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330 Cards in this Set

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abate
v. become less strong; make something less strong; 減少する、却下する
aberrant
adj. not usual or not socially acceptable; 常軌を逸した、異常な
abeyance
n. not being used, or being stopped for a period of time; 〔一時的な〕中止、停止
abscond
v. escape from a place that you are not allowed to leave without permission; leave secretly and take with you something, especially money, that does not belong to you; 姿をくらます、逃亡する
abstemious
adj. not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol, or to do things that are enjoyable; つつましい、節度のある
admonish
v. tell somebody firmly that you do not approve of something that they have done; strongly advise somebody to do something; しかる、戒める、〔人に~するように〕勧告する
adulterate
adj. less pure by adding another substance to it; 混ぜ物をした、不純な
aesthetic
adj. concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things; made in an artistic way and beautiful to look at; 審美眼(のある)、美学(の)
aggregate
adj. made up of several amounts that are added together to form a total number; 集まった、総計の、集める、集約する
alacrity
n. great willingness or enthusiasm; 敏活さ、機敏さ
alleviate
v. make something less severe; 軽減する、和らげる
amalgamate
v. put two or more things together so that they form one; 〔会社・事業などが〕合併する、融合する
ambiguous
adj. that can be understood in more than one way; not clearly stated or defined; 曖昧な、両義に取れる
ambivalence
n. having or showing both good and bad feelings about something; 《心理学》両面感情、ためらい
ameliorate
v. make something better; 〔状況・質などを〕改善する
anachronism
n. a person, a custom or an idea that seems old-fashioned and does not belong to the present; 過去の遺物、時代錯誤(の人)
analogous
adj. similar in some way to another thing or situation and therefore able to be compared with it; 似ている、類似の
anarchy
n. a situation in a country, an organization, etc. in which there is no government, order or control; 無政府状態、無秩序
anomalous
adj. different from what is normal or expected; 変則の、異例な
antipathy
n. a strong feeling of dislike; 反感、嫌悪
apathy
n. the feeling of not being interested in or enthusiastic about something, or things in general; 無関心
appease
v. make someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want; 〔人を〕なだめる、〔怒りなどを〕和らげる
apprise
v. tell or inform someone of something; 〔情報を〕知らせる
approbation
n. approval or agreement; 賛同、同意
appropriate
v. take something, someone's ideas, etc. for your own use, especially illegally or without permission; 自分のものにする、盗む、割り当てる
arduous
v. involving a lot of effort and energy, especially over a period of time; 〔仕事・訓練などが〕非常に努力を要する、骨の折れる
artless
adj. simple, natural and honest; made without skill or art; 自然な、素朴な
ascetic
adj. not allowing yourself physical pleasures, especially for religious reasons; related to a simple and strict way of living; 禁欲的な、禁欲主義者
assiduous
adj. working very hard and taking great care that everything is done as well as it can be; 勤勉な、細心の注意を払った
assuage
v. make an unpleasant feeling less severe; 和らげる、緩和する
attenuate
v. make something weaker or less effective; 〔強度などを〕弱める、減衰させる、薄める
audacious
v. willing to take risks or to do something shocking; 大胆な、向こう見ずな
austere
adj. simple and plain; without any decorations; 厳格な、真面目な、質素な
autonomous
adj. able to govern itself or control its own affairs; able to do things and make decisions without help from anyone else; 自主的な、自治権のある
aver
v. state firmly and strongly that something is true; 〔~が真実であると〕断言する
banal
adj. very ordinary and containing nothing that is interesting or important; 〔考え・話題・言葉などが〕ありふれた
belie
give a false impression of something; show that something cannot be true or correct; ~に反する、偽る、裏切る
beneficent
giving help; showing kindness; 慈悲深い
bolster
v. improve something or make it stronger; 高める、増強する
bombastic
adj. sounding important but having little meaning, used to impress people; 大げさな
boorish
adj. very unpleasant and rude; 〔人の振る舞いが〕不作法な
burgeon
v. begin to grow or develop rapidly; 新芽を出す、急速に成長する
