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100 Cards in this Set

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When Islam arose, who were peripheral to the Byzantine and Persian empires?

B. arabs

Critical of the polytheistic religion of his fellow arabs, Muhammad had all the idols destroyed, however he preserved the Kaaba. Which of the following supports the reason for this preservation?

A. it is the islamic world's symbolic center

what was the Hegira?

B. Muhammad's flight from Mecca

How is interior architectural space defined in the muslim world?

A. by having no interior walls

It is said muslims worship Allah directly without a hierarchy of clergy acting as intermediaries. However during communal gatherings, the imam would stand on a stepped pulpit or...

D. minbar

The coming of a new religion to Jerusalem, a city sacred to both Jews and Christians, is marked by a monument known as the...

C. Dome of the Rock

The vault in the Hall of the Two Sisters is meant to symbolize...

A. the dome of heaven

Sinan was born a Christian, converted to Islam, then trained in engineering and the art of building while still in the army. He was also court architect to Suleyman the magnificent. Which of the following was his greatest achievement?

C. Mosque of Selin II

The Mshatta Palace, never completed, has a rich ornamental frieze with animal figures appearing on some of the triangles. However no animal figures appear on the facade that correspond to the mosque's qibla wall. Why is the animal figuration absent from this section of the frieze?

D. the representation of fauna in a sacred place is prohibited

The mihrab is a semicircular niche set in the qibla wall; its specific purpose is still being debated. Some scholars have suggested the mihrab is referencing Muhammad. Which of the following best supports this suggestion?

A. it honored the place Muhammad stood when leading communal worship

What could account for the similarity in design of the stamp seals of the Indus valley Civilization and contemporaneous sites in Mesopotamia?

B. Mesopotamians moved to the indus valley

The Indus Valley civilization arose in...

B. Pakistan

To date, what has not been discovered in the Indus Valley?

A. palace or temple architecture

The small seal discovered at Mohenjo-daro reveals an interesting iconography. Which of the following depictions from that seal supports the Indian practice of meditation?

B. figures is in a suggested yogic posture

The Aryans, a mobile herding people, came to India from...

D. central asia

Which of the following was among the innovative ideas of the Upanishads?

C. belief in an endless round of rebirths

The Aryan religion centered on sacrifice and ritual enactment. Which of the following would be part of the ritual practice?

A. fire

Gandhara, a religion largely in Pakistan today and close to the Afghanistan border, was home to the Kushan Dynasty and had a rich hellenized culture. Which of the following would explain that association?

A. legacy of Alexander the Great

The pillars of Ashoka go deep into the ground, connecting the earth to the sky. It can be said that they form which of the following?

D. the axis of the universe

Kanishka struck coins with images of Buddha, various Hindu deities, Greco-Roman deities, and portraits of himself. Which of the following was the model for these coins?

C. roman coins

Which of the following was the unifying characteristic of the regional dynasties of South Asian in the third through first centuries BCE?

C. patronage of buddhism

A yakshi is the personification for which of the following?

A. fertility and vegetation

The Aryans composed a compilation of religious learning that included hymns for the priests to sing or chant. In which of the following languages were the Vedas written?

A. Sanskrit

Which of the following is a Buddhist monastery?

D. Sanchi

The pillar of Ashoka with its lion capital shows a strong influence coming from which of the following groups?

A. Achaemenids

One explanation for the sexually explicit images at Khajuraho relates them to which of the following?

A. fertility and the propagation of life

For more than four centuries successive Khmer kings worked on the grand complex of temples and palaces at this site, and each king built a temple mountain dedicated to his personal god.

A. Angkor Wat, Cambodia

The caves of Ajanta are famed for which of the following?

B. early Indian painting tradition

A chaitya hall would most likely be found in which of the following?

A. a sculptured buddhist cave temple

The profusion of sexually amorous couples in Indian art indicates which of the following?

D. spiritual favor and prosperity

The Yangshao Culture is recognized for its...

B. pottery

During the 1928 excavations at Anyang, fragmentary records and a large number of goods were discovered which provided information regarding their rulers. Included among the discoveries were pounded earthen walls that provided protection for the city. Which of the following was also learned as a consequence of this excavation and discovery?

A. revealed a warlike, highly stratified society

In Shang bronze vessels the external embellishment is an integral part of the vessel. Which of the following could also describe Shang bronze vessel work?

