the cursor?
- Snap audio region's end to the cursor?
- Snap audio region's start to the cursor: Focus key is H, shortcut is CTRL-CLICK
- Snap audio region's sync point to the cursor: Focus key is J, shortcut is CTRL + SHIFT-CLICK
- Snap audio region's end to the cursor: Focus key is K, shortcut is CTRL + CMND-CLICK
** What Avid and Quicktime video hardware is "officially" supported in Pro Tools?
Mojo and Blackmagic Extreme!
** What are major feature differences between a Blackmagic Design Decklink Extreme card and Avid Mojo SDI hardware?
The Blackmagic is HD only and MAC only.
** What is the video file format and compression rate used to digitize video directly into the Pro Tools timeline using Avid video hardware?
AVID DV-25 (MXF)
** What video input connectors are available on Mojo SDI hardware?
- Composite Video In
- S-Video In
- Serial Digital In
- 4 Channel AES In
- Video Reference In
OMFs and Final Cut Pro 7 have a strange relationship. What will FCP7 accept and deny in the OMF realm?
Final Cut Pro 7 only supports OMF audio export.

Final Cut Pro 7 does not support OMF video export.

Also, Final Cut Pro 7 does not currently support AAF export.
What are the ways you can import and play a Quicktime movie from within Pro Tools?
- Drag and drop one or more video files from a DigiBase browser, Windows Explorer (hope you're not using that), or Macintosh Finder to the Track List, Timeline, or an existing video track.
[ OR ]
- Choose File > Import > Video
[ OR ]
- CMND + OPTION + SHIFT + I
What can be discovered from within the magical world of the Video Import Options dialog?
- Destination Section
- Location Pop-up Menu
- Additional Video Import Options
RE: the Video Import Options dialog...

What options does the Destination Section give you, and what do they entail?
- Main Video Track: Imports the video file directly to the track that is currently online (known as the main video track). If no track is currently online, the video file will be imported to the last existing video track that was online.
- New Track: Creates a new video track where the video file will be imported.
- Region List: Imports the video file directly into the Region List, where it will be available to drag and drop into Pro Tools.
RE: the Video Import Options dialog...

What options are available in the Location Pop-up Menu, and what do they entail?
The Location pop-up menu lets you choose precisely where the imported video arrives in the Timeline.

- Session Start
- Song Start
- Selection: Places the video file within your selection (or at the edit cursor position)
- Spot: Displays the Spot dialog, which lets you spot video to precise locations based on any time scales.
- Original Time Stamp: Avid video only. Places Avid video in the Timeline at a time code location that corresponds to the timestamps from the original source tape.
RE: the Video Import Options dialog...

What Additional Video Import Options are offered?
- Gaps Between Regions: When you import more than one QuickTime movie or Avid video file into a track, they'll be shuffled together by default. This option lets you choose the number of seconds by which each video clip will be separated.
- Import Audio from File: QuickTime movies only. When selected, QuickTime movie audio you're importing will be extracted and put into new mono or stereo audio tracks in the Timeline.
- Remove Existing Video Tracks: All existing video tracks will be deleted before Pro Tools imports video into the session.
- Remove Existing Video Regions: All existing video regions will be removed from the Timeline and the Region List before Pro Tools imports video into the session (but left on disk).
What do the Canopus ADVC-100/110 Transcoders require?
The Canopus ADVC-100/110 Transcoders currently require a 22 quarter frame offset for NTSC, and an 18 quarter frame offset for PAL.
How do you import audio tracks from a QuickTime movie without importing the video?
1.) Choose File > Import > Audio, or CMND + SHIFT + I
2.) In the Import Audio dialog, navigate to the QuickTime movie you want the audio from and select it.
3.) Under the Region section, click the name of the audio region you want to extract from the movie, and click "Convert Region" or "Add Region".
4.) Select other audio files as desired and click "Done".
5.) The Audio Import Options dialog appears, where you can choose whether to import the audio to a new track or the Region List.
What does OMFI stand for, and what is it?
Open Media Framework Interchange. (sometimes OMF)

It's a protocol (originally developed by Avid) as a standard file format allowing content creators to share metadata and media data across computer platforms and between software applications. Will hopefully be replaced by the AAF standard, as it's ancient and out-dated.
What does AAF stand for, and what is it?
Advanced Authoring Format.

New, industry-driven open standard created by the AAF Association for multimedia authoring and post-production.
What 2 kinds of data can be interchanged using AAF?
- Essence Media Data: Multimedia data (i.e. audio, video, still images, text, music, etc.) that are the essential data within a multimedia program that can be perceived directly by the audience.

- Metadata: Data that provides information on how to combine or modify individual sections of essence media data or that provides supplementary information about essence media data. It can provide the information needed to combine and modify the sections of essence media data in the AAF file to produce a complete multimedia program!
What are the advantages of working with OMFI and AAF files?
- Eliminates the need for tape-based file transfers.
- Adds flexibility by enabling the free exchange of projects between multiple, specialized tools with media and composition compatibility.
- Retains the highest picture and sound quality with all-digital file transfers.
- Eliminates redundancy by preserving formatting information -- timing, timecode sync positioning, layering, and effects -- when moving projects between applications and different workstations.
- Eliminates the need to rebuild sequences and elements from scratch when changing applications.
- Increases creativity and productivity by enabling professionals to spend more time on creative aspects of the process and less time on media management headaches.
What are the two ways to handle media files when exporting AAF/OMFI files?

What does each way entail?
Embedded Media: The "Garage Band". Your export results in one large OMFI or AAF file with all of your metadata and associated files. A single OMFI and AAF embedded export file can be larger than 2GB, but no one individual audio file can be bigger than 2GB.

External File References: Your export results in a single metadata file (.aaf or .omf) and all associated media files stored as separate files. The disadvantage is that there could be many files to transport between systems, but it's less likely that you'll encounter any file size limitations since everything is broken up separately.
What kind of videos can be played by Avid hardware?
Only Avid videos can be played by Avid hardware.
If an Avid sequence containing a video mixdown is imported into Pro Tools, how is the video mixdown and its corresponding metadata displayed on the Timeline?
The video mixdown and its corresponding metadata are displayed in two separate video tracks on the Timeline.
What are the two kinds of AAF and OMFI sequences?
- AAF and OMFI sequences that refer to other media files.
- AAF and OMFI sequences that contain embedded audio media.
What kinds of Pans are supported by Pro Tools when importing from an Avid AAF file?
Both Keyframe Pan and Clip-based Pan are supported by Pro Tools when imported from an Avid AAF file.
What are the key commands to select all tracks for import?
CMND + A, or OPTION-CLICK
When opening or importing AAF or OMFI sequences, Pro Tools provides several import options through the Import Session Data dialog:
- AAF/OMFI Translation Settings
- Audio Media Options
- Sample Rate Convert Options
- Time Code Mapping Options
- Track Offset Options
AAF/OMFI Translation Settings:
- Ignore Rendered Audio Effects
- Clip-Based Gain
- Ignore Auto-Gain
- Pan Odd Tracks Left/Even Tracks Right
- Locators to Import
- Importing RTAS Plug-In Settings from AAF
What options are offered in the Audio Media Options menu for AAF/OMFI tracks?
- Link to Source Media
- Copy Source Media
- Consolidate From Source Media
- Handle Size
- Force to Target Session Format
What options are offered in the Video Media Options menu for AAF/OMFI tracks?
- Link to Source Media
- Copy From Source Media
How high of a sample rate does Pro Tools|HD support?
192kHz. yowza.
What are your Time Code Mapping Options?
You can specify where the imported tracks are placed in the current session.