burnish
v. polish metal until it is smooth and shiny; つや、光沢、磨く
buttress
n. a stone or brick structure that supports a wall; v. support or give strength to something; 《建築》控え壁、支持する
cacophonous
adj. being a mixture of loud unpleasant sounds; 不協和音の、耳障りな
capricious
adj. changing suddenly and quickly; 気まぐれな、移り気な
castigation
n. criticizing somebody/something severely; 懲戒、酷評
catalyst
n. a substance that makes a chemical reaction happen faster without being changed itself; 触媒
caustic
adj. able to destroy or dissolve other substances; critical in a bitter or sarcastic way; 辛らつな、痛烈な、[化]苛性の
chicanery
n. the use of complicated plans and clever talk in order to trick people; 〔言葉を巧みに使った〕ごまかし
coagulate
v. become thick and partly solid; 凝固する、凝固させる
coda
n. the final passage of a piece of music; 〔楽曲の〕終結部、〔スピーチなどの〕締めくくりの言葉
cogent
adj. strongly and clearly expressed in a way that influences what people believe; 説得力のある
commensurate
adj. matching something in size, importance, quality, etc; 釣り合った、見合った
compendium
n. a collection of facts, drawings and photographs on a particular subject, especially in a book; 要約、概要
complaisant
adj. ready to accept other people's actions and opinions and to do what other people want; 親切な、愛想の良い
compliant
adj. too willing to agree with other people or to obey rules; in agreement with a set of rules; 従順な、〔仕様・規格などに〕準拠した
conciliatory
adj. having the intention or effect of making angry people calm; 和解の、懐柔的な
condone
v. accept behaviour that is morally wrong or treat it as if it were not serious; 許す、大目に見る
confound
v. confuse and surprise someone; prove somebody/something wrong; 〔人を〕混乱させる、〔物事を〕取り違える
connoisseur
n. an expert on matters involving the judgement of beauty, quality or skill in art, food or music; 鑑定家、目利き
contention
n. angry disagreement between people; 競争、主張
contentious
adj. likely to cause disagreement between people; liking to argue; 論争好きの、議論を起こす、異論の多い
contrite
adj. very sorry for something bad that you have done; 深く悔いている
conundrum
n. a confusing problem or question that is very difficult to solve; 難問、なぞなぞ
converge
v. move towards a place from different directions and meet; 一点に集まる、集中する
convoluted
adj. extremely complicated and difficult to follow; having many twists or curves; 渦巻き形の、複雑な
craven
adj. lacking courage; 憶病な
daunt
adj. make somebody feel nervous and less confident about doing something; ひるませる、威圧する
decorum
n. polite behavior that is appropriate in a social situation; 礼儀正しさ、〔慣習としての〕礼儀作法
default
n. failure to do something that must be done by law, especially paying a debt; what happens or appears if you do not make any other choice or change; 初期設定、〔義務などの〕不履行
deference
n. behavior that shows that you respect somebody/something; 尊敬、敬意
delineate
v.describe, draw or explain something in detail; 描写する、~の輪郭を描く
denigrate
v. criticize somebody/something unfairly; say somebody/something does not have any value or is not important; 中傷する、侮辱する
deride
v. treat somebody/something as ridiculous and not worth considering seriously; あざける、あざ笑う
derivative
n. a word or thing that has been developed or produced from another word or thing; 派生物、金融派生商品
desiccate
v. dry something in order to preserve it; 乾燥させる
desultory
adj. going from one thing to another, without a definite plan and without enthusiasm; とりとめのない、支離滅裂な
deterrent
n. a thing that makes somebody less likely to do something; 抑止するもの、戦争抑止力
diatribe
n. a long and angry speech or piece of writing attacking and criticizing somebody/something; 痛烈な非難、罵倒
dichotomy
n. the separation that exists between two groups or things that are completely opposite to and different from each other; 二分法、両断論理
diffidence
n. not having much confidence in yourself; not wanting to talk about yourself; 自信のなさ、気後れ、遠慮
diffuse
v. spread something or become spread widely in all directions; 〔光・熱などが〕拡散する、普及させる
digress
v. start to talk about something that is not connected with the main point of what you are saying; 本筋をそれる、脱線する