D. multiple designs and fields are fully integrated with the vessel form

Many Shang bronze vessels were used for rituals and the shape of the vessel matched its function in the ritual. Therefore it can be said that the fabulous animal shape is not purely decorative. Which of the following supports this statement?

B. each fabulous animal shape connected with the world of spirits in the ritual

One of the scenes from the Wu Family Shrine shows robed men bearing gifts and paying homage to a figure, identity uncertain. This figure is represented as larger than the others figures. What can be interpreted from this image?

A. the size of the figure describes his importance

The Great Wall of China was constructed as a defense against the nomadic peoples of the north, in particular the...

D. huns

During the Six Dynasties, Buddhism arrived in China. The oldest Chinese Buddhist texts describe Buddha as golden and radiating light. The Shakyamuni Buddha of the Six Dynasties is the first precisely datable Chinese Buddhist image. Which of the following is the medium used for this image?

A. gilded bronze

Yan Liben's 'the thirteen emperors' depict thirteen chinese rulers from the han to the sui dynasties. Its purpose was to portray these individuals as exemplars of moral and political virtue. Which of the following would explain this role of moral and political virtue?

B. the confucian ideal of learning from the past

The broad range of subject matter, such as musicians on camel or Semitic traders, can be found in the ceramic figural tradition of which of the following?

D. tang

Emperor Huizong, an accomplished artist was more interested in the arts than in governing. He recognized the imperial academy of painting and required the study of poetry and calligraphy as part of the official training program for court artists. Which of the following would also be included in the curriculum?

C. study of the classical art of earlier periods

The earliest distinct culture to develop in Japan was...

D. Jomon

In the Yayoi period there was increased interaction with ... and ...

B. China and Korea

The tumuli of the Kofun recall the earlier burial mounds of the Jomon and their funeral practices. Which of the following could describe this Jomon practice?

D. placing the dead on sacred mountains

Although the Kofun tombs contained many grave objects, including bronze mirrors from China, it is thought, based on the tomb's form and many of the grave gods, the tombs show a closer relationship with which country?

B. Korea

Who is the deity associated with the Ise Shrine?

C. Amaterasu

The central figure from the Shaka trial is the historical Buddha; he is presented in a trans historical guise. Which of the following phrases supports this statement?

A. presented as having achieved a higher state of being

According to the traditional interpretation, the Korean ruler of Paekche sent to the ruler of Japan a gilded bronze statue of Buddha and Buddhist scriptures, sutras. Which period marks this event?

C. Asuka

The Ise Shrine is ritually rebuild ever...

D. twenty years

"Buddhist architecture in Japan adhered closely to mainland standards." Why is this statement significant?

C. because Japanese temples greatly assisted in the reconstruction of mainland temples

More direct relations and influences with China shortened the time lag between developments in China that subsequently transferred to Japan. This occurred during which of the following periods?

C. Nara

Which of the following is not part of the Mesoamerica region?

C. Bolivia

How did the division of labor affect Mesoamerican societies?

A. it created a hierarchy which formed the social organization of the societies

Which of the following would account for the unique cosmopolitan character of Teotihuacan?

A. the city's diversified populations

Which of the following has been proposed as the identity of the giant Olmec heads?

D. rulers

The Olmec carved and polished ax-shaped forms are called ...

C. celts

Which of the following would support the belief that West Mexican tombs were filled with elaborate offerings?

C. deep shafts with chambers at base

What architectural feature has been found in nearly all Mesoamerican cultures?

b. a ballcourt

Teotihuacan as well as its key pyramids are carefully oriented. Which of the following is the commonly suggested reasoning for such placement?

D. related to astronomical phenomena

What does Maya architecture signify?

D. power of the ruler

The economic base of Mesoamerican Mexico was which of the following?

d. cultivation of maize (corn)

We have a much better understanding of the chronology of Mesoamerica due to the deciphering of the writing and dating system of which of the following groups?

d. Maya

Which of the following was one of the purposes of the Maya ritual?

A. guaranteed the order of the state and the cosmos

Ceramic figures from Jania most often represented which of the following?

D. scenes from everyday life

Like most Mesoamerican cities, Teotihuacan had a mural program. One mural features a goddess, earth or nature, though to be the city's principal deity. Among the motifs ascribed to this deity are human hearts that were essential attributes in the Mesoamerican ritual of human sacrifice. Which of the following is an explanation for the ritual of human sacrifice?

