Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/251

Click to flip

251 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is photosynthesis?
the process by which plants convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into carbohydrates and oxygen.
*the process by which plants capture energy from the sun and store it in the chemical bonds of sugars and other food molecules
Which answer is an example of potential energy?
a. Heat from a fire
b. Sledding down a hill
c. A candy bar
d. Walking to your car
C. a candy bar
What is potential energy?
stored energy that is not being used at that exact moment
The following are all true except:
a. Exergonic processes release energy
b. Endergonic processes are uphill processes
c. Coupling an uphill process with a downhill process will always result in an overall exergonic process
d. reversing the hydrolysis of ATP creates ATP
D. reversing the hydrolysis of ATP creates ATP
Not all proteins are enzymes
true
How many different types of amino acids are there?
20!
Water is set free when you bond amino acids; an example of this would be?
Condensation!
How many combinations and permutations are possible for the amino acids in a protein 100 aa's long?
a. 20 x 100
b. 100^20
c. 20^100
d. 20+100
e. none of the above
C. 20^100
Name 5 essential amino acids

(LIMPT)
leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan
Why are essential amino acids "essential"?
because our body cannot make them; we must get our eaa's from foods
Secondary structure of a protein
corkscrew-like twists or pleated folds formed by H+ bonds between amino acids in the polypeptide chain
*alpha helix & B-pleated sheet
Tertiary structure of proteins
complex, 3-d shape formed by multiple twists and bends in pp chain based on interactions between the side chains
What are enzymes?
*proteins
*act as catalysts to accelerate a reaction
*are specific to what they catalyze
*have substrates that fit into active sites
*are reusable
How do enzymes work?
enzymes weaken bonds, which lowers the activation energy
Enzyme-substrate complex
the substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate
Enzyme's functional shape is dependent on...
environmental factors!
[ion] stands for...
ion concentration
If you change the shape of an enzyme, the substrate might not fit in...what does this cause?
this is a cause of genetic disorders
Which is more energy efficient?
a. a conventional power plant
b. human respiration
c. a car combustion engine
b. human respiration
Laws of thermodynamics
in any isolated system;
*energy will not be lost or gained
*energy can be transformed into different forms of energy
First law
total amount of energy is constant, though it can change form
Second law
whenever anything actually happens, the entropy (disorder) of the system increases
(even though you clean yur room, it still gets messy again!)
*every conversion of energy is not perfectly efficient and invariably includes the transformation of some energy into heat
"Spontaneous changes"
chemical, potential energy in a sugar molecule is very much alike to a boulder rolling down the side of a mountain
An exergonic reaction is?
*a net release of free energy
*spontaneous
an endergonic reaction is?
putting energy in
When we digest food (macro-molecules) we are breaking the food down into its building blocks
-----
Examples of digesting food would be?
*proteins-->amino acids
*lipids-->fatty acids
*polysaccharides-->monosaccharides
Dismantling macro-molecules is a disorder process that ________ the entropy of the universe
increases!
How many combinations and permutations are possible for the aa's in a protein 50 aa's long--IF there were only 16 different amino acids?
16^50
Enzymes usually end in -ase
true
When we say something gives us "energy", what does that mean?
10-10-11
The most common value for expressing the amount of available energy in food is:
a. Calvins
b. Joules
c. calories
b. Joules
What affects enzyme activity?