- Maintain Absolute Time Code Values: Places tracks at the locations where they were located in the source session.
- Maintain Relative Time Code Values: Places tracks at the same offset from session start as they had in the source session.
- Map Start Time Code to: Places tracks relative to their original session start time.
Does Pro Tools support the MXF?

What does MXF stand for?
Yes!

Material Exchange Format.
What are the different ways you can import MXF Audio into Pro Tools?
- FILE > IMPORT > AUDIO
- Drag and drop files from the Finder
- Drag and drop files from a DigiBase browser.
** What types of QuickTime video does Pro Tools support for import?
It depends on what codecs you have.
** What What is the Video Engine Rate?
Essentially, how fast QuickTime is moving.
** What Location options are available in the Video Import Options window?
- Song Start
- Session Start
- Spot
- Selection
** How are embedded OMFI/AAF exports different from externally referenced exports?
Embedded exports contain everything, externally referenced exports have a separate folder.
** What types of OMFI and AFF data can be imported and exported from Pro Tools?
Imported: OMFI and AAF... Embedded Audio, External Referenced Audio, External Referenced Video, Volume/Pan/Mute Automation. Or AAF RTAS Plug-in Settings.

Exports: OMFI/AAF embedded audio, external referenced audio, and volume/pan/mute automation.
What is the key command to insert an empty region?
COMMAND + SHIFT + E
How can you tell what type of video is on a track when you look at it?
It either displays an A for "Avid" video or a Q for "QuickTime".
What type(s) of tracks can be locked?
Only video tracks can be locked.
What happens when a video track is locked?
When a video track is locked, Pro Tools restricts all editing operations involving the track (except for locking and unlocking video regions).
To lock a video track..
1.) Select the video track or tracks you want to lock.
2.) CTRL-CLICK the name of any selected video track and select "Locked", or RIGHT-CLICK the name of any selected video track and select "Locked".
How do you display or hide the Video window?
- Select Window > Video
[ OR ]
- Press COMMAND+[9]
How do you resize the Video window by CTRL-CLICKING, and what resize options are you given?
- CTRL-CLICK the Video window and choose from the following resize options:
~ Half Size
~ Actual Size
~ Double Size
~ Fit Screen
If you wanted to rename video files on disk, how would you do this?
To rename video files on disk, you must rename them in a DigiBase browser, Windows Explorer, or Mac Finder.
What are some general operations that are applicable to audio regions but NOT applicable to video regions?
- Compact Selected
- Renaming disk files in the Region List or Timeline
- Fades
- Mute/Unmute region
- AudioSuite Plug-ins
- Waveform repair with the Pencil tool
- Strip silence
- Consolidate regions
Can MPEG-2 video in the Timeline be edited?
Absolutelyyy not.
RE: Selecting and Editing Across Multiple Audio and Video Tracks..

What can you do?
You can create a selection across multiple audio and video tracks, group video regions, and cut, copy, or paste audio and video simultaneously.
With Pro Tools, you can include video regions within region groups for the following operations:
- Creating region groups
- Creating multitrack region groups (including all track types)
- Editing region groups
- Creating fades and crossfades for audio files in region groups
- Importing and exporting region group files
To display the Video Universe window:
1.) Make sure the Video Online button in the main video track is set to an online (blue) status.
2.) Choose Window > Video Universe or COMMAND + 7 to display the Video Universe window.
To increase or decrease the size of video frames in the Video Universe window:
RIGHT-CLICK or CTRL-CLICK anywhere in the Universe window, and select "Increase" or "Decrease".
What does the Zoom tool look like?
A magnifying glass with a + symbol in it.
When you move the cursor over the top half of a video frame in the Video Universe window, what does it act as?

What about scrolling over the bottom half of a video?
Top half: behaves as a Zoomer.

Bottom half: behaves as a Selector.
** How can an Avid video track be distinguished from a QuickTime video track?
You'll see an A or a Q next to it.
** How can the Video window be displayed and re-sized?
CMND + 9, or RIGHT-CLICK and choose your re-sizing.
** List the editing tools that can be used on video tracks.
Selector, Scrubber, Trimmer, Zoomer... just know there's NO Pencil tool.
** What type of video can play back but not be edited in the Pro Tools Timeline?
MPEG-2.
** How is video file re-naming different from audio file re-naming?
You can't rename a video file on the disk.
** What is the Video Universe Window and what is it used for?
CMND + 7, shows you your region display and gives you clips of your cuts.
What is a "streamer and punch"?
A technique used to set up to record ADR that uses a visual synchronization cue. Each streamer and punch is created by punching a hole in the visible portion of the film or video frame.
What two modes of input monitoring does Pro Tools|HD offer?
Auto Input and Input Only
What is "Auto Input"?
- Auto Input: When session playback is stopped, Pro Tools monitors audio Input. When playback is started for a punch-in, Pro Tools monitors existing track material up until the punch. While punched in, input signal is monitored, and on punch-out, monitoring goes back to the existing track material. Most common for ADR.
What is "Input Only Monitoring"?
When a track is record enabled, Pro Tools monitors audio input only, regardless of any punch-in/out selection. Always monitors the record input and never lets you hear the audio on the Pro Tools timeline.
How do you know when Input Only monitoring is enabled?
The Green LED next to the Transport window appear lit.
What is "TrackInput monitoring"?

What does it mean if the TrackInput button in a track is green?
TrackInput monitoring lets you toggle individual audio tracks between Auto Input and Input Only at any time.

When the TrackInput button in a track is green, it's enabled and the track monitors audio in Input Only mode. If the TrackInput button is disabled, the track monitors in Auto Input mode.
To toggle the monitoring mode of audio tracks, do one of the following:
- Click the TrackInput button for each track you want to toggle.
[ OR ]
- Select an individual track or a selection of tracks you want to affect and then choose Track > Input Monitor Tracks With A Selection.
To toggle tracks containing the Edit cursor between Auto Input and Input Only monitoring, what key command would you use?
SHIFT + I
How do you toggle all tracks in a session?