A. essential to agricultural renewal

How is the Chavin horizon style now defined?

C. the culmination of developments, which began 2000 years early elsewhere

Corbelled vault construction was typical of the architecture of the...

B. Maya

Which site did the Aztec visit with a deep sense of reverence?

C. Teotihuacan

The feathered serpent is one guise of which Mesoamerican Mexican deity?

A. Quetzalcoatl

Which of the following sites is not located in south america?

C. Chichen Itza

Most extant objects from the Adena and Mississippian cultures were found in which of the following?

C. burial and temple mounds

Murals found in the prehistoric pueblos of the southwest most often depicted which of the following?

D. spirits associated with agricultural fertility

Which of the following describes the southwest kiva?

B. a large circular semi subterranean structure

Which of the following describes the Tairona pendants and their use?

c. hammered gold, meant to be worn as amulets and talismans

How did Chavin iconography spread throughout the Andean region?

A. via portable media

The earliest african sculpture in the round is from which of the following groups?

A. Nok

A 'horned headdress' on the running female from Tassili can signify which of the following?

C. ceremonial regalia

The Ile-Ife figures from the Yonuba kingdom of Owo served mainly in rituals focused on which of the following?

B. sacred kingship

Considerable literature exists today which describes, analyses, and interprets the meaning of rock art. Although precise meaning is still problematic, which of the following could be used to describe the role of the running woman from Tassili?

A. her size might indicate importance

Which of the following is the system the Benin use to record their history?

A. complex oral recitations

Which of the following is a characteristic of the Nok style in ceramic sculpture?

D. large alert eyes

What foreign stylistic influences can be seen in each of these images?

Interior, Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem (10-3) and Prayer Hall, Great Mosque Cordoba, (10-9). Each building shows a western inheritance. The dome of the rock interior with its rich mosaic ornament resembles the mausoleum of Sta. Costanza in rome and the holy sepulchre in Jerusalem. It also shows an affinity with San vitale in Ravenna. The dome of the rock is a member of that family of buildings, the domed octagon that had a long architectural history. The prayer hall interior echoes roman as well as the visigoths, who were in spain and north africa. The columns and horseshoe arches are realizations of these influences.

What is represented on this page and how is it typical of Islamic manuscripts?

Koran page with beginning of Surah 18 (10-17). This page represents five lines from the Koran. In Arabic it was common to depict consonant in black and vowels are in red. The beautiful calligraphy is typical of manuscripts since it was essential to write the worlds of the Koran in a pleasing manner. The top of the page consists of abstract ornament

How do these images reflect the essence of Shiva?

Dancing Shiva, Badami (15-17) and Shiva Nataraja (15-27). Both images illustrate the duality of nature that Hindu gods carry, creativity and destruction. The relief of Shiva dancing shows him swaying rather ponderously, his 18 arms moving in rhythm not only to the music and the dance, but also creating a rhythm as a 2-d relief sculpture. The Shiva Nataraja captures the elegance and grace of the 'lord of the dance'; the rhythm is emphasized by the curve of the standing leg and the raised leg as well as echoing in the sash

How do these two images reflect indian motifs for religious architecture?

yakshi, east gate, Great Stupa, Sanchi (15-7) and Vishvanatha Temple, Khajurabo (15-24). Both images present the idea of fertility and abundance in a visual format. They both serve as illustrations for procreation and the propagation of life thought to be auspicious for a sacred precinct.

What was the probable motivation for the creating of this sculpture?

Meditating Bodhisattva Maitreya (16-27). Buddhism took hold in Korea during the three kingdoms period, first in Koguryo and Paekche and then in the Silla kingdom. The introduction of buddhism created a demand for images of the Buddha and of bodhisattvas, the style and iconography of which were usually dependent on chinese models

How do these images reflect the Song painting tradition?

Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams (Figure 16-19) and Huizong, attrib., Auspicious Cranes (Figure 16-20). Fan Kuan's work is a fusion of the strong massive landscape and Daoist tradition. The mountains overwhelm the small human figures, yet the landscape brings the viewer to the moment of personal enlightenment, blending and melding and yielding. The attributed work of Emperor Huizong is a metaphor for his reign, cranes were considered propitious signs of heaven's blessing and hence heaven's satisfaction with Huizong's reign. This work reflects the blending of nature and elegant composition.

