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185 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A duplicated chromosome has ____ chromatid(s).
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four
b. Two
Mitosis & cytoplasmic division function in ______.
a. Asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes
b. Growth & tissue repair in multi-celled species
c. Gamete formation in bacteria & archaens
d. A & B
d. A & B
Except for a pairing of sex chromosomes, homologous chromosomes ____.
a. carry same genes
b. are same shape
c. are same length
d. all of above
d. all of above
Most cells spend majority of lives in ____.
a. prophase
b. metaphase
c. anaphase
d. telophase
e. interphase
f. a & c
e. interphase
The chromosomes align at midpoint of spindle during____.
a. prophase
b. metaphase
c. anaphase
d. telophase
e. interphase
f. cytokinesis
b. metaphase
The spindle attaches to chromosomes at the ____.
a. centriole
b. contractile ring
c. centromere
d. centrosome
c. centromere
Only ____is not a state of mitosis.
a. prophase
b. interphase
c. metaphase
d. anaphase
b. interphase
In intervals of interphase, G stands for ____.
a. Gap
b. Growth
c. Gey
d. Gene
a. Gap
Name phases of cell cycle & main events.
interphase
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
Interphase is part of cell cycle when _____.
a. Cell ceases to function
b. Spindle forms
c. Cell grows & duplicates its DNA
d. Mitosis proceeds
c. Cell grows & duplicates its DNA
After mitosis, chromosome number of a descendant cell is _____ parent cell’s.
a. Same as
b. One-half of
c. Rearranged compared to
d. Doubled compared to
a. Same as
Name any checkpoint gene.
EGF receptor gene (EGFR)
BRCA1
BRCA2
53BP1
Which of the following encompasses the other two?
a. Cancer
b. Neoplasm
c. Tumor
b. Neoplasm
_________can cause mutations.
a. Replication errors
b. Transposons
c. Ionizing radiation
d. Nonionizing radiation
e. b and c are correct
f. All of the above
f. All of the above
_____different codons constitute the genetic code.
a. 3
b. 20
c. 64
d. 120
c. 64
Each amino acid is specified by a set of ______ bases in an mRNA transcript.
a. 3
b. 20
c. 64
d. 120
a. 3
Where does translation take place in a typical eukaryotic cell?
a. Nucleus
b. Ribosomes
c. Cytoplasm
d. B and C
d. B and C
Where does transcription take place in a typical eukaryotic cell?
a. Nucleus
b. Ribosomes
c. Cytoplasm
d. B & C
a. Nucleus
_____________are removed from new mRNA transcripts.
a. Introns
b. Exons
c. Telomeres
d. Amino acids
a. Introns
What is maximum length of polypeptide encoded by an mRNA that is 45 nucleotides long?
15 Amino acids
Anticodons pair with ___________.
a. mRNA codons
b. DNA codons
c. RNA anticodons
d. Amino acids
a. mRNA codons
Most codons specify a(n)_____________.
a. Protein
b. Polypeptide
c. Amino acid
d. mRNA
c. Amino acid
RNAs form by _____________; proteins form by __________.
a. replication; translation
b. Translation; transcription
c. Transcription; translation
d. Replication; transcription
c. Transcription; translation
An RNA molecule is typically ________; a DNA molecule is typically __________.
a. single-stranded; double-stranded
b. double-stranded; single-stranded
c. Both are single-stranded
d. Both double-stranded
a. single-stranded; double-stranded
Energy that drives transcription is provided mainly by _________.
a. ATP
b. RNA nucleotides
c. GTP
d. All are correct
d. All are correct
A binding site for RNA polymerase is called a ________.
a. Gene
b. Promoter
c. Codon
d. Protein
b. Promoter
A chromosome contains many different gene regions that are transcribed into different ________.
a. Proteins
b. Polypeptides
c. RNAs
d. a and b
c. RNAs
After chromosomes are duplicated, each of the new copies is called a _____.
a. centromere
b. sister chromatid
c. sister chromosome
d. clone
e. nucleosome

b. sister chromatid
The building blocks of nucleic acids are
a. amino acids.
b. fatty acids.
c. monosaccharides.
d. nucleotides.
e. all of these.
d. nucleotides.
Replication of DNA
a. produces RNA molecules.
b. produces only new DNA.
c. produces two molecules, each of which is half new and half old DNA joined lengthwise to each other.
d. generates excessive DNA, which eventually causes the nucleus to divide.
e. is too complex to characterize.
c. produces two molecules, each of which is half new and half old DNA joined lengthwise to each other.
