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142 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a cell?
fundamental unit of life
What property do all organisms share?
every organism consists of cells or is itself a cell
What is the cell theory?
1. All organisms consist of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms (Schwann and Schleiden)
3. All cells arise from pre-existing cells. (Virchow)
What do cells have?
- enormous diversity in form, function, and size
- similar basic chemistry
How do all cells have similar basic chemistry?
- similar chemical composition
- metabolism
- use of ATP as cellular energy currency
- use of DNA for genetic information
What does 1um equal in metres?
10-6 m
What does 1nm equal in metres?
10-9 m
What does 1 A equal in metres?
10-10m
What is the size of a typical prokaryote?
1-5 um
What is the size of a typical eukaryote?
10-30 um
Why are cells small?
SA:V ratios
rates of diffusion
synthetic capacity
What is the prokaryote solution to size?
stay small
What is the simple structure of prokaryote cells?
- cell wall
- plasma membrane
- cytoplasm that lacks organelles
- ribosomes
- nucleoid
- flagellum
What is the eukaryote solution to size?
compartmentalization of cellular functions
What do cyanobacteria possess?
photosynthetic membranes
What are the major structural features of eukaryotic cells?
- plasma membrane
- membrane-bound nucleus
- membrane-bound organelles
- cytosol
What are the non-membrane bound organelles?
- cytoskeleton
- ribosomes
What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
- support/shape
- internal organization
- movement of cell
- movement within cell
What are the components of the cytoskeleton?
- microfilaments
- microtubules
- intermediate filaments
What are the function of ribosomes?
protein synthesis
What are the membrane bound organelles?
- nucleus
- ER
- Golgi Complex
- Vesicles
- Lysosomes, Peroxisomes
- Vacuole
- Mitochondrion
- Chloroplast
What are the parts of the nucleus?
- nuclear envelope
- nuclear pores
- nucleolus
- DNA and protein organized into chromatin
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
tubular membranes and cisternae
What is the function of the rough ER?
- produces ribsosomes for membrane protein
- secretes them in protein synthesis
What is the function of the smooth ER?
- lipid and steroid synthesis
- detoxification
What is the Golgi Complex?
stack of flattened vesicles
What is the function of the Golgi Complex?
sorting, modification, and packaging of proteins
What are the function of vesicles?
transport among organelles and/or to plasma membrane
What do lysosomes and peroxisomes contain?
hydrolases and catalases
What is the function of vacuole?
- temporary storage
- turgor pressure
What is the size of mitochondrion?
2 um
What are the characteristics of mitochondrion?
- double membrane, cisternae
- oxidative metabolism yielding ATP
- circular mDNA
How do mitochondrion reproduce?
by fission
What is the size of a chloroplast?
~ 5 um
What are the characteristics of chloroplasts?
- double membrane + thylakoids
- circular cpDNA
What is the function of chloroplasts?
photosynthesis
How do chloroplasts reproduce?
by fission
What is the endosymbiont theory?
- mitochondria from incorporation of aerobic prokaryotes
- chloroplasts from incorporation of cyanobacteria

Original prokaryotic cell --> aerobic bacteria become mitochondria --> photosynthetic bacteria become chloroplasts --> eukaryotic cells
What is the support for the endosymbiont theory?
- size
- circular DNA
- ribosomes
- fission
What is cell chemistry?
carbon chemistry
What does carbon form?
backbone of essentially all molecules of importance to the cell
How many valence electrons does carbon have?
4
What kind of bond does carbon form?
stable bonds
What is the bond energy of carbon single covalent bonds?
70-100 kcal/mol
What is visible light?
400-700 nm
What is the energy of visible light?
40-70 kcal/mol photons
What types of of carbon chains are possible?
- linear
- branches
- cyclic
What are commonly present in functional in carbon chains?
functional groups
What is the -OH ?
hydroxyl group
What are the properties of a hydroxyl group?
neutral, polar
What is the -C=O ?
carbonyl group
What are the properties of a carbonyl group?
neutral, polar
What is the -SH ?
sulfhydryl group
What are the properties of a sulfhydryl group?
neutral, polar
What is the -COOH ?
carboxyl group
What are the properties of a carboxyl group?
negative charge at cellular pH
What is the -PO32- ?
phosphate group
What are the properties of a phosphate group?
negative charge at cellular pH
What is the -NH2 ?
amino group
What are the properties of an amino group?
positive charge at cellular pH
What is cell chemistry based on?
water
What percentage of the cell is water?
75-85%
What is water responsible for within a cell?
- polarity
- formation of hydrogen bonds
What is the bond energy of water?
1-4 kcal/mol
What are the properties of water as a solvent?
- hydrophilic
- hydrophobic
What properties occur as a result of water being hydrophilic?
- polar molecules
- ions
What properties occur as a result of water being hydrophobic?
non-polar molecules
What is the hierarchy of cell chemistry?
inorganic precursors --> small organic molecules --> macromolecules -->supramolecular structures -->organelles/structures --> cells
What are macromolecules?
