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46 Cards in this Set

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Canadian Shield
First part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level
Incas
Francisco Pizarro 1532-
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present day Peru, until they were conquered by Spanish forces. They developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming in order to sustain large complex societies in the unforgiving Andres Mountains.
Aztecs
Heran Cortes-
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521 when they were conquered. they maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade & tribure & came to be known for their advances in math & writing & their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies
nation-states
the form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethic & cultral unity
Cahokia
Mississippian settlement near present-day East St.Louis, home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans
three-sister farming
Agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 100 A.D ; maize, beans, & squash were grown together to maximize yields
middlemen
In trading systems those dealers who operated between the original producers of goods & the retail merchants who sell to consumers.
caravel
Small regular vessel with a high deck & 3 triangualur sails. they could sail more closely into the wind, alluring european sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa previously made in accesible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey.
plantation
Large- scale agricultral enterprise growing commerical crops & usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of goods, crops, & diseases between the New & Old world societies after 1492.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Signed by Spain & Portugal, dividing territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of territory in the Americas. Compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa & Asia
conquistadores
16th century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec & Incan Empires
capitalism
Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, & open & accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas
encomienda
Spanish government's policy to "commend" or give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies & on the North American mainland
noche triste
the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes & his forces in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, killing hundreds. Cortes laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the fall of the Aztec Empire & inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule
mestizos
Indian & European mix, in Mexico
Battle of Acoma
1599, the Spanish severed one foot of each survivor. They proclaimed the area to be the province of New Mexico in 1609 & founded it's capital at Santa Fe the following year .
Pope's Rebellion
Pueblo Indian rebellion which drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico
Black Legend
False notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians & steal their gold in the name of Christ
Ferdinand of Aragon
the king of Castile and Aragon who ruled jointly with his wife his marriage in 1469 marked the beginning of the modern state of Spain ; they supported the expedition of Christopher Columbus in 1492
Isabella of Castile
the queen of Castile whose in 1469 marked the beginning of the modern state of Spain; they instituted the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 and sponsored the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Francisco Coronado
Spanish explorer of the North American Southwest
Fransisco Pizarro
Conquered the Incans
Hernan Cortes
Conquered the Aztecs
Malinche ( Dona Marina)
Female indian slave who knew both Mayan & Nahuatl. Her name was given as "malinchista" or traitor
Montezuma
Last ruler of the Aztecs
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)
Explored the northeastern coast of North America in 1497 & 1498
Bartolome de Las Casa
Appalled by the encomienda system in Hispaniola, called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Robert de La Salle
Expedition down the Mississippi River. Sent by the French
Father Junipero Serra
Founded at San Diego the first of a chain of twenty-one missions
The form of society in which family line,power, & wealth are passed primarily through the female side
matrilinear
Concerning the earliest origin of things
primeval
an alliance or league of nations or peoples looser than a federation
confederacy
were divided into many diverse cultures speaking more than two thousand different languages
The Indian peoples of the Americas
Which of the following was not among the anicent Indian cultures established in North America prior to 1300 A.D
The Incas
One of the important factors that first stimulated European interest in trade & discovery was
the Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia
Among the most important American Indian products or discoveries to spread to the Old World were
foodstuffs such as corn, beans, and tomatoes.
The primary staples of Indian agriculture before the European arrival were
corn, beans, and squash
The number of Indians in North America, was approx.
20 million
Even before the discovery of the Americas, Portugal became the first nation to enter the slave trade & establish large-scale plantations using slave labor in
the sugar islands off the coast of Africa
Much of the impetus for Spanish exploration and pursuit of glory in the early 1500s came from Spain's recent
national unification and expulsion of the Muslim Moors.
A crucial political development that paved the way for the European colonization of America was the
rise of the centralized national monarchies such as those of Spain, Portugal, and France
The primary reason for the drastic decline in the Indian population after the encounter with the Europeans was the
Indians' lack of reistance to European diseases such as smallpox & malaria
The flood of gold and silver from Spain's New World Empire into Europe after 1500 played a large role in the
rise of capitalism and modern merchant banking
Wealthy & populous capital of the Aztec empire
Tenochtitlan