Bacteriophages are
a. large bacteria.
b. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria).
c. viruses.
d. cellular components.
e. protistans.
c. viruses
A human karyotype showing 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes would be
a. a normal male.
b. a normal female.
c. an abnormal male.
d. an abnormal female.
e. none of these.
b. a normal female
How many different types of RNA molecules are needed to make protein?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 6
c. 3
What is the form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled?
a. messenger RNA
b. nuclear RNA
c. ribosomal RNA
d. transfer RNA
e. structural RNA
a. messenger RNA
Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes, where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide?
a. mRNA
b. tRNA
c. hnRNA
d. rRNA
e. all of these
b. tRNA
Transcription
a. occurs on the surface of the ribosome.
b. is the final process in the assembly of a protein.
c. is the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template.
d. is catalyzed by DNA polymerase.
e. is all of these.
c. is the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template.
Which of the following catalyzes the process of transcription?
a. RNA polymerase
b. DNA polymerase
c. ligase
d. gyrase
e. all of these
a. RNA polymerase
A locus is
a. a recessive gene.
b. an unmatched allele.
c. a sex chromosome.
d. the location of an allele on a chromosome.
e. a dominant gene.
d. the location of an allele on a chromosome.
Alternative forms of a gene at a given locus are called
a. chiasmata.
b. alleles.
c. autosomes.
d. loci.
e. chromatids.
b. alleles.
Which of the following indicates homozygous genotypes?
a. aa
b. Aa
c. AA
d. Aa and AA
e. AA and aa
e. AA and aa
Which of the following genotypes show dominant phenotypes?
a. aa
b. Aa
c. AA
d. Aa and AA
e. AA and aa
d. Aa and AA
According to Mendel, what kinds of genes “disappear" in F1 pea plants?
a. sex-linked
b. dominant
c. recessive
d. codominant
e. lethal
c. recessive
A colorblind man and a woman with normal vision whose father was colorblind have a son. Colorblindness, in this case, is caused by an X-linked recessive gene. If only the male offspring are considered, the probability that their son is colorblind is
a. 0.0 (0 percent).
b. 0.25 (25 percent).
c. 0.50 (50 percent).
d. 0.75 (75 percent).
e. 1.0 (100 percent).
c. 0.50 (50 percent)
A colorblind man and a woman with normal vision whose father was colorblind have a daughter. Colorblindness, in this case, is caused by an X-linked recessive gene. The probability that their daughter is colorblind is
a. 0.0 (0 percent).
b. 0.25 (25 percent).
c. 0.50 (50 percent).
d. 0.75 (75 percent).
e. 1.0 (100 percent).
c. 0.50 (50 percent).
An X-linked carrier is a
a. homozygous dominant female.
b. heterozygous female.
c. homozygous recessive female.
d. homozygous male.
e. heterozygous male.
b. heterozygous female.
A chromosome that has been broken and rejoined in a reversal sequence has undergone
a. inversion.
b. deletion.
c. duplication.
d. translocation.
e. crossing over.
a. inversion.
The condition occurring when an organism has a 2n + 1 chromosome composition is known as
a. monosomy.
b. trisomy.
c. diploid.
d. haploid.
e. both trisomy and haploid.
b. trisomy.
The longest part of the cell cycle is usually
a. anaphase.
b. interphase.
c. metaphase.
d. prophase.
e. telophase.
b. interphase.
The chromosomes and genes are actually replicated during
a. anaphase.
b. metaphase.
c. interphase.
d. prophase.
e. telophase.
c. interphase.
The chromosomes are aligned at the spindle equator during
a. anaphase.
b. metaphase.
c. interphase.
d. prophase.
e. telophase.
b. metaphase.
The chromatids detach from one another and become visibly separated chromosomes during
a. anaphase.
b. metaphase.
c. interphase.
d. prophase.
e. telophase.
a. anaphase.
Four of the five answers listed below are events occurring during mitosis. Select the exception.
a. chromosome replication
b. division of centromere
c. lining up chromosomes at the cellular equator
d. spindle microtubules attach to centromeres
e. chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell
a. chromosome replication
If meiosis did not occur in sexually reproducing organisms,
a. the zygote would be haploid.
b. gametes would be haploid.
c. mitosis would be sufficient.
d. the chromosome number would double in each generation.
e. eggs would be diploid but sperm would be haploid.
d. the chromosome number would double in each generation.