Contrast these two images, how are they different, and how are they alike?


Haniwa Warrior Figure (Figure 17-5) and Army of Emperor Qin, Qin Dynasty. The Haniwa figure is simple and quite whimsical when compared with the army of Emperor Qin. The Chinese figures reveal the organization of not only the Imperial army but also the Imperial workshops as well. They are individual and uniform. Both the Haniwa and the Qin figures were grave figures designed to protect the occupants.

What is this building? What are the features that demonstrate Chinese architectural styles and influences?


Kondo, Horyuji (Figure 17-9). The Kondo from the Horyuji was strongly influenced by Chinese prototypes. These influences can be seen in the roof braces and the graceful upturning lines of the roofs with their wide, overhanging eaves.


What culture created this image? Why is this scene important?


Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, Lintel 25 (Figure 18-14). Classic Maya is an important monumental relief depicting the blood-letting ceremony that celebrated the birth of a son to Shield Jaguar. The significanceis the placement of Lady Xoc in a position of consequence. She is not the mother of the child yet she is celebrating the birth with the blood-letting ritual.


What culture created this image? Where is it located? What is it thought to represent?


Colossal Head (Figure 18-2). Olmec located at La Venta, Mexico. It is now thought these colossal heads because of their individuality of facial features, head gear, and ornamentare portraits of rulers rather than deities.

What culture created this textile? What was its purpose? What was the meaning of the symbols?


(Figure 18-22). Paracas, this funerary textile was used to wrap the deceased in multiple layers. The repeated symbol is thought to represent a shaman, flying or dancing in a trance.

Explain the ideas of sacrifice that lay behind this image.


Bonampak, Maya (Figure 18-12). This scene is allowing us to see events as clearly as possible. We see public blood-letting as an integral ceremonial of Maya life and ritual. The act sought union with the underworld and provided nourishment for the gods. The artists have also given us a picture of the captives and their role in the ceremonies celebrating the new royal heir's birth.


In what country and region is this building located? What are the circular areas called, and what was their function?


Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde, Colorado (Figure 18-34). The building is located in the southwest of United States. The circular forms (foreground) are called kivas and are the spiritual and ceremonial centers of the


community.


What was the purpose of this figure?


Portrait-head shaped Vessel, Moche (Figure 18-25). This portrait bottle may depict a warrior, ruler, or retainer. The object was meant to accompany the dead owner on his journey to the afterlife.


What group created this object? What material was used and what was its purpose?


Cermonial ax in the form of a were-jaguar. (Figure 18-3). The Olmec created this ceremonial ax in the shape of a jaguar-human. It is made of jadeite. This object was buried as a votive offering under the courtyard or platform. It is thought this figure might represent the dangerous practice of transformation a means to gain and control power from the supernatural forces for the good of the community.

How does this site reflect the Mesoamerican character?

Aerial View, Teotihuacán, Mexico (Figure 18-5). This urbanized religious center supported a large and diverse population. It became a highly influential site in ancient Mexico. The grid plan reveals a logical and sophisticated understanding of urban design not repeated until the Post Classic period. The design offers a changing landscape for the population to see and perhaps incorporate into their religious practices. Teotihuacán was one of the founding cultures of ancient Mexico

From what area of what country did this mask come? How does it represent the people?


Burial Mask (Figure 18-29). Ipiutak site located at Point Hope in Alaska. The mask is composed of carefully shaped parts that are interrelated to produce several faces, both animal and human. It echoed the transformation themes found throughout the New World. It was also small and portable reflecting the nomadic lifestyle of the Eskimo.

How does this monument reflect the culture's sense of purpose?

Atlantid, Toltec, Tula, Early Post-Classic (Figure 18-22). The colossal atlantids portray armed warriors. The giant scale and simplicity of the figures are tied to the function as supports for the roof as well as a powerful psychological image for the people. The figure reinforced the military excellence of the Toltec.

How does this mosque differ from typical Middle Eastern mosques?

Aerial view of Great Mosque (Figure 19-9). The façade deviates from traditional mosques. It is punctuated by towers and strip buttresses.

How does this figure represent Ife kingship?


King, Ife (Figure 19-6). The sculptor has presented the figure of the metaphorical king, rather than a portrait of a specific individual. The regalia is complete and detailed substantiating even more the importance of the role of the king and this figure in particular.