dirge
n. a song sung in the past at a funeral or for a dead person; 葬送歌、哀歌
disabuse
v. tell somebody that what they think is true is, in fact, not true; 〔人に誤った考えを〕捨てさせる
discerning
adj. able to show good judgement about the quality of somebody/something; 眼力のある、洞察力のある
discordant
adj. not in agreement; combining with other things in a way that is strange or unpleasant; 調和しない、不協和音の
discredit
v. make people stop respecting somebody/something; ~の信用を落とす、不信
discrepancy
n. a difference between two or more things that should be the same; 相違、不一致
discrete
adj. independent of other things of the same type; 分離した
disingenuous
adj. not sincere, especially when you pretend to know less about something than you really do; 不正直な、不誠実な
disinterested
adj. not influenced by personal feelings, or by the chance of getting some advantage for yourself; 公平無私な
disjointed
adj. not communicated or described in a clear or logical way; not connected; 〔話・文章などが〕支離滅裂な、まとまりのない
dismiss
v. decide that somebody/something is not important and not worth thinking or talking about; officially remove somebody from their job; 解雇する、退ける、片付けてしまう
disparage
v. suggest that somebody/something is not important or valuable; けなす、軽んじる
disparate
adj. made up of parts or people that are very different from each other; so different from each other that they cannot be compared or cannot work together; 異種の、本質的に異なる
dissemble
v. hide your real feelings or intentions, often by pretending to have different ones; ~のふりをする、〔本心などを〕隠す
disseminate
v. spread information, knowledge, etc. so that it reaches many people; 広める、普及させる
dissolution
n. the act of officially ending a marriage, a business agreement or a parliament; the process in which something gradually disappears; 分解、解散、解消
dissonance
n. a combination of musical notes that do not sound pleasant together; 耳障りな音、不協和音、不和
distend
v. swell or make something swell because of pressure from inside; 膨張する
distill
v. make a liquid pure by heating it until it becomes a gas, then cooling it and collecting the drops of liquid that form; 蒸留する
diverge
v. separate and go in different directions; 枝分かれする、分化する
divest
v. remove clothes; get rid of something; 服を脱がせる、所有物などを奪う、〔子会社や株などを〕売却する
document
v. record the details of something; 文書化する、文書で証明する
dogmatic
adj. being certain that your beliefs are right and that others should accept them, without paying attention to evidence or other opinions; 独断的な、教義上の
dormant
adj. not active or growing now but able to become active or to grow in the future; 休眠中の、不活発な
dupe
v. trick or cheat somebody; だます
ebullient
adj. full of confidence, energy and good humour; あふれんばかりの、威勢のいい
eclectic
adj. not following one style or set of ideas but choosing from or using a wide variety; 折衷的な、多岐にわたる
efficacy
n. the ability of something, especially a drug or a medical treatment, to produce the results that are wanted; 有効性、効き目
effrontery
n. behavior that is confident and very rude, without any feeling of shame; 厚かましさ
elegy
n. a poem or song that expresses sadness, especially for somebody who has died; 哀歌、悲歌
elicit
v. get information or a reaction from somebody, often with difficulty; 〔人から反応・感情・情報などを〕引き出す
embellish
v. make something more beautiful by adding decorations to it; make a story more interesting by adding details that are not always true; 飾り立てる、脚色する、〔話を〕面白くする
empirical
adj. based on experiments or experience rather than ideas or theories; 経験による、経験的に
emulate
v. try to do something as well as somebody else because you admire them; 真似る、見習う
endemic
adj. regularly found in a particular place or among a particular group of people and difficult to get rid of; 風土病、ある地方特有の
enervate
v. make somebody feel weak and tired; (人)の体力[気力]を弱める
engender
v. make a feeling or situation exist; 生じさせる、引き起こす
enhance
v. increase or further improve the good quality, value or status of somebody/something; 〔質・度合い・能力などを〕高める、強化する
ephemeral
adj. lasting or used for only a short period of time; はかない、つかの間の