3 factors: environmental conditions, cofactors and coenzymes, enzyme inhibitors
Environmental conditions factor's include:
Extreme temperature are the most dangerous-->denature enzyme
*pH (most like 6-8 pH near neutral)
*Ionic concentration (salt ions)
Cofactors and Coenzymes conditions include:
*Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins are sometimes needed for proper enzymatic activity
*EX: Iron must be present in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.
Enzyme inhibitors include:
competitive inhibitors & noncompetitive inhibitors
Competitive inhibitors
chemicals that resemble an enzyme's normal substrate and compete with it for the active site.
Noncompetitive inhibitors?
Don't go to the active site; instead they attach to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site
Identify each statement as an inhibitor that is either: a. competitive, b. noncompetitive, or c. neither A, nor B
1. Increasing substrate reverses inhibition
A.
Identify each statement as an inhibitor that is either: a. competitive, b. noncompetitive, or c. neither A, nor B
2. Binds to enzyme, but not its active site.
B.
Identify each statement as an inhibitor that is either: a. competitive, b. noncompetitive, or c. neither A, nor B
3. Inhibition is not reversed with the addition of substrate.
B.
How do you go from seed to wood; i.e. where is the matter in wood coming from?
10-12-11
The majority of actual weight (dry biomass) gained by plants as they progress from seed to adult plant comes from which one of the following substances?
a. particle substances in soil that are taken up by plant roots
b. molecules in the air that enter through holes in the plant leaves
c. substances dissolved in water taken up directly by plant roots
d. energy from the sun
e. all of the above
B. molecules in the air that enter through holes in the plant leaves
Formula for photosynthesis
CO2+H2O=C6H12O6 + 02
Formula for cellular respiration
C6H12O6+O2--->CO2+H2O+ATP
The energy from sunlight is stored in the chemical bonds of molecules
true
Photosynthetic organisms (name 3 ex's)
euglena, cyanobacterium, dinoflagellate
Does 90% of photosynthesis occur in the ocean?
yes
When the bonds of a molecule are broken...
...energy is released!
The sun is the source of energy that powers all living organisms
true!
The energy from sunlight is stored in the chemical bonds of molecules. When these bonds are broken, energy is released...regardless of whether the bond is in a molecule of food, a fossil fuel, or a biofuel like the oil in which french fries are cooked...
yes!
Photosynthesis takes place in the _______ of plant cells.
chloroplasts
"Photo" part of photosynthesis?
energy from the sun is captured and stored
"Synthesis" part of photosynthesis?
fixes carbon,makes sugar
Hundreds of layers of chloroplasts are within plant cells
true
Chloroplasts contain; stroma, thylakoids
---
Stroma is?
liquid part, location of "synthesis" reaction, where chemical energy is synthesized into sugar
Thylakoid is?
location of "photo" reaction, where light energy is converted into chemical energy
*pancakelike structure
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
the range of energy that is organized into waves of different lengths.
The shorter the wavelength, the _______ the energy.
higher
check out wavelength/light absorption graph in 10-12-11 slides
---
Is green reflected or absorbed by plants?
reflected; which makes the plant appear green (other colors in wavelength spectrum are absorbed)
The energy used by plants and animals ultimately comes from...
a. food
b. soil
c. sun
d. air
c. sun
When a plant in a pot gains weight, which input into the photosynthesis pathway added to the weight of the plant?
a. Carbon harvested from carbon dioxide
b. Oxygen harvested from carbon dioxide
c. Hydrogen harvested from water
d. Oxygen harvested from water
a. Carbon harvested from carbon dioxide
Air is not energy, air is matter;