How do you toggle all selected tracks in a session?
- OPTION-CLICK a TrackInput button

- OPTION + SHIFT-CLICK
To change the monitoring mode of all record-enabled tracks, do one of the following:
- To change all record-enabled tracks to Auto Input monitoring, select Track > Set Record Tracks To Auto Input
- To change all record-enabled tracks to Input Only monitoring, select Track > Set Record Tracks To Input Only.
How do you toggle between Auto Input and Input Only monitoring?
OPTION + K
What are the five record mode options?
- Destructive Record
- Quick Punch
- Loop Record
- Track Punch (HD only)
- DestructivePunch (HD only)
What is the Destructive Record mode?

What is its keyboard hotkey?
When making selections prior to punching, it conserves recording space by destructively recording over previous ADR takes. Not good for ADR.

To use, Right-click on the Transport window Record button.
What is the Quick Punch record mode?

What is its keyboard short?
Maximum flexibility! Lets you non-destructively punch in/out on all record-enabled tracks without deleting previous takes.

CMND + SHIFT + P, or numeric 5.
What is the Loop Record record mode?

What is its keyboard short?
Lets you non-destructively record the same ADR line multiple times without stopping, based on your track selection. Requires a selection prior to recording, but useful when quickly recording multiple takes.

OPTION + L or numeric 5.
What is the Track Punch record mode?

What is its keyboard short?
HD systems only! Similar to QuickPunch since you non-destructively punch in/out, but it also lets you individually record-enable/disable individual tracks without stopping the transport. Good for group ADR.

COMMAND + SHIFT + T
What is the DestructivePunch record mode?

What is its keyboard short?
HD systems only! Lets you destructively punch-in/out on the fly on individual audio tracks during playback. No additional regions are created, it's all contiguous with the rest of the region. Good with ADR mixing. Essentially, it's a destructive version of TrackPunch mode.

Right-click on the Transport window Record button.
When using Loop Record, Pro Tools can automatically create a new playlist for each take it loops around. Where would you enable this feature?
Go to Setup > Preferences > Operations > Automatically Create New Playlists When Loop Recording and enable it.
What options do you have when copying and pasting a selection to the main playlist?
- Copy Selection to Main Playlist
- Copy Selection to New Playlist
- Copy Selection to Duplicate Playlist
To copy a selection in an alternate playlist to the main playlist..
1.) In Playlists view, make a selection in an alternate playlist.
2.) Do one of the following:
- Click the Copy Selection To Main Playlist button in the Playlist Lane controls.
[ OR ]
- Choose Edit > Copy Selection To Main Playlist.
[ OR ]
- RIGHT-CLICK the selection and choose Copy Selection To Main Playlist.
What quick key copies the selection to the main playlist?
OPTION + CTRL + V
To copy a selection in an alternate playlist to a new main playlist..
1.) In Playlists view, make a selection in an alternate playlist.
2.) Choose Edit > Copy Selection To New Playlist, or just RIGHT-CLICK the selection and choose Copy Selection To New Playlist.
3.) Name the new playlist and click OK.
To copy a selection in an alternate playlist to a duplicate of the main playlist..
1.) In Playlists view, make a selection in an alternate playlist.
2.) Choose Edit > Copy Selection to Duplicate Playlist, or just RIGHT-CLICK the selection and choose Copy Selection To Duplicate Playlist.
3.) Name the new playlist and click OK.
What is the rule regarding dragging regions to playlist lanes?
You can drag and drop regions to any available Playlist lane on any track that has the same channel width (i.e. monos to monos, not stereos to monos).
How do you delete main playlists and lanes?
1.) Select the playlists and lanes you wish to delete.
2.) RIGHT-CLICK on one of the selected playlists and select "Delete".
How do you delete unused playlists?
1.) On a Main track playlist, select "Delete Unused" from the Playlist menu. The Delete Unused Playlists dialog appears listing all currently unused playlists in the session.
2.) Select the playlists you wish to delete and click OK.
How do you reorder Playlist lanes?
Click the name of the alternate playlist and drag it to the location you want.
How can you resize a Playlist lane?
- Click the line in between lanes and drag up or down. The upper lane resizes accordingly.
[ OR ]
- RIGHT-CLICK the vertical scale between the playlist area and the Playlist Lane controls and select the lane size you want.
For smoother, continuous playlist lane re-sizing, what key command can you utilize?
COMMAND-DRAG
How do you rename an alternate playlist?
1.) Double-click the name of the alternate playlist.
2.) In the resulting Name dialog, type the name you want and click OK.
How do you rate a region?
1.) Select an entire region.
2.) Choose Region > Rate and select your ranking 1 to 5, [ OR ] RIGHT-CLICK the region and choose "Rate", then select a ranking 1 to 5.
How do you display ratings in regions?

How do you hide ratings in regions?
To display OR hide ratings in regions, select View > Region > Rating.
When it comes to filtering playlist lanes, you've got some options, papichulo. What are they?
- Show All Lanes
- Show Only Lanes With > Regions Within The Edit Selection
- Show Only Lanes With > Regions Outside The Edit Selection
- Show Only Lanes With > "Regions Rated >= 1-5"
- Hide All Lanes
- Hide Only Lanes With > Regions Within The Edit Selection
- Hide Only Lanes With > Regions Outside The Edit Selection
- Hide Only Lanes With > "Regions Rated >= 1-5"
** Describe how you would set up a Pro Tools session to record ADR.
You need a 3 beep & streamer!
** What is the difference between Auto Input Monitoring and Input Only Monitoring?
With Auto Input Monitoring, you hear signal all the time.
** What are Playlists and how are they useful?
A series of arrangements on a track. You can have nearly an infinite amount and they're great for organization.
** What is the difference between a Main playlist and a playlist lane?
Playlist lanes display alternate playlists.
** How can playlists be deleted?
Select "Delete" from the popdown next to the nameplate on the track.
What is the role of a dialog editor? (Oh boy...)
- Organize/manage production A/V from the picture editor.
- Smooth/correct transitions between shots.
- Determining usable dialog and recommending ADR lines.
- Improving/correcting dialog.
- Removing unwanted audio disruptions.
- Replacing dialog containing audible junk.
- Syncing dialog to picture.
- Verifying/correcting room tone continuity.
- Preparing dialog tracks for pre-mixing and final dub stage mixing.
- Separating production SFX from the dialog track to prepare for the music and effects mix.
To use the Shuttle Mode Keypad Shortcut keys..
1.) Choose Setup > Preferences > Operation Page.
2.) In the Numeric Keypad section, choose "Shuttle" and also make sure that "Edit Insertion Follows Scrub/Shuttle is enabled.
Shuttle Keypad Mode Shortcuts! What are they for Rewind/Forward of the following...