equanimity
n. a calm state of mind which means that you do not become angry or upset, especially in difficult situations; 落ち着き、平静
equivocate
v. talk about something in a way that is deliberately not clear in order to avoid or hide the truth; 言葉を濁す
erudite
adj. having or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study; 学問的な、博学な
esoteric
adj. likely to be understood or enjoyed by only a few people with a special knowledge or interest; 難解な、秘伝的な
eulogy
n. a speech or piece of writing praising somebody/something very much; a speech given at a funeral praising the person who has died; 〔死者に対する〕追悼、賛辞
euphemism
n. an indirect word or phrase that people often use to refer to something embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable than it really is; 婉曲表現、遠回しな言い方
exacerbate
v. make something worse, especially a disease or problem; 悪化させる、深刻にする
exculpate
v. prove or state officially that somebody is not guilty of something; 無罪にする、無罪を証明する
exigency
n. an urgent need or demand that you must deal with; 緊急事態
extrapolation
n. to estimate something or form an opinion about something, using the facts that you have now and that are valid for one situation and supposing that they will be valid for the new one;(未知の事柄を)既知の事柄から推定すること、補外法
facetious
adj. trying to appear amusing and intelligent at a time when other people do not think it is appropriate, and when it would be better to be serious; 冗談の、ひょうきんな
facilitate
v. make an action or a process possible or easier; 〔物・事が仕事などを〕容易にする、促進する
fallacious
adj. wrong; based on a false idea; 誤った、虚偽の
fatuous
adj. stupid; 愚かな
fawning
adj. trying to please somebody by praising them or paying them too much attention; へつらう
felicitous
adj. chosen well; very suitable; giving a good result; ぴったり合う、適切な、幸福な
fervor
adj. very strong feelings about something; 熱烈(さ)、熱心(さ)、熱情
flag
v. become tired, weaker or less enthusiastic; 衰える
fledgling
n. a person, an organization or a system that is new and without experience; 駆け出しの、未熟な
flout
v. show that you have no respect for a law, etc. by openly not obeying it; 〔人・規則・慣習などを〕軽蔑する
foment
v. create trouble or violence or make it worse; 煽る、扇動する
forestall
v. prevent something from happening or somebody from doing something by doing something first; 未然に防ぐ、先んじる
frugal
adj. using only as much money or food as is necessary; 〔暮らし・食事・お金の使い方などが〕質素な、つましい
futile
adj. having no purpose because there is no chance of success; 役に立たない、無益な
gainsay
v. say that something is not true; disagree with or deny something; 否定する
garrulous
adj. talking a lot, especially about unimportant things; おしゃべりな、とりとめのない
goad
v. keep irritating or annoying somebody/something until they react; 突き棒、するように言う[迫る]、駆り立てる
gouge
v. make a hole or cut in something with a sharp object in a rough or violent way; えぐる、削り取る、〔親指で目玉を〕えぐり出す
grandiloquent
adj. using long or complicated words in order to impress people; 大げさな
gregarious
adj. liking to be with other people; living in groups; 社交好きな、群生している
guileless
adj. behaving in a very honest way; not knowing how to trick people; 実直な、誠実な
harangue
v. speak loudly and angrily in a way that criticizes somebody/something or tries to persuade people to do something; 大演説、熱弁、怒鳴る
homogeneous
adj. consisting of things or people that are all the same or all of the same type; 同種の、一様な
hyperbole
n. a way of speaking or writing that makes something sound better, more exciting, dangerous, etc. than it really is; 誇張(法)、誇大表現
iconoclastic
adj. criticizing popular beliefs or established customs and ideas; 偶像破壊の、因襲打破の
idolatry
n. the practice of worshipping statues as gods; 偶像崇拝
immutable
adj. that cannot be changed; that will never change; 不変の
impair
v. damage something or make something worse; 〔価値・質・機能などを〕悪くする
impassive
adj. not showing any feeling or emotion; 冷静な、無感動な
impede
v. delay or stop the progress of something; 遅らせる、妨げる
impermeable
adj. not allowing a liquid or gas to pass through; 不浸透性の
imperturbable
