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144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
study of structure and their relationships
Physiology
study of the structure’s function (biochemistry)
Pathology
study of disease
Anatomical Position
the body is assumed to be standing, the feet together, the arms to the side, and the head and eyes and palms of the hands facing forwards
Supine
standing face forward or laying on your back, hands at sides, palms forward
Prone
laying on your stomach, palms facing the way you're prone to standing
who's right or left?
the patient's
Anterior & Posterior
Front versus back
Ventral & Dorsal
Front versus back
Superior & Inferior
Above versus below
Medial & Lateral
Center versus off a side
Proximal & Distal
where the appendage joins the body,versus furthest from the point of attachment to the body
Ipsilateral & Contralateral
On the same side versus on the opposite sides
Frontal (coronal) plane
divides body into anterior / posterior sections
Transverse plane
horizontal or cross-sectional division
Sagittal plane
longitudinal - divides area into right / left side
cranial cavity
the space formed inside the skull, which the brain occupies
vertebral or spinal canal
the space in vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes
meninges
the system of membranes which envelops the central nervous system
thoracic cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
pericardial cavity
the fluid filled sac that surrounds the heart and the proximal ends of the aorta, vena cava, and the pulmonary artery
mediastinum
the mass of tissues and organs separating the two pleural sacs, between the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other structures and tissues
pleural cavity
the potential space between the two pleura (visceral and parietal) of the lungs
abdominopelvic (peritoneal cavity)
abdominal cavity
pelvic cavity
visceral organs
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
RUQ---LUQ
RLQ---LLQ
visceral organs
the internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart or lungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas or intestines)
Support, Movement, Protection are offered by which organs? (3)
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Integration & Coordination are offered by which organs? (2)
Nervous
Endocrine
Maintenance is offered by which organs? (5)
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Reproduction & Development are offered by how many organs? (1)
The reproductive system
Homeostasis
systems working together to maintain stable internal conditions + dynamic equilibrium, negative and positive feedback, controlled by nervous and endocrine systems
Positive feedback
increase in function in response to a stimulus. For example, micturition increases after the flow of urine has started, and the uterus contracts more frequently and with greater strength after it has begun to contract in labor
Dynamic equilibrium
the condition of balance between varying, shifting, and opposing forces that is characteristic of living processes

constant fluctuations - temp., HB/ BP/ breathing/ glucose levels
Negative feedback
a decrease in function in response to a stimulus. For example, the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone decreases as the amount of circulating estrogen increases
Which system is homeostasis controlled by? (2)
by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
What is disease from a homeostasis perspective?
Disease is failure to maintain homeostasis
KInds of disease (6)
1) pathogens / parasites
2) genetic conditions
3) loss of immune function
4) degenerative
5) trauma, accidents, environmental hazards
6) nutritional factors
Categories of disease (4)
local : restricted
systemic: several systems
acute : sudden / short
chronic: develops slowly / long term
How many chemical elements are in the human body?
Fewer than 30
What are the primary chemicals in the human body?
C HOPKIN'S CaFe + Cu Co Cl Na

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxigen, Phosporus, Potassium, Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Calcium, Iron + Copper, Cobalt, Clorene, Sodium

90% of the body is HCNO
Atom
smallest undivided unit of an element, makes up molecules and compounds
Molecules
two or more atoms
true building blocks of the body
Compounds
molecules of different elements bonded together, held together by bonds (energy)
What are the three types of bonds?
Ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
Ionic bond
the attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions. This makes the bond stronger and harder to break. They tend to tend to form inorganic molecules, are weak in water and tend to break apart

