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99 Cards in this Set

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Avians

See slide 2


Arcaheopteryx

"Giant chicken". Closest ancestor to common birds, the missing link. 140 MYA, about the size of a crow. Discovered in limestone quarry in 1861 as a reptilian skeleton with feather imprints.

"Giant chicken". Closest ancestor to common birds, the missing link. 140 MYA, about the size of a crow. Discovered in limestone quarry in 1861 as a reptilian skeleton with feather imprints.

Feather

Epidermal modifications in specific feather tracts. Adaption for flight. Aids in thrust and directional control. Are light and repairable.


Beak

Epidermal modification that is a protruding mandible covered by keratin. No teeth. Shape adapted for food source.

Epidermal modifications

Feathers, beaks, and claws.

sweat; uropygial

All birds don't have _______ glands, but some have a ___________ gland.

Uropygial gland

Dorsal tail base that secretes oily substance for cleaning and waterproofing.

Generalized bill

Type of beak. Raven

Type of beak. Raven

Seed cracker

Type of beak. Cardinal

Type of beak. Cardinal

Worm burrow probe

Type of beak. American avocet

Type of beak. American avocet

Dip net

Type of beak. Pelican

Type of beak. Pelican

Nut cracker

Type of beak. Parrot

Type of beak. Parrot

Zooplankton strainer

Type of beak. Flamingo

Type of beak. Flamingo

Digestive system of bird

Esophagus, crop, proventriculus, ventriculus, paired ceca, cloaca, vent

Crop

Storage part of the digestive system. Dilation of the esophagus

Storage part of the digestive system. Dilation of the esophagus

Proventriculus

Chemical digestion in birds. Pellet formation in species like the owl. Equivalent of true stomach

Chemical digestion in birds. Pellet formation in species like the owl. Equivalent of true stomach

Ventriculus

Gizzard. Used for grinding in bird digestion. Muscular with keratin lining.

Gizzard. Used for grinding in bird digestion. Muscular with keratin lining.

Cloaca

Common area for urine and digestive waste

Common area for urine and digestive waste

Ceca

Extra fermentation to break down cellulose

Vent

Everything comes out of this in the bird.

Circulatory system in bird

4 chambered heart, nucleated biconvex erythrocytes, high metabolic rates with rapid heart rates .

4 chambered heart in bird

Complete seperation of pulmonary and systematic circulation in birds.

Nucleated bixoncex erythrocytes

In both birds and reptiles

airsacs in birds

Not involved in gas exchange. Allows unidirectional flow of oxygenated air through lungs. Holds air in lungs.

Lungs in bird

"Circular" respiratory system. 2 breaths = 1 cycle = 1 bolus

Inhale 1 in bird

Air down trachea to posterior to air sacs

Air down trachea to posterior to air sacs

Exhale 1 in bird

Air from posterior air sacs to lung

Air from posterior air sacs to lung

Inhale 2 in birds

Air from lungs to anterior air sacs

Air from lungs to anterior air sacs

Exhale 2 in birds

Air out of body.

Air out of body.

Urinary system in birds

Very good a conserving water. Main nitrogenous waste product is uric acid, while mammals secrete urea. Renal waste is excreted with fecal material as a thick paste from the cloaca

Uric acid ; urea

_______ removes more nitrogen per molecule than _______ .

Adaptions for flight

Feathers, skeletal modifications, flight muscles

Skeletal modifications in bones

Adaptions for flight. Need sturdy and rigid, but are light weight. Pneumatized bones, fusion of bones, sternum broadened into a keel

Bones that fuse in birds

Caudal vertebrae and pelvic girdles. Clavicles (furculum)

Keel

Wide area for flight muscle attachment.

Skeletal structure in birds

Pectoralis

Flight muscle that is 15% of body weight in birds. The power down stroke muscle (tasty)

Supracoracoideus

Flight muscle that is the up stroke muscle. Has unique attachment which acts as a rope and pulley system.

Flight muscles

Pectoralis and supracoacoideus. All muscle mass is ventral to keep weight near the center of gravity for stability during flight.

Birds

Require a lot of energy for flight. High metabolic rates. Endothermic. Eat a lot, breathe a lot, produce a lot of heat. Highly efficient respiratory and circulatory system.

Circulatory system in reptiles/amphibians

3 chambers; divide oxygenated from deoxygenated blood, but it is not complete division.

Conus arteriosus (aorta)

Where the spiral valve in the reptile/amphibian circulatory system is located.

Where the spiral valve in the reptile/amphibian circulatory system is located.

Reptile/amphibian Heart

Carotid artery, systemic artery, To pulmocutaneous atery, Spiral valve, Right atrium, conus arteriosus, truncus arteriosus, pulmocutaneous artery, pulmonary veins, left atrium, sinus venosus, right atrium, auriculoventricular valves, ventricle.

Carotid artery, systemic artery, To pulmocutaneous atery, Spiral valve, Right atrium, conus arteriosus, truncus arteriosus, pulmocutaneous artery, pulmonary veins, left atrium, sinus venosus, right atrium, auriculoventricular valves, ventricle.

