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75 Cards in this Set

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STIMULUS-RESPONSE
Muscular and glandular responses that we can observe and measure.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Associating stimuli that happens at the same time or the same area.
OPERANT CONDITIONING
Associating an activity with punishment or reward.
TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING is also known as?
Instrumental learning
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
Rewarding good behavior.
EX: When a pet sits on command and the owner praises the pet.
To be effective must occur within 20 seconds of the behavior.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
An unpleasant occurrence used to create a desired behavior. Involves removing an unpleasant sensation to INCREASE a desired behavior, and results in animal seeking to avoid an unpleasant event.
EX: A pet receives a small shock from an electric fence, the pet learns to stay within the boundaries of the yard.
PUNISHMENT
An unpleasant occurrence used to eliminate an undesirable behavior.
2 TYPES
- Positive punishment
- Negative punishment
NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT
Negative punishment: Involves removing a desirable occurrence to DECREASE a behavior.
EX: Suppose a dog is begging at the dinner table, when the dog stops begging a treat may be placed in the dog's food bowl as a reward. (In that positive reinforcement discourages the dog from begging.)
POSITIVE PUNISHMENT
Positive punishment: Involves adding an undesirable occurrence to DECREASE a behavior.
EX: Suppose a dog is begging at the dinner table and wearing a shock collar, and each time it begs it gets a shock. (The dog associates the shock with the behavior rather than the owner.)
WHAT 4 THINGS MUST HAPPEN IN ORDER FOR PUNISHMENT TO BE EFFECTIVE?
- Occur every time the behavior occurs
- Be applied immediately
- Be of appropriate intensity
- Not be associated with the owner
IMPRINTING
A rapid learning process that enables the very young to recognize and bond with its caretaker.
SENSITIVE PERIOD
Period of time when imprinting occurs.
Among cat and dogs, this usually occurs from the 2nd or 3rd to the 12th week after birth.
True or false? Classical ethologists proposed that animal behavior was instinctive.
True
The survival value of certain types of behavior is often referred to as its"
A) FUNCTION
B) BIOLOGY
C) INSTINCT
D) CONDITION
A) FUNCTION
The first age period for a puppy to learn fear that will affect it for the rest of its life is?
8-10 weeks
Puppies also enter a 2nd period of fear near puberty.
What is the best technique to use for house breaking?
A) NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
B) PUNISHMENT
C) POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
D) EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING
C) Positive reinforcement
The critical socialization period for felines and canines occurs between what age?
- Felines: 2 & 8 weeks of age
- Canines: 4-14 weeks of age
Multiple-cat households should have how many cat litter boxes per cats?
At least as many little boxes as cats.
Puppies and kittens learn to interact with their own species during:
A) The first 2 weeks of the life
B) Puberty
C) The period after puberty
D) The critical period
D) The critical period
Inherited or genetically coded responses to environmental stimuli are also called?
A) Imprints
B) Instincts
C) Functions
D) Experiential learning
B) Instincts
For positive reinforcement to be effective, the pleasant event must occur within how many seconds of the behavior?
20 seconds
Aggression that an animal learns to avoid an uncomfortable stimulus is called ___ aggression.
A) Territorial
B) Pain-induced
C) Conflict-related
D) Fear-induced
C) Conflict-related
A dog that exhibits destructive behavior only when the owners are away is most likely suffering from?
Separation anxiety
An animal that doesn't give a warning or threat prior to biting is most likely exhibiting.
A) Conflict-related aggression
B) Maternal aggression
C) Predatory aggression
D) Fear-induced aggression
A) Conflict-related aggression
WHAT ARE SOME SIGNS OF CANINE SEPARATION ANXIETY
Excessive vocalization, destructive behavior, inappropriate elimination, anorexia, hyperactivity,inactivity, vomiting and diarrhea.
What is conflicted-related aggression
When a dog is exposed to an uncomfortable or uncertain stimulus or conflict .(This allows a dog to avoid the conflict with aggression)
EX: A dog snaps at its owner when he or she takes a toy or food bowl away.
What is fear-induced aggression
- Most common type of aggression the vet. health care professions witness in animal hospitals.
- Occurs when an animal is in a position from which it can't escape.
- Other causes are loud noises, children, or specific individuals.
What is predatory aggression
- Both cats and dogs have an instinct to hunt.
- Differs from any other aggression because most animals wont give a warning in the form of a growl or other threatening behavior.
What is pain-induced aggression
- Aggressive behavior related to pain is protective instinct.
- Will usually bite if animal has an open lesion.
What is Inter-male aggression
- Male dogs and cats usually display aggression towards one another.
- Natural instinct.
What is territorial aggression
- Dogs are more aggressive towards humans that aren't members of the household.
- Cats are more aggressive toward other cats in their perceived territory.
What is maternal aggression
- Is rare but can occur in the postparturition period.
- This is a normal instinct developed to protect an animals young from danger.
What type of aggression is this?
A well-behaved dog begins to respond aggressive to a new child or other person in the home?
Conflict-related aggression
Inherited or gentically coded responses to environmental stimuli are also called?
Instincts
For positive reinforcement to be effective, the pleasant event must occur within how many seconds of the behavior?
20 seconds
Aggression that an animal learns to avoid an uncomfortable stimulus is called what aggression?
conflict-related
A dog that exhibits destructive behavior only when the owners are away is most likely suffering from what?
separation anxiety
An animal that doesn't give a warning or threat prior to biting is most likely exhibiting?
conflict-related aggression
What is aversion therapy?