1x Speed
4x Speed
1/4x Speed
1/2x Speed
2x Speed
1/16x Speed
1x Speed: Rew 4, FF 6
4x Speed: Rew 7, FF 9
1/4x Speed: Rew 1, FF 3
1/2x Speed: Rew 5+4, FF 5+6
2x Speed: Rew 8+7, FF 8+9
1/16x Speed: Rew 2+1, FF 2+3
To use the Tab to Transient feature..
1.) Enable Tab To Transient by pressing OPTION + COMMAND + TAB.
2.) Click in the audio track just before the beginning of the material you want to select.
3.) Press Tab repeatedly until the cursor locates to the transient at the start of the selection.
Tab to Transient Key Commands!

- To turn it on?
- To go to a previous transient?
- To select while tabbing to transient?
- To move the selection end point to the previous transient?
To enable: OPTION + COMMAND + TAB.

To tab to previous transient: OPTION + TAB.

To select while tabbing to transient: SHIFT + TAB.

To move the selection end point to the previous transient: SHIFT + OPTION + TAB.
To use the Strip Silence Separate function to isolate dialog..
1.) Select the dialog you wish to separate.
2.) In the Strip Silence window, adjust the Strip Silence parameters to isolate the dialog from the silence.
3.) Click the Separate button.
Is Strip Silence destructive or non-destructive?
Non-destructive fo sho shawty.
What are region groups particularly useful for in audio post-production?
- Linking similar regions together that form a scene.
- Linking multiple tracks or regions that create a musical cue.
- Linking multiple tracks or regions that create a composite sound effect/foley.
- Linking multiple tracks of dialog or ADR regions that contain the dialog for a scene.
What is the X-Form plug-in?
X-form is a time compression and expansion plug-in. To use it, go to Audiosuite > Pitch Shift > X-Form.
How do you insert a Warp Marker? (4 lovely ways)
- Using the Pencil Tool, click anywhere in the audio region.
- Using the Grabber Tool, DOUBLE-CLICK anywhere within the audio region.
- Using the Grabber Tool, CTRL-CLICK anywhere within the audio region.
- Using any Editing Tool, RIGHT-CLICK anywhere in the region and select "Add Marker".
How do you insert a Warp marker where an event marker exists?
Using the Grabber, Double-click the event marker.
To relocate a Warp marker..
Using either the Grabber or the Pencil tool, CTRL-CLICK and then drag the marker to a new position.
To delete a Warp marker..
- Using the Grabber Tool, Double-click the warp marker.
- Using either the Grabber or Pencil tool, OPTION-CLICK on the warp marker you want to remove.
- Using any Editing tool, Right-click on the Warp Marker and choose "Remove Warp Marker".
How do you fit an Edit selection to the Timeline?
1.) Deselect Link Edit And Timeline Selection by pressing Shift+/
2.) Select the audio material to be compressed or expanded.
3.) In any Timebase Ruler, select the time range where you want to fit the audio material.
4.) Choose Edit > TCE Edit To Timeline Selection [ OR ] Press OPTION + SHIFT + U.
To fit an audio region to an Edit selection..
1.) Select the desired time range in an audio track.
2.) CMND + OPTION-DRAG the region from the Region List to the track with the selection.
To extract room tone silence or ambience from a dialog region..
1.) Choose Edit > Strip Silence (or COMMAND + U).
2.) In the Edit window, select the audio containing the silence you wish to extract.
3.) In the Strip Silence window, set the Strip parameters appropriately so that the dialog is selected, leaving the room tone intact.
4.) Click Extract.
The Region List menu provides the Timeline Drop Order command and submenu with the following two choices:
- Top to Bottom: Default. Regions spread "top to bottom", creating new tracks for each region.
- Left to Right: Regions spread across the single destination (drop) track or a newly created track.
To Timeline drag and drop dialog room tone regions in order on the same track..
1.) Choose Region List > Timeline Drop Order, and select Left To Right.
2.) Select the regions you wish to drag and drop in the Regions List.
3.) Drag the selected regions to the desired track.
To use Repeat Paste To Fill Selection..
1.) Copy a smoothly looping selection of audio (such as room tone).
2.) Select the gap you want to fill by tabbing to the region boundary, then press SHIFT+TAB.
3.) Choose Edit > Paste Special > Repeat to Fill Selection (or OPTION + COMMAND + V).
4.) Choose any fade settings you desire and click OK.
To make a backup/duplicate copy of an audio region...
1.) Select the source region in the track's playlist.
2.) Choose Edit > Consolidate, or press OPTION + SHIFT + 3
When using NoNOISE..

For best results, optimum results are obtained when the Noise Estimate is taken from a section of pure noise of what length?
0.3 and 0.5 seconds in length.
What are the Broadband Denoising Parameters?
- Attenuation
- Threshold
- Sharpness
- Bandwidth
** What is the only destructive editing tool in Pro Tools?
The Pencil Tool.
What are catalogs?
Catalogs are just aliases or shortcuts. It doesn't contain your ishhh. It's a custom place to keep lists and whatnot.
How do you open a Catalog browser?
1.) Open the Workspace browser.
2.) Click the Catalog's Expand/Collapse icon.
3.) Do one of the following:
- Click the Expand/Collapse icon for the desired Catalog to view its contents in the Workspace.
- Double-Click the catalog name to open it in its own browser window.
What are clip names?

Where can you edit them?
Clip names are the names that appear in the timeline and regions list when a file is imported into a session. For most files, the clip name is the same as the file name. Clip names can only be edited in a catalog.
How do you create a new, empty catalog?
In the Workspace browser, choose "New Catalog" from the "Browser" menu. Then enter a unique name and click OK.
How do you catalog a selection of items?
Open any browser, select the items you want to include in the new catalog, and choose "Create Catalog from Selection" from the "Browser" menu.
How do you create a catalog of an entire folder and all its contents?
Open the Workspace browser, then drag and drop a single folder onto the catalog icon in the Workspace browser. Pro Tools first indexes the folder, then creates a fully indexed catalog with the same name as the dropped folder.
How do you rename a catalog?
Click the catalog item in the Workspace browser until its name highlights. Then, enter the new name.
How do you add items to a catalog?
- Open the catalog and drop new items from another browser
[ OR ]
- Click the main Catalogs icon in the Workspace, to expand your view of all existing catalogs, then drop items onto any catalog.
How do you add a folder to a catalog?

How do you delete items from a catalog?
To add a folder to a catalog, open the catalog and then choose "Create Folder" from the "Browser" menu.

To delete items from a catalog, select the items and then press the Delete key.
How do you delete an entire catalog?
1.) Select one or more catalogs in the Workspace browser.
2.) Press the Delete key, or choose "Delete Selected" from the "Browser" menu.
3.) A warning dialog appears. In this dialog, choose one of the following:
- Click "Cancel" to cancel the delete operation.
- Click "Delete Files" to delete aliases and associated files from disk.
- Click "Delete Aliases" to delete only the aliases and not the associated files.
- This operation cannot be undone.
How do you assign a track to multiple outputs using an Avid Workspace?
1.) Assign a main output path by choosing the desired output using the "Assign" section of your Avid Worksurface.
2.) In the "Modifier" Key section of your Avid Worksurface, press CTRL and select an additional output path using the Assign section of your Avid Worksurface.
When assigning multiple outputs, what does a + indicate?