Ionic bonds play in important role in electrolytes, making them capable of conducting electricity in water (NaCl), which is important for the nervous / muscle systems
Covalent bond
bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms - are chemical bonds between two non-metal atoms. Covalent bonds are weaker than ionic bonds, and have a lower melting point. They tend to form organic molecules and are strong in water. They are also thought to be poor conductors of electricity and heat
Hydrogen bond
electromagnetic attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom that comes from another molecule or chemical group. They form temporary, weak bonds, usually attaching molecules to one another. The hydrogen bond is important for cohesiveness / adhesiveness
Electrolytes
the ionized salts present in body fluids that play an important role in functioning of the human body
Inorganic moledules
Lack Carbon - water, salts, acids, bases, gases
Water - % in body, functions in body (6)
-60% of body mass
-is an important solvent
-transporter
-lubricates / cushions
-stabilizes body temperature
-(absorbs / releases heat)
-medium for chemical reactions
Gases that are important for body (2)
O2, CO2
Positively charged electrolytes
Cations
Negatively charged electrolytes
Anions
What are electrolytes important for in the body?
The nervous/muscular system
What determines alkalinity?
H+
Acid
a substance that donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another substance
has a pH under 7
dissociates in H2O and releases H+
Base
substance that can accept protons
has a pH of over 7
dissociates in H2O and releases ions that can combine with H+ (OH-)
Acidosis
condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids
blood H+ is high
pH is less than 7.0
Alkalosis
condition in which there is too much base in the body fluids
blood H+ is low
pH is above 7.0
What does pH (high or low) affect in the body?
high or low pH alters the shape of bio-chemicals and their functions
Buffers
minimize pH change caused by excess acids or bases, convert strong acids or bases into a weaker acid or base (act as sponges to absorb or release H+)
Organic Molecules
C- based
covalently bonded
insoluble in water perform complex body function
form Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
What are the four organic macromolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What are Carbohydrates?
body’s building blocks and main source of cell energy
What are the three kinds of carbohydrates?
1. monosaccharides (the most basic units of biologically important carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of sugar - aka glucose, fructose, galactose)
2. disaccharides (carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction aka sucrose, lactose, maltose)
3. polysaccharides (long carbohydrate molecules of repeated units joined together - aka starch, cellulose)
cells
the basic structural / functional units of the body, it contains organelles
tissue
group of similar specialized cells working together to perform a special function
organ
structure of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues
organ system
group of organs working together for a common function
what are the living characteristics?
maintenance of cellular boundaries
movement
metabolism
differentiation
responsiveness
reproduction
division (growth, development, repair)
What functions do lipids provide?
store energy
offer protection
provide insulation
build membrane structure
help ingest vitamins
What kinds of proteins are there? (4)
fatty acids (simplest lipids)
triglycerides (most plentiful in body and diet)
phospholipids (make up cell membranes)
steroids (cholesterol, sex hormones, cortisol, bile, Vit D)
Proteins
building blocks of life
provide repair and maintenance
made up of polypeptides
polypeptide
series of amino acids
what functions do proteins surve? (6)
a) movement (muscles)
b) structure (muscles / skin)
c) transport (O2 / lipoproteins)
d) cellular communication (hormones)
e) defense (antibodies)
f) catalytic/biochemical (enzymes) - regulate biochemical reactions (digestive/metabolic)
Enzyme
biological molecules that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions
(highly specific: biochemical / enzyme work in a “lock & key” fit)
enzyme names always end with -ase
How are proteins denatured?
With sunlight, fever, cold temperature, drugs
Nucleic Acids
contain genetic material
DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid composed of genes (traits)
RNA = ribonucleic acid
relay instructions from genes
ATP
energy molecule
adenosine triphosphate
Vitamins
an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts - most of vitamins are consumed though food
D = only one made in and by the body
K = made by bacteria in the large intestine
Minerals
inorganic compounds from plant extracts in the soil (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn)
Metabolism
the set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells
Metabolism
the set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells
Principal parts of cells
1- plasma membrane
2- cytoplasm
3- nucleus
plasma membrane
phospholipid bi-layer - biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment
phospholipid bilayer
thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around cells. They are made up of phosphate / lipids /cholesterol / glycolipids
membrane proteins
protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organelle. These proteins are specifically targeted to different types of biological membranes
What functions do membrane proteins surve? (5)
channels (pores)
carriers (transporters) receptors
enzymes linkers (anchor cells to one another)
identity markers
Selective permeability
membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion". regulates exchanges between ECF / ICF gradient. The speed varies based on shape, solubiltiy, and charges
phospholipids
a building block for the lipid bilayer membrane - consisting of a phosphate head and two fatty acid tails
microvilli
tiny hairlike folds in the plasma membrane that extend from the surface of many absorptive or secretory cells. They are most clearly visible with an electron microscope but may be seen as a "brush border" with a light microscope. Are useful for faster absorption.
plasma membrane junctions - what are they, and what kinds are there? (3)
junctions are kinds of connections between cells (particularly epithelial)

1. tight: impermeable junctions that bind cells into leak proof sheets
2. desmosomes: anchor cells together to prevent being pulled apart
3. gap: communication between cells
glycoprotein receptors
Glycoproteins are small molecules found on the outside surface of all body cells. Different types of cells have specific, unique types of glycoproteins attached to them.