adj. not easily upset or worried by a difficult situation; calm; 動揺しない、冷静沈着な
impervious
adj. not affected or influenced by something; not allowing a liquid or gas to pass through; 影響されない、不浸透性の
implacable
adj. that cannot be changed; unwilling to stop opposing somebody/something; なだめられない、執念深い
implicit
adj. suggested without being directly expressed; 暗黙の、絶対的な
implode
v. burst or explode and collapse into the centre; 内破する、内側に破裂する
inadvertently
adv. by accident; without intending to; うっかりと、不注意で
inchoate
adj. just beginning to form and therefore not clear or developed; 始まったばかりの、不完全な
incongruity
n. being strange, and not being suitable in a particular situation; 不一致、不調和
inconsequential
adj. not important or worth considering; 重要ではない、取るに足りない
incorporate
v. include something so that it forms a part of something; 組み込む、合併する
indeterminate
adj. cannot be identified easily or exactly; はっきりと決められない、確定できない
indigence
n. being very poor; 極貧(状態)
indolent
adj. not wanting to work; 怠惰な、無痛の
inert
adj. without power to move or act; 不活性の、生気のない
ingenuous
adj. honest, innocent and willing to trust people; 純真な、無邪気な
inherent
adj. being a basic or permanent part of somebody/something and that cannot be removed; 生まれつきの、生来の
innocuous
adj. not intended to offend or upset anyone; not harmful or dangerous; 無害の、無難な
insensible
adj. unable to feel something or react to it; not aware of a situation or of something that might happen; 無意識の、無感覚の
insinuate
v. suggest indirectly that something unpleasant is true; 〔不愉快なことを〕ほのめかす、暗示する
insipid
adj. having almost no taste or flavor; 風味のない、味気ない、退屈な
insularity
n. to be only interested in your own country, ideas, etc. and not in those from outside; 島(国)であること、島国根性
intractable
adj. very difficult to deal with; 解決困難な、扱いにくい
intransigence
n. to be unwilling to change their opinions or behavior in a way that would be helpful to others; 妥協しないこと、非協力(的態度)
inundate
v. give or send somebody so many things that they cannot deal with them all; 殺到する、水浸しにする
inured
adj. being used to something unpleasant so that they/you are no longer strongly affected by it; 慣れている
invective
n. rude language and unpleasant remarks that somebody shouts when they are very angry; 激しい非難(の)、罵倒(の)
irascible
adj. becoming angry very easily; 怒りっぽい、短気な
irresolute
adj. not able to decide what to do; 優柔不断な
itinerary
n. a plan of a journey, including the route and the places that you visit; 旅程
laconic
adj. using only a few words to say something; 〔話などが〕簡潔な
lassitude
n. a state of feeling very tired in mind or body; lack of energy; だるさ、倦怠感、無気力
latent
adj. existing, but not yet very noticeable, active or well developed; 潜在する、潜在的な
laud
v. praise somebody/something; 称賛する、称賛、賛美
lethargic
adj. being the state of not having any energy or enthusiasm for doing things; 昏睡状態の、無気力な
levee
n. a low wall built at the side of a river to prevent it from flooding; a place on a river where boats can let passengers on or off; 土手、堤防
levity
n. behaviour that shows a lack of respect for something serious and that treats it in an amusing way; 軽率、場違いな陽気さ
log
v. put information in an official record or write a record of events; 記録を取る、〔木を〕切り倒して丸太にする
loquacious
adj. talking a lot; おしゃべりな
lucid
adj. clearly expressed; easy to understand; 明快な、分かり易い
luminous
adj. shining in the dark; giving out light; very bright in color; 明るい、聡明な
magnanimous
adj. kind, generous and forgiving, especially towards an enemy or a rival, 寛大な、度量の大きい
malingerer
v. pretend to be ill/sick, especially in order to avoid work; 仮病を使って休む人
malleable
adj. that can be hit or pressed into different shapes easily without breaking or cracking; 打ち延ばしできる、展性のある、適応性がある
maverick
n. a person who does not behave or think like everyone else, but who has independent, unusual opinions; 独立独行の、型破りの、独立独歩の人
mendacious
adj. not telling the truth; うそつきの、間違った
metamorphosis
n. a process in which somebody/something changes completely into something different; 変質、《生物》変態
meticulous