What does a * indicate?

Where else would your multiple output assignments be displayed?
+ indicates that the track has multiple output assignments.

* indicates that one or more currently assigned outputs are inactive.

In the Output Selector menu, all currently assigned track outputs are checked to indicate they are active for the current track.
To import tracks or their attributes..
1.) Open or create a new session.
2.) Do one of the following:
- OPTION+SHIFT+I, then select the Pro Tools session to import data from ad click OPEN.
- Drag the Pro Tools session whose tracks or attributes you want to import from a DigiBase browser to the current session.
- Drag a Pro Tools session onto an existing track to overlay or overwrite data on the target tracks. Hold SHIFT while dragging if you want to replace the current track playlists with those being imported.
- Press the "Import Session Data" button on your Avid Worksurface.
What happens if you drag and drop a session into the Audio Regions List?
It imports all of the regions from that session (without importing tracks).
When the Import Session Data dialog appears, what options are you given for importing the track (and possible destination tracks) in the current session?
None: neither the source track nor any of its attributes are imported.

New Track: The source track and all attributes selected in the Session Data To Import menu are imported into a new track in the current session.

Destination Track Names: The names of possible destination tracks in the current session are listed at the bottom of the pop-up. Imported playlists and all attributes selected in the Session Data To Import will be placed in the destination track you choose.
When importing a track, what is the difference between "Replacing Track Attributes" and "Replacing Track Path Names"?
Replacing Track Attributes replaces the corresponding attribute in the destination track, while Replacing Track Path Names will choose to not import any custom path names or I/O configurations.
When importing tracks, what are your choices for how you want to import the source tracks?
Import-Replace Existing Playlists

Import-Overlay New On Existing Playlists

Do Not Import
How do you Import Audio track playlists (with their Regions and Media) into an existing session?
1.) Drag the source import session from the Workspace browser into your destination session.
2.) In the "Import Session Data" dialog, click the "Match Tracks" button.
3.) In the "Track Data To Import" menu, choose "None".
4.) In the "Main Playlists Options" section, choose "Import - Replace Existing Playlists". Then, click OK.
How do you Import Channel Strips only into an existing session?
1.) Drop the source import session from the Workspace browser into your destination session.
2.) In the "Import Session Data" dialog, click "Match Tracks".
3.) In the "Track Data To Import" menu, choose "All", then deselect both "Alternate Playlists" and "Regions And Media".
4.) In the Main Playlists Options section, choose "Do Not Import", and click OK.
To import markers/memory locations and window configurations into an open Pro Tools session:
1.) Choose a source session and then open the "Import Session Data" dialog.
2.) At the bottom of the dialog, enable the "Markers/Memory Locations" and "Window Configurations" boxes as desired and hit OK.
Window Configuration List Shortcuts!

- Open/close the Window Configuration List?
- Create new or overwrite an existing Window Configuration?
- Recalling a Window Configuration?
- Toggle between the current and last recalled Window Configuration?
To open/close the Window Configuration List, COMMAND+OPTION+J

To create new or overwrite an existing Window Configuration, on the numeric keypad, type (.) a number (+)

To recall a Window Configuration, on the numeric keypad, press (.) a number (*)

To toggle between the current and last recalled Window Configuration, on the numeric keypad, press (.) 0 (*)
What general properties can be found in the Memory Locations window? As in, the properties you'd be saving memory locations for.
- Zoom Settings
- Pre/Post Roll Times
- Track Show/Hide
- Track Heights
- Group Enables
- Window Configuration
What is Downmixing?
The process of taking a multi-channel surround mix and combining the channels to create a compatible mix for formats with fewer channels.
What is an Lt/Rt Mix?

How is this usually achieved?
Stands for "Left-Total/Right-Total." A two channel, stereo-compatible mix from which an element of surround can be derived with use of a suitable decoder (Dolby Pro Logic or Dolby Stereo).

This is typically achieved by phase shifting the Ls and Rs channels by +90 degrees and -90 degrees respectively and reducing their levels by -3dB (broadcast) or -6dB (film) and summing into their respective L and R channels.
What is a Lo/Ro Mix?
Stands for "Left-Only/Right-Total." A two channel, stereo compatible mix from which an element of surround cannot be derived using a decoder.

Typically achieved by reducing the level of the Ls and Rs channels by -3dB (broadcast) or -6dB (film) and summing into the respective L and R channels with no phase shift. The center channel is typically reduced by -3dB and summed into both the L and R channels.
What is an M & E Mix?

What's another name for it?
A discrete, dedicated mix of Music and Effects without dialog, created for exporting a mix of a TV or film project to a foreign market. Then, they can do overdubs in any language they want.

Also referred to as Mix Minus Dialog.
What is a D & E Mix?

What's another name for it?
Similar to an M & E mix, the D & E mix is a discrete, dedicated mix of Dialog and Effects, created for the purpose of re-versioning with different music for foreign markets due to music licensing issues.

Also referred to as Mix Minus Music.
What is a Pre-Mix or Pre-Dub?
The process of mixing and combining similar track elements to simplify the final mix.

Typically, individual Pre-Mix Stems are made for Dialog, Music, and Effects.

Pre-Mixed tracks remain largely unprocessed and separate to maintain flexibility during the Final Mix.
What are Stems?
Finished, submixed (summed) channels of audio which can be monitored separately and later combined to represent the final post-production audio mix. They provide flexibility for revisions.
What are Dipped or Un-Dipped Stems?

Which of these is better for foreign market versions?
Dipped Stems include any post-fader dynamic level changes between the discrete Dialog, Music, and Effects mixes, whereas Un-Dipped Stems do not.

Un-dipped are better for foreign market versions since a compressor can be keyed from the dialog to duck the music when dialog is present, whereas with Dipped Stems this would create inconsistent results when gain reduction is applied.
What is a Dub Stage?
The room or studio in which Final Mixes (and usually Pre-Mixes) take place. It simulates the listening environment that an actual audience experiences at a movie theater. TV programs are usually mixed in a smaller room called a Dubbing Suite.
What is a Re-Recording Mixer?
The individual or team who carry out the Final Mix of the production.
Within Pro Tools, the signal flow for a post-production mix session usually progresses as follows...
Starting at your session file..