Nervous system in reptiles/amphibians

Increased cephalization with emphasis on information processing.Three brains divisions include forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Increased development of cranial and spinal nerves.

Forbrain of reptiles/amphibians

Olfaction

Midbrain of reptiles/amphibians

Vision and integration

Hindbrain of reptiles/amphibians

Cerebellum and medulla. Has involuntary organ system control (sensory "gateway"). Balance and equilibrium.

Dorsal view of reptile/amphibian brain

Olfactory nerve, olfactory lobe, cerebral hemisphere, epiphysis, optic tract, optic lobe, cerebellum, cranial nerves, spinal nerves 1 and 2.

Olfactory nerve, olfactory lobe, cerebral hemisphere, epiphysis, optic tract, optic lobe, cerebellum, cranial nerves, spinal nerves 1 and 2.

Blood

Neither reptiles nor amphibians can make urine more concentrated than their ________.

Reptile/amphibian urinary systems

Absorb water through urinary bladder and cloaca. Renal and digested waste are both excreted through the cloaca.

Reptile kidney

More "advanced" kidneys. Nitrogenous waste is secreted as uric acid. Combines with with other minerals to form mineral salt that gets excreted.

Amphibian kidney

Less advanced kidneys. They filter both blood and coelomic fluid. Nitrogenous waste is secreted as ammonia. The more terrestrial species excrete uric acid.

Eyelids in reptiles/amphibians

Lower lid is usually a nictitating membane. Light ray refraction mainly by the cornea. Poor extraocular muscles, meaning little globe motility. Lacrimal (tear) glands.

Nictitating membrane in snakes

The spectacle. They have no eyelids.

Eye function in some amphibians

Eyes sink into lower cavity to help push food into the digestive tract.

Amphibian classification

Class amphibia: order Gymnophiona, order Urodela, order Anura

Order Gymnophiona

In class Amphibia. Also called Apoda. Consists of caecilians. Wormlike and limbless. Tend to be burrowers. (Ichthyophis moustakius, sendenyu, and khumhzi)

In class Amphibia. Also called Apoda. Consists of caecilians. Wormlike and limbless. Tend to be burrowers. (Ichthyophis moustakius, sendenyu, and khumhzi)

Order Uroleda

Class Amphibia. Also called Caudata. Refers to salamanders.Elongate with distinct head, trunk and tail. 4 limbs (mostly) set at right angles to trunk. Walk similar to early tetrapods with trunk flexion and limb movements.

Class Amphibia. Also called Caudata. Refers to salamanders.Elongate with distinct head, trunk and tail. 4 limbs (mostly) set at right angles to trunk. Walk similar to early tetrapods with trunk flexion and limb movements.

Order Anura

Class Amphibia. Also called Salienta. Consists of frogs and toads. Wide distribution Except for very cold or dry environments. Only social during breeding season. Hibernate in winter in water or moist ground. Catapulting of sticky tongue to catch ...

Class Amphibia. Also called Salienta. Consists of frogs and toads. Wide distribution Except for very cold or dry environments. Only social during breeding season. Hibernate in winter in water or moist ground. Catapulting of sticky tongue to catch prey.

Skin characteristics of amphibians

Moist, permeable, scaleless with a thinly keratinized epidermis. Can stay wet and diffuse things. Loosely attached. Glands in the dermis consist of poison glands and mucous glands.

Poison gland in amphibians

Gland in the dermis that has varying toxicity. Dendrobatids are the most toxic.Alkaloids to form these come from prey.

Locomoter system in amphibians

Highest degree of modifications in frogs that are specialized for jumping. Shortened body, reduced # of vertebrae, fusion of caudal vertebrae in a Urostyle. Stiff pelvic girdle, flexible pectoral girdle (land). Hindlimb muscle modifications.

Reptiles/Amphibians

See slide 9

Respiratory system in amphibians

Has the skin, mouth, and lungs for gas exchange. Movement of air by lungs over vocal cords allow distinctive vocalizations, which is helped by vocal pouches in the floor of the mouth.

Skin in the respiratory system of amphibians

Always the main way to get rid of carbon dioxide.

Lungs in the respiratory system of amphibians

Simple sac-like structures with some internal septal division. Positive pressure breathers.

Simple sac-like structures with some internal septal division. Positive pressure breathers.

Falveoli

Lung chambers in amphibians.

Reproduction and metamorphosis in amphibians

Usually external fertilization and external egg laying, but lots of variation. Most have an aquatic stages that metamophoses into terrestrial adults.

Salamanders

Amphibian with mainly internal fertilization.

Metamorphosis

Requires reabsorption and reformation of almost every organ system.

Metamorphosis of a frog

Day 1: egg. Day 3-4: Talibud. Day 6:Tadpole with external gills. Day 9: Tadpole with internal gills. Day 12: Tadpole with operculum. Day 70: Tadpole with forelimbs. Day 84: Tadpole metamorphosis. Day 84+ +: Young Frog.