adj.paying careful attention to every detail; 極めて注意深い、細かいことにこだわった
misanthrope
n. a person who hates and avoids other people; 人間嫌いの人、厭世家
mitigate
v. make something less harmful, serious, etc.; 和らぐ、和らげる
mollify
v. make somebody feel less angry or upset; 和らげる、なだめる
morose
adj. unhappy, bad-tempered and not talking very much; 不機嫌な
mundane
adj. not interesting or exciting; この世の、平凡な
negate
v. stop something from having any effect; 打ち消す、否定する
neophyte
n. a person who has recently started an activity; a person who has recently changed to a new religion; 初心者、新参者
obdurate
adj. refusing to change your mind or your actions in any way; 頑固な
obsequious
adj. trying too hard to please somebody, especially somebody who is important; こびへつらう、卑屈な
obviate
v. remove a problem or the need for something; 〔危険や困難などを〕未然に防ぐ、取り除く
occlude
v. cover or block something; 〔通路・すき間などを〕ふさぐ
officious
adj. too ready to tell people what to do or to use the power you have to give orders; おせっかいな
onerous
adj. needing great effort; causing trouble or worry; 重荷になる、面倒な
opprobrium
n. severe criticism of a person, country, etc. by a large group of people; 非難(の的)、軽蔑、不名誉
oscillate
v. keep changing from one extreme of feeling or behaviour to another, and back again; 振動する、動揺する
ostentatious
adj. expensive or noticeable in a way that is intended to impress people; behaving in a way that is meant to impress people by showing how rich, important, etc. you are; けばけばしい、仰々しい
paragon
n. a person who is perfect or who is a perfect example of a particular good quality; 模範、手本
partisan
adj. showing too much support for one person, group or idea, especially without considering it carefully; 味方、同志、党派的な
pathological
adj. not reasonable or sensible; impossible to control; caused by, or connected with, disease or illness; 病理学の、病的な
paucity
n. a small amount of something; less than enough of something; 少量、不足
pedantic
adj. too worried about small details or rules; 融通が効かない、細かいことにうるさい
penchant
n. a special liking for something; 強い好み、傾向
penury
n. the state of being very poor; 極貧
perennial
adj. continuing for a very long time; happening again and again; 永続する、絶え間のない
perfidious
adj. that cannot be trusted; 不信の、不誠実な
perfunctory
adj. done as a duty or habit, without real interest, attention or feeling; おざなりの、いいかげんな
permeable
adj. allowing a liquid or gas to pass through; 透過性の、浸透性の
pervasive
adj. existing in all parts of a place or thing; spreading gradually to affect all parts of a place or thing; 行き渡る、普及する
phlegmatic
adj. not easily made angry or upset; 粘液質の、無気力な、冷静な
piety
n. the state of having or showing a deep respect for somebody/something, especially for God and religion; the state of being pious; 信心深さ
placate
v. make somebody feel less angry about something; 〔人を〕なだめる
plasticity
n. the quality of being easily made into different shapes; 可塑性、柔軟性
platitude
n. a comment or statement that has been made very often before and is therefore not interesting; 陳腐[平凡](な言葉)
plethora
n. an amount that is greater than is needed or can be used; 過剰、大量
plummet
v. fall suddenly and quickly from a high level or position; 〔価値などが〕急落する、真っ逆さまに落ちる
porous
adj. having many small holes that allow water or air to pass through slowly; 小穴の多い、多孔性の
pragmatic
adj. solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than by having fixed ideas or theories; 実際的な、語用論的な
preamble
n. an introduction to a book or a written document; an introduction to something you say; 序言、序文
precarious
adj. not safe or certain; dangerous; likely to fall or cause somebody to fall; 不安定な、危険な
precipitate
adj. happening very quickly or suddenly and usually without enough care and thought; 大慌ての、突然の、~を投げ落とす、真っ逆さまに落とす
precursor
n. a person or thing that comes before somebody/something similar and that leads to or influences its development; 前任者、前兆
presumptuous
adj. too confident, in a way that shows a lack of respect for other people; 生意気な、おこがましい
prevaricate