If a parent cell has 16 chromosomes and undergoes meiosis, the resulting cells will have how many chromosomes?
a. 64
b. 32
c. 16
d. 8
e. 4
d. 8
Homologous chromosomes
a. are the same size.
b. have genes for the same characteristics (even though the alleles may not be the same).
c. are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother.
d. pair up during meiosis.
e. are all of these.
-are the same size.
-have genes for the same characteristics (even though the alleles may not be the same).
-are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother.
-pair up during meiosis.
e. are all of these.
The sister chromatids become separated during ____ of meiosis.
a. metaphase I
b. anaphase I
c. telophase I
d. anaphase II
e. prophase II
d. anaphase II
Crossing over usually occurs in which of the following stages of meiosis?
a. prophase I
b. interphase
c. anaphase II
d. metaphase I
e. telophase II
a. prophase I
Individuals don't evolve, ____ do.
Populations
Biologists define evolution as ____.
a. purposeful change in a lineage
b. heritable change in a line of descent
c. acquiring traits during individual's lifetime
b. heritable change in a line of descent
____is the original source of new allele.
a. Mutation
b. Natural Selection
c. Genetic Drift
d. Gene flow
e. All of above
a. Mutation
Evolution can only occur in a population when ____.
a. mating is random
b. there is selection pressure
c. neither is necessary
c. neither is necessary
A fire devastates all trees in wide swath of forest. Populations of species in tree-dwelling frog on either side of burned area diverge to become separate species. This is an example of ____.
a. Allopatric Speciation
b. Sympatric Speciation
c. Parapatric Speciation
a. Allopatric Speciation
Stabilizing selection tends to ____ (select all that apply).
a. eliminate extreme forms of trait
b. favor extreme forms of trait
c. eliminate intermediate forms of trait
d. favor intermediate forms of trait
e. shift allele frequencies in one direction
a. eliminate extreme forms of trait
d. favor intermediate forms of trait
Disruptive selection tends to ____ (select all that apply).
a. eliminate extreme forms of trait
b. favor extreme forms of trait
c. eliminate intermediate forms of trait
d. favor intermediate forms of trait
e. shift allele frequencies in one direction
b. favor extreme forms of trait
c. eliminate intermediate forms of trait
Directional selection tends to (select all that apply).
a. eliminate extreme forms of trait
b. favor extreme forms of trait
c. eliminate intermediate forms of trait
d. favor intermediate forms of trait
e. shift allele frequencies in one direction
b. favor extreme forms of trait
e. shift allele frequencies in one direction
Sexual selection, such as occurs when males compete for access to fertile females, frequently influences aspects of body form and can lead to ____.
a. male/female differences
b. male aggression
c. exaggerated traits
d. all of above
a. male/female differences
b. male aggression
c. exaggerated traits
d. all of above
The persistence of malaria and sickle-cell anemia in a population is a case of ____.
a. bottlenecking
b. balanced polymorphism
c. natural selection
d. artificial selection
e. B & C
b. balanced polymorphism
c. natural selection
e. B & C
____tends to keep populations of a species similar to one another.
a. Genetic drift
b. Gene flow
c. Mutation
d. Natural selection
b. Gene flow
In evolutionary trees, each node represents a(n) ____.
a. single lineage
b. extinction
c. point of divergence
d. adaptive radiation
c. point of divergence
In cladograms, sister groups are ____.
a. inbred
b. same age
c. represented by nodes
d. in same family
b. same age
The number of species on an island depends on size of island and its distance from mainland. This statement would most likely be made by ____.
a. explorer
b. biogeographer
c. geologist
d. philosopher
b. biogeographer
Evolution ____.
a. is natural selection
b. is heritable change in line of descent
c. can occur by natural selection
d. b and c
b. is heritable change in line of descent
c. can occur by natural selection
d. b and c
Which of following is a fossil?
a. Insect encased in 10Mil.Yr.Old tree sap
b. Woolly mammoth frozen in Arctic permafrost for last 50,000 yrs
c. Mineral-hardened remains of whale-like animal found in Egyptian desert
d. Impression of plant leaf in rock
e. All of above
a. Insect encased in 10Mil.Yr.Old tree sap
b. Woolly mammoth frozen in Arctic permafrost for last 50,000 yrs
c. Mineral-hardened remains of whale-like animal found in Egyptian desert
d. Impression of plant leaf in rock
e. All of above
Did Pangea or Gondwana form first?