- carbohydrates
- monosaccharides
- polysaccharides
- nucleic acids
- proteins
- lipids
What are carbohydrates?
polymers of monosaccharides
What are carbohyrdrates used for?
- energy storage (glycogen)
- structural (cellulose, chitin)
What is the chemical formula of monosaccharides?
CnH2nOn
What are the n values for monosaccharides?
n = 3-7
What are the names for types of monosaccharides?
- trioses
- pentoses
- hexoses
What are the types of monosaccharide configurations?
- linear
- ring
Which monosaccharide configuration of more stable?
ring
What is the relationship between carbons and isomers?
the more carbons, the more possible isomers
What does hydroxyl group placement determine?
chemical composition
What type of bond do polysaccharides have?
glycosidic
Where do the bonds occur in polysacchardies?
on C1 to C4
What are nucleic acids?
polymers of nucleotides
What is the purpose of nucleic acids?
informational
What is DNA?
genetic material of cell
What is the purpose of RNA?
- protein synthesis occurs here
- lines up amino acids for protein synthesis
What is the composition of a nucleotides?
5 carbon sugar
What are the two types of nitrogenous bases?
- purines
- pyrmidines
What are the purines?
- adenine
- guanine
What are the pyrmidines?
- cytosine
- thymine
- uracil
What are the purine/pyrmidine pairs?
- adenine + thymine
- guanine + cytosine
- Adenine + uracil (in RNA)
What is the composition of a nucleoside?
sugar + base
How many phosphate groups are in a nucleotide?
up to 3 phosphate groups
What are the sugar + base combinations of nucleosides?
- adenine + adenosine or deoxyadenosine
- guanine + guanosine or deoxyguanosine
- cytosine + cytidine or deoxycytidine
- thymine + deoxythymidine
- uracil + uridine
What is a polymer?
a string of repeated units
What is a polysaccharide?
string of repeated glucose units
What are proteins?
polymers of amino acids
What type of macromolecules are proteins?
informational
What are the functions of proteins?
- enzymes
- structural
- motility
- transport
- regulatory
- receptors
- defensive
How many amino acids are there?
~20
What is the alpha carbon in an amino acid?
the central carbon
What are the components of amino acids?
- carboxyl group
- amino group
- H atom
- side chain (R group)
What determines the properties of an amino acid?
the side chain (R group)
What are the potential properties of amino acids?
- nonpolar
- polar, uncharged
- polar, acidic, negative charge
- polar, basic, positive charge
What types of bonds are in polypeptides?
peptide bonds
How many amino acid residues are in a polypeptide?
average of 400-500
How are polypeptides turned into proteins?
one or more polypeptides folded into native conformation
What is a monomeric polypeptide?
single polypeptide
What is polypeptide conformation dependent on?
covalent and non-covalent interactions in backbone and/or R groups
What are the levels of structure in protein?
- primary
- secondary
- tertiary
- quaternary
What is the primary structure of proteins?
amino acid sequence
How many n possibilities are there in the primary structure of proteins?
20
What is the secondary structure of proteins?
hydrogen bonding in backbone
What is the tertiary structure of proteins?
overall shape or conformation
What type of interactions occurs between R groups in the tertiary structure of proteins?
- disulphide bridge
- hydrogen bonds
- ionic bonds
- hydrophobic interactions
- van der Waals interactions
What is the quaternary structure of proteins?
- interactions of subunits to form multimeric proteins
- multiprotein complexes
What characterizes lipids?
being insoluble in water
What are lipids soluble in?
non-polar solvents
What are the functions of lipids?
- energy storage
- membrane structure
- signaling roles (cell-to-cell communication)
What are fatty acids?
hydrocarbon chains with carboxyl group
How many carbons are in fatty acids?
14-22
What does amphipathic means?
to have areas that are hydrophobic and areas that are hydrophilic
What are saturated fatty acids?
- carbons connected by single bonds
- results in straight chain
What are unsaturated fatty acids?
- carbons connected by double bonds
- resulted in kinked chain
What is the composition of triglycerides?
glycerol + 3 fatty acids
What type of bonds are in triglycerides?
ester bonds
How is energy stored in triglycerides?
adipocytes
What is fat typically used for?
energy storage in animal cells
Is fat saturated or unsaturated?
saturated
What is oil typically used for?
energy storage in plants
Is oil saturated or unsaturated?
unsaturated
What are phospholipids?
a structural component membranes
How are phosphoglycerides named?
according to R group
What are phosphoglycerides?
basis of phospholipid bilayer
What are phosphoglycerides composed of?
- 2 fatty acids linked to a glycerol
- 1 carbon linked to phosphate binded to hydrophilic R group
What are the most common R groups in phosphoglycerides?
- serine
- choline
- inositol
What are steroids?
derivatives of 4-ringed hydrocarbon skeleton
In what type of cells do you find steroids?
eukaryotic cells
Where are sterols found?
only in environments away from water
What are the functions of sterols?
- structural
- signaling
How are steroids synthesized?
from cholesterol
What are the types of steroids?
- cholesterol
- phytosteorls
Where is cholesterol found?
animals
Where is phytosterol found?
plants