Production and Post-Production Audio Tracks --> Routed into Corresponding Aux Input (Sub-Master) Stem Outputs --> A Pre-Mix of the Stems is created to prepare the audio for the final dub stage mix --> All Pre-Mix Stems are summed thru a single Stem Mix Aux Track for the flexibility of adding pre-fader inserts before the Master Fader --> Aux Track Stem Mix routed into Master Fader Mix Outputs --> Final Composite Mix Output Through the Audio Interface Outputs --> Multi-Channel Output Mix (5.1 surround and stereo (Lt-Rt).
In Post-Production Mix Signal Flow, what Various Printmaster Formats are available for Film, Television, and DVD?

More importantly, which one is NOT available?
Film: Stereo, Dolby (5.1 and 7.1), DTS (5.1 and 6.1), and SDDS 7.1.

TV: LtRt Dolby (2-4 channel), Dolby 5.1, or Dolby EX 6.1

DVD: LtRt Dolby (2-4 channel), Dolby 5.1, or DTS 5.1

Quad is NOT an option.
How do you enable a single automation parameter for a plug-in?

How do you enable ALL automation parameters for a plug-in?
For a single one, COMMAND+CTRL+OPTION-click the automation parameter in the plug-in window and choose "Enable Automation".

To enable all of them, COMMAND+CTRL+OPTION-click the plug-in window AUTO button. [ OR ] In the mixing Preference page, enable Plug In Controls Default To Auto Enabled before inserting the plug-in.
To display any write-enabled plug-in control or other automatable control in a new automation lane in the edit window...
CTRL+COMMAND-click on the corresponding control.
How do you switch an EQ 3 frequency control to Band-Pass mode?
CTRL+SHIFT and drag an rotary control or control point horizontally or vertically.
When using EQ 3, what happens if you SHIFT-click the Gain control or the corresponding EQ colored dot?
It inverts the Gain setting.
When using EQ3, what happens when you CTRL-drag the corresponding EQ colored dot?
It increases/decreases the Q setting.
AUTOMATION!

Name and explain all of your "Write to" automation choices. (There are seven of them!)
Write To All: Writes the current settings of ALL currently writing mixer/plug-in parameters from the current time to the end of the timeline selection (if no selection is made, it goes to the session end).

Write To End: Writes the current settings of all currently writing mixer/plug-in parameters from the current time to the end of the timeline selection (or end of the session, if no selection is made).

Write To Start: Writes the current settings of all currently writing mixer/plug-in parameters from the current time to the START of the timeline selection (or beginning of the session if there's no selection).

Write To Next: Writes the current settings of all currently writing mixer/plug-in parameters from the current time to the next automation breakpoint on each automation playlist.

Write To Punch: Writes the current settings of all currently writing mixer/plug-in parameters from the current time back to the point that they began writing.

Write To Current: Writes the setting(s) of the currently displayed automation playlist(s) within the edit selection (1 parameter can be written per track).

Write To All Enabled: Writes the current settings of all automation parameters within the current edit selection, except for parameters types that are disabled in the Automation Window.
Which "Write To" automation commands are considered as automation playlist edit commands and are unaffected by track automation modes?
Write To Current and Write To All Enabled.
What are the keyboard shortcuts for the following "Write To" commands?

- Write To Current?
- Write To All Enabled?
Write To Current: COMMAND+/

Write To All Enabled: COMMAND+OPTION+/
What's the deal with Preview Mode?
When Preview mode is active, mixer or plug-in automation plays back as normal. However, as soon as you touch any control, that parameter becomes "isolated" from its automation. The parameter will not play back or write automation, and will remain un-automated until you exit Preview mode or invoke one of the Write commands.
How do you switch Preview Mode on and off?
- In the Automation Window via the "PREVIEW" button
[ OR ]
- In the AUTOMATION > ACTIONS Soft Key page on ICON worksurfaces.
What is Trim Automation?
The Trim Automation modes allow you to adjust the overall level of existing fader and send volume automation without losing your original moves. When writing automation in Trim mode, fader moves write relative instead of absolute values.
What can be said about colors in Trim Automation?

(What's the equation?)
Trim automation is displayed in Yellow and modifies the main Volume automation (black) to produce the audible result which is indicated in Blue.

So, Yellow + Black = Blue.
When using Trim Automation modes, what are the conditions for when automation trimming starts? (for each)
Read Trim: Automation play ONLY mode. When playback begins, trimming can be auditioned but nothing is written.

Touch Trim: Trimming starts when volume or send level controls are modified.

Latch Trim: Trimming starts when volume or send level controls are modified (although can be pre-armed if Latch Prime in Stop mode is enabled).

Touch/Latch Trim: Trimming starts when volume or send level controls are modified.

Write Trim: Volume and send level trimming starts immediately at playback, using the current delta value.
When using Trim Automation modes, what are the conditions for when automation trimming ends? (for each)
Read Trim: N/A

Touch Trim: Trimming stops when a modified control is released, with the parameter returning to the previous Trim value based on the AutoMatch Time preference.

Latch Trim: Trimming stops for all modified parameters when playback stops.

Touch/Latch Trim: Volume trimming stops as per Touch Mode; Send Level behaves as in Latch mode.

Write Trim: Volume and send level trimming stops when playback stops.
What are your choices for Coalescing Trim Automation?
After Every Pass: Trim moves are automatically applied to the main automation playlist as soon as the transport is stopped at the end of an automation pass.

On Exiting Trim Mode: Trim moves are stored in the Trim automation playlist until you take the track out of Trim mode. The Trim automation playlist can be modified and edited until you exit Trim mode, at which point it is applied to the main automation playlist.

Manually: Trim moves are stored in the Trim automation playlist until being committed with the Coalesce Trim Automation command (Track > Coalesce Trim Automation). The Trim automation playlist can be modified and edited until being manually coalesced.
How do you clear Trim Automation from a track?
Right-click on the Track name in the Edit or Mix windows, then choose "Clear Trim Automation".
How do you Coalesce Trim Automation to the main Automation playlists on a track?
Right-click on the Track name in the Edit or Mix windows and choose "Coalesce Trim Automation".
What are your Stereo Pan Depth Options?
-2.5: Old standard.

-3.0: Industry standard for surround mixers and many consoles. Default for new sessions in PT 8.1 or later.

-4.5: Standard for many British analog consoles.

-6.0: Standard for full mono capability.
** To display the Machine Track Arming window..
Choose Window > Machine Track Arming
[ OR, if you're a badass.. ]
COMMAND+Numeric 6
On the Machine Track Arming window, what Protocol options are you given?
Auto Edit: If you make a selection and hit Record and Play, the deck will record for that duration.

Punch In/Out: Lets you punch in and out on the flyyy, blood.
On the Machine Track Arming window, what Mode options are you given?
Insert: Lets you insert audio onto the video tape.