Day 1: egg. Day 3-4: Talibud. Day 6:Tadpole with external gills. Day 9: Tadpole with internal gills. Day 12: Tadpole with operculum. Day 70: Tadpole with forelimbs. Day 84: Tadpole metamorphosis. Day 84+ +: Young Frog.

Paedomophorsis

Common in salamanders. Retention of larval characteristics in adults. Example is Necturus, which stay gilled and aquatic.

True frog

Family Ranidae. Long limbs, webbed feet, and thinner, mucous covered skin that looks slimy.

Family Ranidae. Long limbs, webbed feet, and thinner, mucous covered skin that looks slimy.

True toad

Family Bufonidae. Short, stocky bodies. Thick, warty skin that looks dry.

Family Bufonidae. Short, stocky bodies. Thick, warty skin that looks dry.

Reptile classification

Order testudines, Order Squamata which has suborders Sauria and Serpentes, Order Spenodata, and Order Crocodilia

Order testudines

Also called Chelonia. Turtles. No teeth-keratinized plates instead. Dorsal and ventral shells connected by skin folds. Rib ventilation is not possible, so they use heir abdominal and pectoral muscles. Limb movement acts as "bellows". Pectoral girdle pressed back against viscera for exhalation. Oviparous. Aquatic species vary in water time.

Suborder Sauria

In order Squamata. Also called Lactertilia. Lizards. Most have 4 limbs, minus glass lizards. Movable eyelids. External ear openings. Most large are herbivorous. Tail autonomy.

Suborder Serpentes

In order Squamata. Snakes. No limbs, but vestigial pelvic girdles in Boids. No external ears, but can hear a small range of low frequencies. Sensitive to vibration. No moveable eyelids. Don't have good vision, and don't have moveable eyelids. Covered in transparent spectacle. Opaque during ecdysis. Use only right lung. best sense is chemical reception. Pit organs in Boids sense heat.

Order Sphenodonta

Tuartaras. Two species live in New Zealand that have an almost unmodified diapsid skull, which is an ancestral characteristics. Slow growing burrowers that can live to be 100. Breed every 2-5 years.

Tuartaras. Two species live in New Zealand that have an almost unmodified diapsid skull, which is an ancestral characteristics. Slow growing burrowers that can live to be 100. Breed every 2-5 years.

Order Crocodilia

Crocodiles, alligators, caimans, gharials. Not much change since Mesozoic era. Elongate skulls with strong, muscular jaws. Secondary palate that seperates throat/pharynx air and food passages. Can breathe while eating. Teeth are in a socket called thecodont.

Reptiles/Amphibians

Take a look at slide 17.

Turtle structure

Structure of shells in turtles

Outside layer is keratin, and the inside layer is bone. Fused ribs and vertebrae.

Oviparus

Bury eggs in ground in nests. Temperature determines gender of babies, which occurs in turtles, lizards, and crocodilians.

Viviparous

Doesn't develop egg structure, internal fertilization. Young are born live.

Sea turtles

Testudines that only go on land to lay eggs.

Ovoviviparous

Internal fertilization. Egg structure forms, but have live birth.

Order Squamata

Snakes and lizards. Only order with some viviparous species. Kinetic skull in most species, especially snakes. Have determinate bone growth that stops getting longer when cartilage growth plates ossify. Skin covered in keratinized epidermal scales that shed with increased body growth.

Kinetic skulls

Decrease bone ventrally. Increased number of joints.

Kinetic skull in snakes

Right and left mandibles only attached by muscle, and have very loose skin ventral to jaws.

Crocodilians and turtles

Reptiles that don't have determinate bone growth, and slowly grow their whole lives.

Gecko

No movable eyelids, but have retinas with both rods and cones.

Vomeronasal organs

Jacobson's organs. Paired pits in the roots of the mouth of snakes with sensory epithelium. Scent molecules collected by the tongue and placed on sensory area.

Snake head structure

Pit, nostri, eye, nerve fibers, TG.    Brain, Jacobson's organ, tongue.

Pit, nostri, eye, nerve fibers, TG. Brain, Jacobson's organ, tongue.

Vipers

Snake that has hollow, rotating fangs. The glands discharge venom from fang into prey.

Snake that has hollow, rotating fangs. The glands discharge venom from fang into prey.

Elapids

Snakes with shorter, static fangs. Don't rotate.

Constrictors

Snakes that grab their prey and throw small loops of their body around them.

Alligators

Broader snout that is U-shaped. 4th lower jaw tooth not visible with closed mouth. Only freshwater.

Broader snout that is U-shaped. 4th lower jaw tooth not visible with closed mouth. Only freshwater.

Crocodiles

Pointier snout with V-shape. 4th lower jaw tooth is visible with closed mouth. More saltwater tolerant, but don't have to live there.

Pointier snout with V-shape. 4th lower jaw tooth is visible with closed mouth. More saltwater tolerant, but don't have to live there.