v. avoid giving a direct answer to a question in order to hide the truth; 言葉を濁す
pristine
adj. fresh and clean, as if new; 原始の、新品同様の、〔文明などに〕汚されていない
probity
n. the quality of being completely honest; 誠実、高潔
problematic
adj. difficult to deal with or to understand; full of problems; not certain to be successful; 問題のある、疑問の余地がある
prodigal
adj. too willing to spend money or waste time, energy or materials; 浪費する
profound
adj. very great; felt or experienced very strongly; showing great knowledge or understanding; 深遠な、深みのある
prohibitive
adj. so high that it prevents people from buying something or doing something; preventing people from doing something by law; 〔税金が〕購入を抑制するための、ひどく高い
proliferate
v. increase rapidly in number or amount; 激増する
propensity
n. a tendency to a particular kind of behavior; 〔好ましくないことへの〕傾向、性癖
propitiate
v. stop somebody from being angry by trying to please them; 〔人〕の機嫌を取る
propriety
n. moral and social behavior that is considered to be correct and acceptable; 礼儀正しさ
proscribe
v. say officially that something is banned; 〔手術・酒などが〕法律で禁止されている
pungent
adj. having a strong taste or smell; direct and having a strong effect; 刺激する、刺すような痛みの、辛辣な
qualified
adj. having passed the exams or completed the training that are necessary in order to do a particular job; having the experience to do a particular job; 適任の、有能な
quibble
v. argue or complain about a small matter or an unimportant detail; あら探しをする、つまらぬことにけちをつける
quiescent
adj. quiet; not active; not developing, especially when this is probably only a temporary state; 静止した、無活動の
rarefied
adj. understood or experienced by only a very small group of people who share a particular area of knowledge or activity; containing less oxygen than usual; 〔空気が〕希薄な、〔階級などが〕非常に高い
recalcitrant
adj. unwilling to obey rules or follow instructions; difficult to control; 反抗的な
recant
v. say, often publicly, that you no longer have the same belief or opinion that you had before; 〔公式に〕取り消す、撤回する
recluse
n. a person who lives alone and likes to avoid other people; 修道者、世捨て人
recondite
adj. not known about or understood by many people
; 難解な、深遠な
refractory
adj. difficult to control; behaving badly; difficult to treat or cure; 〔人・動物が〕手に負えない、〔病気・傷が〕治りにくい
refute
v. prove that something is wrong; say that something is not true or fair; 反証する
relegate
v. give somebody a lower or less important position, rank, etc. than before; 〔人・物をより低い地位・状態に〕格下げする
reproach
n. blame or criticism for something you have done; a word or remark expressing blame or criticism; 非難(の言葉)
reprobate
n. a person who behaves in a way that society thinks is immoral; 道楽者、放蕩者
repudiate
v. refuse to accept something; 関与を否定する、〔真実でないとして〕否定する
rescind
v. officially state that a law, contract, decision, etc. is no longer valid; 〔法令などを〕廃止する
resolution
n. a formal statement of an opinion agreed on by a committee or a council, especially by means of a vote; the act of solving or settling a problem, disagreement, etc.; 決意、分解、解決
resolve
v. find an acceptable solution to a problem or difficulty; make a firm decision to do something; 決心する、解決する
reticent
adj. unwilling to tell people about things; 無口な
reverent
adj. showing great respect and admiration; 敬虔な、うやうやしい
sage
n. a plant with flat, light green leaves that have a strong smell and are used in cooking as a herb; a very wise person; セージ、賢人
salubrious
adj. pleasant to live in; clean and healthy; 健康に良い、健全な
sanction
n. an official order that limits trade, contact, etc. with a particular country, in order to make it do something, such as obeying international law; v. give permission for something to take place; 認可、容認、制裁、認める
satiate
v. give somebody so much of something that they do not feel they want any more; 満ち足りた
saturate
v. make something completely wet; fill something/somebody completely with something so that it is impossible or useless to add any more; すっかり濡らす、満たす
savor
v. enjoy the full taste or flavour of something, especially by eating or drinking it slowly; enjoy a feeling or an experience thoroughly; 十分に味わう、賞味する、味、風味