Gondwana
Bones of bird's wing are similar to bones in bat's wing. This is an observation of ____.
a. uniformity
b. evolution
c. comparative morphology
d. lineage
c. comparative morphology
If half-life of radioisotope is 20,000yrs, then sample in which three-quarters of that radioiosotope has decayed is ____ years old.
a. 15,000
b. 26,667
c. 30,000
d. 40,000
d. 40,000
Forces of geologic change include ____(select all that are correct).
a. erosion
b. fossilization
c. volcanic activity
d. evolution
e. tectonic plate movement
f. wind
g. asteroid impacts
h. hot spots
a. erosion
c. volcanic activity
e. tectonic plate movement
f. wind
g. asteroid impacts
h. hot spots
Cretaceous ended ____million years ago.
65.5 Million years ago
Life originated in the ____.
Archean Eon
Through ____, a body part of an ancestor is modified differently in different lines of descent.
a. morphological divergence
b. adaptive divergence
c. morphological convergence
d. homologous evolution
a. morphological divergence
Homologous structures among major groups of organisms may differ in ____.
a. size
b. shape
c. function
d. all of above
a. size
b. shape
c. function
d. all of above
Constructing a pedigree is useful when studying inheritance patterns in organisms that ____.
a. produce many offspring per generation
b. produce few offspring per generation
c. have very large chromosome numbers
d. reproduce sexually
e. have fast life cycle
b. produce few offspring per generation
Pedigree analysis is necessary when studying human inheritance patterns because ____.
a. humans have more than 20,000 genes
b. ethical problems with experimenting on humans
c. inheritance in humans is more complicated than in other organisms
d. genetic disorders occur in humans
e. all of above
b. ethical problems with experimenting on humans
A recognized set of symptoms that characterize a genetic disorder is a(n) ____.
a. syndrome
b. disease
c. abnormality
a. syndrome
If one parent is heterozygous for dominant allele on an autosome & the other parent does not carry the allele, any child of theirs has a ____ chance of being heterozygous.
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. no chance; it will die
b. 50%
True/False. A son can inherit an X-linked recessive allele from him father.
False
A trait that is present in a male child but not in either parents is characteristic of ____ inheritance.
a. autosomal dominant
b. autosomal recessive
c. X-linked recessive
d. It's not possible to answer, need more info.
c. X-linked recessive
Color-blindness is a case of ____ inheritance.
a. autosomal dominant
b. autosomal recessive
c. X-linked dominant
d. X-linked recessive
d. X-linked recessive
What do you think the pattern of inheritance of the human SRY gene is called?
Y-Linked dominant inheritance
A female child inherits one X chromosome from her mother & one from her father. What sex chromosome does male child inherit from each parent.
X from Mom and Y from Dad
Nondisjunction can result in ____.
a. polyploidy
b. aneuploidy
c. crossing over
d. pleiotropy
b. aneuploidy
Nondisjunction can occur during ____ of meiosis.
a. anaphase I
b. telophase I
c. anaphase II
d. a or c
a. anaphase I
c. anaphase II
d. a or c
True/False. Body cells may inherit three or more of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species, a condition called polyploidy.
True
Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) can be easily diagnosed by ____/
a. pedigree analysis
b. aneuploidy
c. karyotyping
d. phenotypic treatment
c. karyotyping
Nondisjunction may occur during ____.
a. mitosis
b. meiosis
c. fertilization
d. both a & b
a. mitosis
b. meiosis
d. both a & b
A heterozygous individual has a ____ for a trait being studied.
a. pair of identical alleles
b. pair of nonidentical alleles
c. haploid condition, in genetic terms
b. pair of nonidentical alleles
An organism's observable traits constitute it's ____.
a. phenotype
b. variation
c. genotype
d. pedigree
a. phenotype
A second-generation offspring of a cross between individuals who are homozygous for different alleles of a gene are called the ____.
a. F1 generation
b. F2 generation
c. hybrid generation
d. none of the above
b. F2 generation
F2 offspring of the cross AA X aa are ____.
a. all AA
b. all aa
c. all Aa
d. 1/2 AA and 1/2 aa
c. all Aa
A second-generation offspring of a cross between individuals who are homozygous for different alleles of a gene are called the F2 generation. Assuming complete dominace, F2 generation will show phenotypic ratio of ____.
a. 3:1
b. 9:1
c. 1:2:1
d. 9:3:3:1
a. 3:1
A test cross is a way to determine ____.