Assemble: SCARY. Erases everything except for what you're recording onto it. Pretty much only useful for making a new tape.
To ensure Avid compatibility... (annoyingly long list)
- Audio files will be exported with an OMF wrapper (unless you choose MXF)
- Exported regions will be padded to the nearest frame boundaries.
- File type is limited to AIFF, BWF (.WAV), and MXF.
- Bit-Depth is limited to 16- or 24-bit.
- Sample rate is limited to 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz.
- Format is limited to (Multiple) Mono.
- When you Bounce to Disk, Convert After Bounce is forced.
- All automation is removed from the export.
** When you export OMFI/AAF media from Pro Tools, what three export methods are available?
- Export Regions as File as OMF
- Bounce to Disk as OMF
- Export Selected Tracks as OMF/AAF
When exporting regions as files, what key commands allow you to select contiguous or non-contiguous regions?
Contiguous: Shift-click

Non-Contiguous: COMMAND-Click.
To export OMFI/MXF audio using Bounce To Disk... (2 options)
- FILE > BOUNCE TO > DISK
- COMMAND+OPTION+B
What does "Quantize Edits to Frame Boundaries" entail?
When enabled, this setting allows DigiTranslator to export your sample-accurate Pro Tools edits into an OMFI/AAF file so they appear as frame-accurate.
What setting will automatically select the "Quantize Edits To Frame Boundaries" export option?
Enforce Avid Compatibility.
Can Pro Tools import OMFI/AAF video?

Can it export it?
Although Pro Tools can import OMFI/AAF video, it cannot export it.
** When bouncing to QuickTime, when do you get the additional "Options" menu?

(Also, how can you do it the ninja way without an Avid video track?)
When it's an Avid video track.

(Ninja style: Hold the POWERCLAW when you go to bounce!)
What kind of systems can use the "Bounce To Windows Media Audio" option?
Windows systems. Derrrr.
**From the Pro Tools Audio Export Options chart..

For the following Export Functions, name the audio file options with Enforce Avid Compatibility enabled.

- Bounce to Disk?
- Export Selected Tracks as OMF?
- Export Selected Tracks as AAF?
- Export Regions as Files?
Bounce to Disk: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, MXF

Export Selected Tracks as OMF: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, Embedded

Export Selected Tracks as AAF: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, Embedded, MXF

Export Regions as Files: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, MXF
**From the Pro Tools Audio Export Options chart..

For the following Export Functions, name the audio file options with Enforce Avid Compatibility DISabled.

- Bounce to Disk?
- Export Selected Tracks as OMF?
- Export Selected Tracks as AAF?
- Export Regions as Files?
Bounce to Disk: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, MP3, QuickTime, Windows Media

Export Selected Tracks as OMF: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, Embedded

Export Selected Tracks as AAF: BWF (.WAV), AIFF, Embedded

Export Regions as Files: SDII, BWF (.WAV), AIFF, MP3, QuickTime, Windows Media
** When outputting an audio mix from Pro Tools to a linear video deck using 9-pin control, what hardware connections are necessary?
- 9-pin port on video deck is connected to 9-pin port 1 or 2 on SYNC Peripheral (or other supported port)
- Video deck is set to remote mode (also make sure the tape is not write protected)
- LTC Out of video deck is connected to the LTC IN of the SYNC Peripheral (optional if using Serial Time Code for the Positional Reference)
- NTSC or PAL Blackburst (House Sync) is connected to both your video deck and SYNC Peripheral VIDEO REF (necessary if using Serial TC so Pro Tools can lock to the frame edge).
- Main stereo mix outs (usually A 1-2) from the Pro Tools audio interface are routed to audio inputs 1-2 of your video deck.
** What is the difference between Insert and Assemble in the Machine Track Arm window?
Insert: Used to punch in on individual tracks and allows you to replace audio but retain the video.

Assemble: Records over EVERYTHING. Flies you into the danger zone.
** What is the difference between Auto Edit and Punch In/Out in the Machine Track Arm window?
Auto Edit: Deck controls the punch. Records within your selection's boundaries. Frame accurate.

Punch In/Out: Pro Tools controls the punch. Records when you hit punch, meaning, it'll be delayed. Therefore, you don't have guaranteed frame-accuracy.
** What is the difference between an AAF versus an OMF file export from Pro Tools?
AAF exporting: Recommended, and the newer of the two. Retains region names, time code placement, volume and pan automation data.

OMF exporting: Should only be used for exports to systems that don't support AAF. Only retains time code addresses, region names and definitions.
** What File Type options in the Bounce To Disk dialog are the most commonly used ones for post production?
OMFI/MXF.
When using the export option, Export Selected Tracks as OMF/AAF, what does the option, "Quantize Edits To Frame Boundaries" do when enabled?
When enabled, it allows DigiTranslator to export your sample-accurate edits into an OMFI/AAF file so they appear as frame-accurate.
*** Which of the following is not an available SYNC I/O clock source option?

A. SYNC
B. VITC
C. Word Clock
D. Internal
B. VITC.
*** Which of the following is NOT an available time scale in the Spot Dialog?

A. Time Code
B. Bars|Beats
C. Sub-Frames
D. Feet+Frames
C. Sub-Frames.
*** Which of the following is not true concerning the "Auto Spot Regions" command?

A. Must be used with VITC or Serial Timecode to be reliable
B. Works with Trim mode
C. Can be done based on a present sync point
D. Auto edits any extra space off of regions before spotting
Auto Edits any extra space off of regions before spotting.
*** Which of the following is NOT a valid method for toggling between Pro Tools and Machine Transport Options?

A. ALT+\ (Windows), OPTION+\ (Mac)
B. CTRL+\ (Windows), COMMAND+\ (Mac)
C. Press "Machine Online" on an Avid Worksurface
D. Both B and C
A. ALT+\ (Windows), OPTION+\ (Mac)
*** What is the international standard frame rate for film projects?
24 FPS.
*** Which of the following have no machine control shortcut key?

A. Toggle Transport Master
B. Frame Bump Forward/Backward
C. Cue To Selection Start/End
D. Enable/Disable deck remote move
D. Enable/disable deck remote move.
*** The DigiDesign SYNC I/O does not contain which of the following connectors?
A. Word Clock In/Out
B. AES In/Out
C. S/PDIF In/Out
D. Loop Sync In/Out
C. S/PDIF In/Out.
*** The Host Serial Port on the rear panel of an Avid SYNC Peripheral should be connected to...
The Core Card!
*** Which of the following is not a valid method for showing/hiding the video window?

A. Window > Video
B. COMMAND Focus Key V
C. COMMAND+[9]
D. Both B and C
B. Press COMMAND focus key V
*** Which of the following 9-Pin machine control connection types is not supported by Windows Pro Tools systems?
A. Keyspan USB-Serial Adapter
B. COM1 Port
C. COM2 Port
D. SYNC 9-Pin Out 2
A. Keyspan USB-Serial Adapter.
*** In the "Import Session Data" dialog, which of the following timecode mapping options allows you to offset the original timecode of the imported file?