secrete
v. produce a liquid substance; hide something, especially something small; 分泌する
shard
n. a piece of broken glass, metal, etc; 〔陶器などの〕破片
skeptic
n. a person who usually doubts that claims or statements are true, especially those that other people believe in; 懐疑論者、疑い深い
solicitous
adj. being very concerned for somebody and wanting to make sure that they are comfortable, well or happy; 心配して、念じて
soporific
adj. making you want to go to sleep; 催眠[睡眠]薬、催眠性の、眠気を感じる
specious
adj. seeming right or true but actually wrong or false; もっともらしい、見かけ倒しの
spectrum
n. a band of coloured lights in order of their wavelengths, as seen in a rainbow and into which light may be separated; スペクトル、範囲
sporadic
adj. happening only occasionally or at intervals that are not regular; 散発的な、時々起こる
stigma
n. feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving; 汚名、汚点
stint
n. a period of time that you spend working somewhere or doing a particular activity; 〔物・金などを〕出し惜しむ、〔仕事などに従事していた〕期間、割り当てられた仕事(量)
stipulate
v. state clearly and firmly that something must be done, or how it must be done; 規定する、明記する
stolid
adj. not showing much emotion or interest; remaining always the same and not reacting or changing; 〈軽蔑的〉〔人が〕無反応な、鈍感な
striated
adj. having narrow lines or bands of color; 筋[線・縞・溝]のある
strut
n. an act of walking in a proud and confident way; a long thin piece of wood or metal used to support or make part of a vehicle or building stronger; 気取って歩くこと、支柱
subpoena
n. a written order to attend court as a witness to give evidence;(罰則つき)召喚令状、〔裁判所が〕召喚状を発する
substantiate
v. provide information or evidence to prove that something is true; 立証する、実証する
supersede
v. take the place of something/somebody that is considered to be old-fashioned or no longer the best available; 取って代わる、~の後任となる
supposition
n. an idea that you think is true although you may not be able to prove it; the act of believing or claiming that something is true even though it cannot be proved; 仮説、想定、推測
tacit
adj. that is suggested indirectly or understood, rather than said in words; 暗黙の、無言の
tangential
adj. having only a slight or indirect connection with something; of or along a tangent; 脱線した、ほとんど関係のない
tenuous
adj. so weak or uncertain that it hardly exists; extremely thin and easily broken; 薄っぺらな、希薄な、内容の乏しい、〔根拠などが〕弱い
tirade
adj. a long angry speech criticizing somebody/something or accusing somebody of something; 厳しい批判
torpor
n. the state of not being active and having no energy or enthusiasm; 不活発、無気力
tractable
adj. easy to deal with or control; 扱いやすい、従順な
transgression
n. going beyond the limit of what is morally or legally acceptable; 〔宗教・道徳上の〕罪
truculent
adj. tending to argue or be bad-tempered; slightly aggressive; 〔人(の態度)が〕攻撃的な
vacillate
v. keep changing your opinion or thoughts about something, especially in a way that annoys other people; 揺れる、揺れ動く、動揺する
venerate
v. have and show a lot of respect for somebody/something, especially somebody/something that is considered to be holy or very important; 尊敬する、あがめる
veracious
adj. speaking or representing the truth; 〔人が〕常に真実を述べる
verbose
adj. using or containing more words than are needed; 言葉数の多い、冗長な
viable
adj. that can be done; that will be successful; 〔計画などが〕実行可能な、生存能力のある
viscous
adj. thick and sticky; not flowing freely; 粘性のある
vituperative
adj. full of angry and cruel criticism; 口汚い、ののしりの
volatile
adj. changing easily from one mood to another; はかない、不安定な、揮発性の
warrant
v. make something necessary or appropriate in a particular situation; の正当な理由となる、保証する
wary
adj. careful when dealing with somebody/something because you think that there may be a danger or problem; 警戒している、慎重な
welter
n. a large and confusing amount of something; ごちゃ混ぜ、寄せ集め
whimsical
adj. unusual and not serious in a way that is either amusing or annoying; 気まぐれな、風変わりな
zealot
n. a person who is extremely enthusiastic about something, especially religion or politics; 〔軽蔑的〕狂信者、熱狂者