a. phenotype
b. genotype
c. both a & b
b. genotype
Assuming complete dominance, crosses between two dihybrid F1 pea plants, which are offspring from a cross AABB X aabb, result in F2 phenotype ratios of____.
a. 1:2:1
b. 3:1
c. 1:1:1:1
d. 9:3:3:1
d. 9:3:3:1
Probability of crossover occurring between two genes on the same chromosome____.
a. is unrelated to distance between them
b. decreases with distance between them
c. increases with distance between them
c. increases with distance between them
A gene that affects three traits is ____.
a. epistatic
b. multiple allele system
c. pleiotropic
d. dominant
c. pleiotropic
____alleles are both expressed.
a. Dominant
b. Codominant
c. Pleiotropic
d. Hybrid
b. Codominant
A bell curve indicates ____ in a trait.
Continuous variation
The main evolutionary advantage of sexual over asexual reproduction is that it produces ____.
a. more offspring per individual
b. more variation among offspring
c. healthier offspring
b. more variation among offspring
Meiosis functions in ____.
a. asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes
b. growth & tissue repair in multicelled species
c. sexual reproduction
d. both a & b
c. sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction in animals requires ____.
a. meiosis
b. fertilization
c. spore formation
d. a and b
a. meiosis
b. fertilization
d. a and b
Meiosis ____the parental chromosome number.
a. doubles
b. halves
c. maintains
d. mixes up
b. halves
Crossing over mixes up ____.
a. chromosomes
b. alleles
c. zygotes
d. gametes
b. alleles
Crossing over happens during which phase of meiosis?
Prophase I
The stage of meoisis that makes descendant cells haploid is ____.
a. prophase I
b. prophase II
c. anaphase I
d. anaphase II
e. metaphase I
f. metaphase II
c. anaphase I
Dogs have a diploid chromosome number of 78. How many chromosomes do their gametes have?
a. 39
b. 78
c. 156
d. 234
a. 39
____contributes to variation in traits among the offspring of sexual reproducers.
a. crossing over
b. random attachment of chromosomes to spindle poles
c. fertilization
d. both a & b
e. all are factors
a. crossing over
b. random attachment of chromosomes to spindle poles
c. fertilization
d. both a & b
e. all are factors
Which of the following is one of the very important difference between mitosis & meiosis?
a. chromosomes align midway btn spindle poles only in meiosis
b. homologous chromosomes pair up only in meiosis
c. DNA is replicated only in mitosis
d. sister chromatids separate in meiosis
e. interphase occures only in meitosis
b. homologous chromosomes pair up only in meiosis
Chromosomes number _____.
a. refers to a particular chromosome pair in a cell
b. is an identifiable feature of species
c. is like a set of books
d. all of above
b. is an identifiable feature of species
Sister chromatids connect at the
Centromere
Basic unit that structurally organizes a eukaryotic chromosome is the ____.
a. higher-order coiling
b. double helix
c. base sequence
d. nucleosome
d. nucleosome
Which is not a nucleotide base in DNA?
a. adenine
b. guanine
c. uracil
d. thymine
e. cytosine
f. all are in DNA
c. uracil
What are base-pairing rules for DNA?
a. A-G, T-C
b. A-C, T-G
c. A-U, C-G
d. A-T, G-C
d. A-T, G-C
One species' DNA differs from others in its ____.
a. sugars
b. phosphates
c. base sequence
d. all of above
c. base sequence
When DNA replication begins, ____.
a. two DNA strands unwind from each other
b. two DNA strands condense for base transfers
c. two DNA molecules bond
d. old strands move to finds new strands
a. two DNA strands unwind from each other
Show complementary strand of DNA that forms on this template DNA fragment during replication:
5'--GGTTTCTTCAAGAGA--3'
3'-CCAAAGAAGTTCTCT-5"
____is an example of reproductive cloning.
a. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
b. Multiple offspring from same pregnancy
c. Artificial embryo splitting
d. a and c
e. all of above
d. a and c
DNA of each species has unique ____that set it apart from DNA of all other species.
a. nucleotides
b. chromosomes
c. sequences
d. bases
c. sequences
____can be used to produce genetically identical organisms (clones).
a. SCNT
b. embryo splitting
c. therapeutic cloning
d. all of above
a. SCNT
b. embryo splitting
c. therapeutic cloning
d. all of above
A karyotype reveals the ____ of a single cell.
a. base sequences
b. chromosomes
c. hereditary information
d. clones
b. chromosomes
SCNT with human cells is called ____.