A. Maintain Relative Timecode Values
B. Maintain Absolute Timecode Values
C. Map Start Timecode To
D. Both A and C
D. Both A and C
*** To achieve an accurate current time, in the Spot dialog you should:
use VITC or enable "Use Serial Timecode for Positional Reference".
*** Which of the following is NOT a way to enable a plug-in control for automation?

A. COMMAND+CTRL+OPTION-click the parameter in the plug-in window (Mac)
B. COMMAND+CTRL-click the parameter in the plug-in window (Mac)
C. CTRL+START+ALT-click (Windows)
D. Both A and C
B. COMMAND+CTRL-click (Mac)
*** The option for "Automation Follows Edit" can be found under which menu?

A. Region
B. Window
C. Setup
D. Option
D. Option
*** All of the following are ways to suspend automation, except:

A. COMMAND-click (Mac) on the track's Automation Selector in the Edit window
B. Click "Suspend" in the automation window
C. Click "Off" on the automation button under your track name
D. COMMAND-click (Mac) on the Track Display View Selector
A. COMMAND-click (Mac) on the track's Automation Selector in the Edit window
*** Where do you go to choose a Delay Compensation setting?

A. Playback Engine
B. Options
C. Session Setup
D. Edit
A. Playback Engine
*** When using the Smart Tool, placing the cursor in the top half of the track accesses what tool?
Selector
*** What is the quick key to select from the cursor to the end of the session?
OPTION+SHIFT+RETURN
*** Which of the following is NOT an option for entering a time code number in the user stamp dialog?

A. Enter the numbers manually from the keyboard
B. Click the "Current Time Code" to capture the incoming timecode address and enter it in
C. Use a memory location number
D. Click the "Current Selection" to enter the current selection start number from the Selection Start indicator box
C. Use a memory location number
*** Which of the following track types can be locked?

A. Video
B. MIDI
C. Audio
D. A and C
A. Video
*** When all SYNC devices are playing back or recording using the same common clock and positional references, the system is referred to as a...
Resolved system.
*** What is the technical specification name for 9-pin?
RS-422.
*** All of the following options can be found in the Strip Silence window except:

A. Rename
B. Separate
C. Extract
D. Smooth
D. Smooth
*** The "Identify Sync Point" command can be found in the:

A. Event Menu
B. Region Menu
C. Option Menu
D. Edit Menu
B. Region Menu
*** The timecode number sent from an external video deck that is displayed at the top of the Spot dialog is known as the:
Current Timecode.
*** An HD2|Accel system or greater is capable of a maximum of how many simultaneous voices?
192.
*** Which of the following commands is not found under the Edit menu?

A. Cut Special
B. Copy Special
C. Paste Special
D. Clear Special
E. Move Special
E. Move Special
*** Which of the following is not a clock source option on any Pro Tools I/O interface?

A. ADAT
B. Internal
C. Pilot Tone
D. TDIF
E. AES/EBU
C. Pilot Tone
*** When using Pro Tools Machine Control, which of the following is never a transport option in the Machine Transport pop-up menu (located in the transport window)?

A. Pro Tools
B. LTC
C. MMC
D. Machine
E. Remote
B. LTC
*** The Strip Silence window can be accessed from which menu?
Edit.
*** When importing an Avid sequence containing a video mixdown into Pro Tools, how many new video tracks would appear in the timeline?

A. 1 track
B. 2 tracks
C. 3 tracks
D. Not enough information
B. 2 tracks
*** What is the focus key shortcut to snap a selection region's sync point to incoming timecode?
U
*** Which of the following is a playback engine option?

A. RTAS Processors and CPU Usage Limit
B. CPU Usage Limit
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
C. Both A and B
*** Which of the following does NOT appear in the View > Region menu?

A. Current Time
B. Original Time Stamp
C. User Time Stamp
D. Track Number
E. No Time
D. Track Number
*** Which of the following can be stored in a memory location?

A. Group enables
B. Comments
C. Pre and Post Roll Times
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
*** To make identical selections across multiple tracks, ___ on each additional track with the Selector tool.
SHIFT-click.
*** An RTAS plug-in will consume 2 additional voices per channel (1 voice for input and 1 voice for output) under which of the following conditions?

A. When inserted on an Aux input
B. When inserted on a Master fader
C. When inserted on an instrument track that doesn't contain an instrument plug-in
D. When inserted after a TDM plug-in on any kind of track
E. All of the above
E. All of the above
*** When using a Canopus transcoder in Pro Tools, how many quarter frames of offset is necessary for NTSC?
22 frames.
*** If you have a region highlighted, what does CTRL-tab do?
Selects the next region.
*** Which of the following does NOT appear in the View > Region menu?

A. Rating
B. Sync Point
C. Original Time Stamp
D. Tape Source
D. Tape Source
*** What video file format is always used by Pro Tools when digitizing video into the timeline?
MXF.
*** Which of the following is NOT a valid method for renaming video files on the hard disk?

A. Renaming on a DigiBase browser
B. Renaming in the region list
C. Renaming in Windows Explorer
D. Renaming in Mac Finder
B. Renaming in the region list
*** The key command that can be used to batch replace multiple instances of the same selected region with a new region from the regions list is:
COMMAND+SHIFT-drag (Mac)
*** When using the Sonic NoNoise Broadband Denoising plug-in, the parameter that shows you to raise or lower the overall amount of noise reduction is called the:
Attentuation.
*** During a dub stage final mix, all of the following might occur EXCEPT:

A. Final EQ, reverb, compression, and other effects are added
B. Track levels and panning within the available surround channels are set
C. Major mixing decisions involving the director, producer, etc.
D. Tracks are premixed and similar tracks are combined together
D. Tracks are premixed and similar tracks are combined together
*** The name of the most commonly used record mode for laying back audio to a tape while leaving pre-existing picture and timecode intact is called:
Insert mode.
*** When bouncing audio to a new movie, Pro Tools only supports bouncing to...
Quicktime.
*** The most common international film frame rate is:
24 FPS.
*** What is the focus key shortcut to snap a selection region's start to the incoming timecode?
Y
*** What video file format is always used by Pro Tools when digitizing video into the timeline?
MXF.
*** Which of the following is NOT a common printmaster format output from a dub stage?

A. LtRt Dolby 2-4 channel
B. Quadraphonic
C. Dolby 7.1
D. SDDS 7.1
B. Quadraphonic
*** When exporting audio using AAF, which of the following is NOT true when "Avid Compatibility" is enabled?

A. Bit depth is limited to 16-bit
B. Exported regions will be padded to the nearest frame boundaries
C. All automation is removed from the export
D. When you bounce to disk, Convert After Bounce is forced
A. Bit depth is limited to 16-bit
*** Which of the following is NOT a valid OMFI/AAF export method from Pro Tools?

A. Export Regions as File as OMF
B. Bounce to Disk as OMF
C. Export tracks as MXF
D. Export Selected Tracks as OMF/AAF
C. Export tracks as MXF