- Involves creating a relationship between an unpleasant stimulus and an object that an animal may be marking, chewing, or otherwise damaging. (Is used to keep the animal away from a particular object or area.)
EX: Placing double sided tape on counter top to keep cat off the counter tops.
What is avoidance therapy?
Involves the use of negative reinforcement to diminish a problem behavior. The goal is for the pet to link the behavior with an unpleasant event and then avoid that unpleasant event. (Is used to discourage the animal from displaying a particular behavior.
EX: Owner sprays pet for barker without pet seeing the owner to get the dog to stop barking.
What is habituation?
- It is used to treat minor behavior problems.
- Surrounding the animal w/ the stimulus causing the problem until the animal becomes use to it and is no longer afraid of it.
What is punishment?
- Is used to eliminate an undesirable behavior and be used every time the behavior occurs, and immediately.
What is counterconditioning?
- Can replace an undesirable behavior w/ a desirable one.
- Taking the stimulus linked to a negative emotion and reconditioning, or counterconditioning, the animal by linking the stimulus to a positive emotional response.
What is desensitization?
- Involves diminishing a particular behavior by gradually exposing the animal to the stimulus that produces the inappropriate response.
EX: Expose a dog that's fearful of children at a distance and brief period of times and gradually reduce the distance and increase the time as long as the animal doesn't have any negative behavior.
What is environmental modification?
- Treats problem behaviors by changing the environment.
EX: By attaching a piece of carpet to the little box so the cat stops urinating on the carpet and starts going in to the litter box.
What is surgical approach for behavior problems?
1. Neutering a female helps females from vocalizing during estrus, and from dogs and cats that roam or fight.
What does pharmaceutical therapy do?
It can be used to treat behavior problems in animals that have separation anxiety, inappropriate elimination, mounting, fighting, and roaming.
Initial behavior problems sessions should last no more than ___ min?
Five
T or F? The goal of reprimanding a pet is to associate a behavior w/ danger or disorientation?
True
The behavior modification technique that involves elimination of a problem behavior by completely removing the reinforcement for the behavior is?
A) Habitation
B) Extinction
C) Reprimand
D) Aversion
B. Extinction
Long term pharmaceutical approaches to problem behavior usually involve administration of?
A) Anesthetics
B) Hormones
C) Tranquilizers
D) Sedatives
B. Hormones
One of the best ways to correct a biting habit in birds is to use a?
A) Correction
B) Cage cover
C) Loud reprimand
D) Wobble
D. Wobble
The 4 essential aspects of successful training are?
Reward, reprimand, trust, and consistency.
According to Charles Darwin, what biological mechanism allows members of the same species to respond appropriately to various conditions in the natural world?
A) Instinct
B) Nurture
C) Conditioning
D) Selective breeding
A. Instinct
The process by which an animal becomes accustomed to its situation is referred to as?
A) Desensitizing
B) Nurturing
C) Aggression
D) Habituation
D. Habituation
What do we call an immediate pleasant occurrence that follows a behavior?
A) Startling
B) Habituation
C) Negative reinforcement
D) Positive reinforcement
D) Positive reinforcement
Animal behavior researchers often refer to an activity associated with punishment or reward as a/an?
A) Operant
B) Condition
C) Stimulus
D) Response
A) Operant
Until approximately what age does the sensitive period last among dogs?
Fourteen weeks
The most common reported behavior problem in cats is?
Breaking litter box training
*PG 21
Which of the following theories asserts that all animal activity is learned, rather than genetically programmed>
A) Naturalism
B) Behaviorism
C) Biology
D) Socialism
B) Behaviorism
*PG 5
The most common form of aggression seen in animal hospitals is?
Fear-induced
The point of reprimand is to ___ an animal?
Startle
We commonly refer to early bonding with an object or animal as?
Imprinting
Automatic, or simple reflex, behavior is commonly referred to as?
A) A conditioned response
B) Operant conditioning
C) Spatial motivation
D) An unconditioned response
D) An unconditioned response
* PG 4
Pharmaceutical therapy for behavior modification can cause?
A) Increased territorial behavior
B) Increased blood glucose
C) Hyperactivity
D) Anorexia
B) Increased blood glucose
Learning through trial an error is often referred to as ___ learing.
Instrumental
Early researchers often referred to the predictable behaviors displayed by a particular species as?
A) Fixed action patterns
B) Sociobiology habits
C) Routine reflex responses
D) Random access patterns
A) Fixed action patterns
* PG 8
The type of behavior modification in which you would gradually expose an animal to something ti's afraid of is?
Desensitization
Biologist and veterinary specialist refer to the study of animal behavior as?
Ethology
The aggression a shows when its owner tries to take its food bowl is called ____ aggression.
Conflict related
* PG 23
In cats, the sensitive socialization period lasts until approximately ___ of age.
Eight weeks
What behavior modification technique is used to keep an animal away from an object or area?
Aversion therapy
What must first be done before treating an animal for a behavioral problem?
Determining the cause
What do we call the act of taking something away to increase a behavior?
A) Punishment
B) Negative punishment
C) Positive reinforcement
D) Negative reinforcement
D) Negative reinforcement
What are some elimination behavioral problems for urinating or deficating in the house
1) contestinal parasites: cause diarrhea
2) urinary tract infections: feels like it's got to go now
3) kidney problems: feels like it's got to go now
4) sexual maturity: marking