Therapeutic cloning
Filial means
Offspring
Only DNA & protein
Bacteriophage
Copy of organism
Clone
Nitrogen-containing base, sugar, phosphate group(s)
Nucleotide
Two chromosomes of each type
Diploid
Fills in gaps, seals breaks in DNA strand
DNA ligase
Adds nucleotides to a growing DNA strand
DNA polymerase
Does not determine sex
Autosome
Read as base triplets
Genetic message
Binding site for RNA polymerase
Promoter
Occurs only in groups
Polysome
Protein-coding segment
Exon
Complete set of 64 codons
Genetic code
Removed before translation
Intron
Gets around
Transposable element
All chromosomes are aligned along spindle equator
Metaphase I
May be none between Meiosis I and Meiosis II
Interphase
Different molecular form of a gene
Allele
Does not occur in animals
Sporophyte
Haploid
Gamete
AABB X aabb
Dihybrid cross
Aa X Aa
Monohybrid cross
bb
Homozygous condition
Aa
Heterozygous condition
Symptoms of genetic disorder
Syndrome
Segment of chromosome moves to nonhomologous chromosome
Translocation
Extra sets of chromosomes
Polyploidy
Results in gametes with the wrong chromosome number
Nondisjunction during meiosis
A chromosome segment is lost
Deletion
One extra chromosome
Aneuploidy
Evidence of life in distant past
Fossils
Geologic change occurs continuously
Uniformity
Human arm & bird wing
Homologous structures
Big role in development
Homeotic Genes
Measured by reproductive success
Fitness
Insect wing and bird wing
Analogous structures
Survival of the fittest
Natural selection
Characteristic of radioisotope
Half-life
Can lead to interdependent species
Coevolution
Changes in a population's allele frequencies due to chance alone
Genetic drift
Alleles enter or leave a population
Gene flow
Evolutionary History
Phylogeny
Occurs in different patterns
Natural selection
Burst of divergences from one lineage into many
Adaptive radiation
Source of new alleles
Mutation
Diagram of sets within sets
Cladogram
1. Which of the following was not one of Darwin's observations?
a. Most individuals have an equal chance to survive and reproduce.
b. Changes in organisms were gradual and took place over long periods of time.
c. Members of the same species may show considerable variation.
d. Some characteristics are heritable and are passed on to offspring.
e. Some characteristics afford the organism with improved chances of survival.
a. Most individuals have an equal chance to survive and reproduce.
2. The wings of a bird and the wings of a butterfly are ____ and show morphological ____.
a. homologous; convergence
b. analogous; convergence
c. homologous; divergence
d. analogous; divergence
e. none of these
b. analogous; convergence
3. Four of the five answers listed below are portions of the theory of natural selection. Select the exception.
a. Variation is heritable.
b. Heritable traits vary in adaptability.
c. More organisms are produced than can survive.
d. The largest and strongest always contribute more genes to the next generation.
e. Natural selection is the result of differential reproduction.
d. The largest and strongest always contribute more genes to the next generation.
4. According to Darwin, natural selection is based on the ____ found in populations.
a. acquired characters
b. variations
c. weakest members
d. noncompetitors
e. similarities
b. variations
5. The fossil record is incomplete because
a. very few organisms were preserved as fossils.
b. organisms tend to decay before becoming a fossil.
c. animals with hard parts are preserved more easily.
d. geological processes may destroy fossils.
*e. of all of these.
-very few organisms were preserved as fossils.
-organisms tend to decay before becoming a fossil.
-animals with hard parts are preserved more easily.
-geological processes may destroy fossils.
e. of all of these.
6. Which of the following evolve?
a. populations
b. genera
c. kingdoms
d. phyla
e. individuals
a. populations
7. New alleles arise by
a. mutation.
b. migration.
c. genetic drift.
d. random mating.
e. independent assortment.
a. mutation.
8. A species is composed of
a. related organisms.
b. a group of reproductive females.
c. populations that have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
d. organisms located in the same habitat.
e. all males and females in the same geographical range with the same ecological requirements.
c. populations that have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
9. Two individuals are members of the same species if they
a. possess the same number of chromosomes.
b. breed at the same time.
c. are phenotypically indistinguishable.
*d. mate in their natural environment and produce fertile offspring.
e. live in the same environment.
d. mate in their natural environment and produce fertile offspring.
10. Allopatric speciation requires
a. gradual evolutionary changes.
b. geographic isolation.
c. polyploidy.
d. adaptive radiation.
e. rapid evolutionary change.
b. geographic isolation.