Glycoproteins are vital to a number of important biological functions. They allow certain types of cell-to-cell communication, help coordinate complicated cellular responses to stimuli, and activate the action of other types of cells.

blood type, hormone communication, “ID”
Types of PM transport (3)
Simple diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Simple Diffusion
does not require ATP - random movement of molecules down a concentration gradient using kinetic or thermal energy until an equilibrium is reached (any molecule can diffuse (perfume, dye, O2, CO2) )
Facilitated Diffusion
requires carrier molecule to transport from higher to lower concentration (sugars)
Osmosis
diffusion of only H2O across the PM where direction of H2O movement is controlled by amount of solutes in the water between ECF (IF) / ICF
kinds of osmotic conditions (3)
Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
Isotonic
H2O moves in and out at same rate, allows cells to keep their normal shape and volume
Normal Saline Solution ( 0.9% NaCl solution)
Hypotonic
less solutes (=more water) in ECF (IF) water moves in to cell (edema or lysis) (RBCs in pure H2O) - cell swells up
Hypertonic
more solutes (= less water) in ECF (IF)
water moves out of cell
dehydration or crenation
(2% NaCl solution)
dysplasia
disordered growth of epithelium cells (like a paps smear exam)
neoplasia
uncontrolled cellular growth, which may be malignant. Carcinoma is an example that affects epithelia cells
hyperplasia
abnormal multiplication of cells - aka gross enlargement
hypertrophy
enlargement of an organ by enlargement of preexisting cells
atrophy
decrease in normal size from loss of cellular size or number
necrosis
death of a tissue or cell
apoptosis
programmed death of a cell
Filtration
high pressure (blood pressure) pushes H2O and solutes from high concentration to low concentration
Endocytosis
requires ATP for the PM to form an inner pocket to envelop a solute
Exocytosis
requires ATP for the PM to release a solute secretion - releases waste and secretions (insulin from insulin-producing cells)
Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance residing within the cell membrane holding all the cell's internal sub-structures (called organelles), outside the nucleus.
75% water, floats organelles, molecules, etc
Essential organelles (5)
1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - can be rough or smooth. They synthese stuff
2. Golgi apparatus - sort and packages secretions (garbage disposal)
3. Mitochondria - cellular respiration - ATP formation
4. Lysosomes - garbage disposal
5. Centrioles - required for cell division
nucleus
holds the genetic information, aka “blueprints”
2 kinds of cell division
mitosis - occurs in somatic cells (2N)
meiosis - produces sperm and ova (1N)
Somatic cells
2N cells that divide by mitosis
contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (one from each parent)

Specialized cells - longer lived with lesser ability to divide
Simpler cells - short lived with greater ability to divide
Tumor cells (2)
Benign VS malignant
metastasis
the process of tumor spreading
histology
study of tissues
tissue
groups of cells with similar shape, size, structure and function
Four types of cells
epithelial
connective
muscular
nervous
Epithelial tissue functions (3)
-covers body surfaces, lines body cavities and hollow organs
-secretes substances
-forms glands
Epithelial tissue characteristics (4)
cells have a free surface toward the exterior
avascular: fed by diffusion from deep BVs
stretch
rapid replacement
Cell Shapes (3)
squamous = flat
cuboid = cubed
columnar = column
Cell Layers (3)
simple = 1 layer of cells
stratified = more than 1 layer
pseudostratified = 1 layer but appears to be more
glands
epithelial cells adapted for secretion
Endocrine glands
ductless (secrete directly into blood - pituitary)
Exocrine glands
glands that secrete thru ducts (oil, sweat)
membrane (epithelial, not plasma)
thin sheet of epithelial and connective tissues that cover body surface and organs / covers organs
types of membrane (4)
mucous membrane - barrier against pathogens
serous membrane - covers organs within body cavities
cutaneous membrane - skin
synovial membrane - secretes a lubricating fluid in joint cavities
Connective tissue
most diverse and abundant of the tissues, binds organs together, stores energy reserves (fat) and helps provide immunity. Vascular except for cartilage
Types of connective tissue (5)
Bone
Cartilage
Dense CT - tendons, ligaments
Loose CT - adipose tissue
Blood/lymph
muscle tissue
uses ATP to generate force for body movement
well vascularized
what are muscle cells called?
fibers (they are spindle-shaped)
muscle tissue types (3)
1. skeletal - striated, multi-nucleated, voluntary, attached to bone
2. cardiac - striated (but less so), uninucleated, branched, INTERCALATED disks (for unison motion)
3. smooth - non-striated and involuntary, lines organ wall such as the colon
peristaltic movement
initiated by circular smooth muscles contracting behind the chewed material to prevent it from moving back into the mouth - pushing (expelling) movement
Two types of cells in nervous tissue
neurons - cells that conduct electrical impulses
neuroglia cells - supportive and protective cells
four signs of tissue inflammation
redness, swelling, heat, pain
keloids
the excess growth of scar tissue at the site of a healed skin injury (children more prone)
Types of cancer (4)
carcinoma
sarcoma
lymphoma
melanoma
Carcinoma
cancer type that affects the epithelial tissue lining an organ
Sarcoma
cancer type that affects soft tissue - fat, muscles, nerves, CT (bone)
Lymphoma
cancer type that affects lymph nodes, white blood cells (WBC), spleen. Can arise from any organ or site
Melanoma
cancer type that involves melanocytes (skin pigment cells)