CO2 in the air provides the nature biomass that we find in plants
10-17-11
What wavelength of light would you expect is NOT absorbed by chlorophyll a or b?
a. red
b. yellow
c. blue
d. green
e. purple
d. green
The "photo" reaction occurs where?
In the thylakoids of the leaves' chloroplasts
Sunlight + water go into plant, and _____ + ______ + _______ are released.
ATP & NADPH & oxygen are released.
______ & _________ are energy-storing molecules
ATP & NADPH!
Describe the energy movement through chlorophyll...
Light energy bumps and e- in the chlorophyll molecule to a higher, excited energy level-->potential energy increases when e's go to a higher energy state-->the excited electron then has 2 diff. fates.
What are the 2 fates of an excited electron?
1. some energy is transferred to a nearby molecule where it excites another electron
or;
2. the excited electron is transferred to a nearby molecule
Follow the e's and you won't get lost!
------
When chlorophyll gets hit by photons, the light energy excites an electron in the chlorophyll molecule, increasing the chlorophyll's potential energy
tru!
Electrons that leave the photosystems are ___________.
replenished
Electron Transport Chain
*connects two different photosystems
*product #1 of the "photo" portion of photosynthesis: ATP!
*last step of photosynthesis
"Synthesis" Process of photosynthesis is...the Calvin cycle!
What occurs during cc?
series of chemical reactions take place
*occurs in stroma
*enzymes are recycled
*Fixation, Sugar Creation, Regeneration
must know all the names & such for sure in the C Cycle!
10-17-11
Fixation
*rubisco( most abundant protein in the world)=an enzyme which catalyzes the first step
*carbon molecules are plucked from CO2 to form G3P
Sugar Creation
3 carbon sugar
*the organic molecule is modified into sugar called G3P using energy from ATP & NADPH
*molecules are also combined to form 6-carbon sugars like glucose or fructose
Regeneration
remaining G3P molecules are used to regenerate the original organic molecules with energy from ATP
Plants have both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Why?
a. the mitochondria also synthesize sugars
b. the mitochondria are used to convert O2 --->CO2 for the plant
c. the mitochondria break down sugars produced by photosynthesis to provide energy for the cellular work of the plant
d. the mitochondria break down fat
c. the mitochondria break down sugars produced by photosynthesis to provide energy for the cellular work of the plant
Summary of the calvin cycle?
Carbon from CO2 in the atmosphere is attached (fixed) to molecules in chloroplasts, sugars are built, and molecules are regenerated to be used again in the Calvin cycle
In the cell, excited chlorophyll a molecules:
a. return to the normal state after releasing energy in the form of light
b.return to the normal state after passing e-'s to another molecules
c. return to the normal state after releasing the energy to directly form ATP
d. remain the in the normal state after passing on the energy to chlorophyll b
b. Return to the normal state after passing electrons to another molecule
What is the second product of the "photo" portion of photosynthesis?
NADPH!
Which answer is an example of a molecule with high potential energy?
a. NADPH
b. NADP+
c. H20
d. O2
E. Both 1 & 2
A. NADPH
Why does NADPH have a high potential energy?
a. because it is use for electron transport
b. because it is equivalent to ATP
c. because it stores energy that is used to make G3P
d. because it contains phosphate that can be put on ADP to form ATP
c. because it stores energy that is used to make G3P
What is the cost associated with a plant using C4 or CAM photosynthesis?
a. more energy is used to form sugar
b. more CO2 is required to form sugars
c. the harvest of light energy and carbon fixation are temporarily separated
d. less water is lost in hot, dry climates
a. more energy is used to form sugars!
If glycolysis is very inefficient, why do it?
a. because pyruvate can be metabolized to yield more water
b. because pyruvate can be metabolized to yield more CO2
c. because pyruvate can be metabolized to absorb more e's
d. because pyruvate can be further metabolized to yield more energy
d. because pyruvate can be further metabolized to yield more energy
Energy is obtained from a molecules of glucose in a stepwise fashion. Why would this method of harvesting energy be beneficial to the cell/organism?
a. it is more efficient to form sugars a little bit at a time rather than all at once.
b. it is more efficient to release energy a little bit at a time rather than in one giant explosion
c. it is more efficient to make ATP from ADP than to make it from scratch
d. all of the above
B. it is more efficient to release energy a little bit at a time rather than in one giant explosion
Which process below uses anaerobic respiration?
a. Running 10 miles
b. Swimming 1 mile
c. sprinting 100 meters
d. making beer
e. 3 and 4
e. 3 and 4
What is an example of a disease that occurs when you are deficient of protein?
Pellagra
*decrease in appetite and weight
*only dietary deficiency disease to reach epic proportions in the US
NAD+ and NADP+ participate in 200+ reactons in the body
true
Breaking down macromolecules:

a. increases the entropy of the universe

b.releases energy

c.fuels a cell's activities

d.all of the above
d. all of the above
2. A cell is attempting to break down a sugar molecule that requires multiple chemical reactions. It would be useful for the cell to utilize:

a. an enzyme

b.photosynthesis

c.cellular respiration

d.none of the above
c. cellular respiration
3. Which of the following is the best definition of photosynthesis?

a. consists of 2 stages-"photo" stage where light is captured and the "synthesis" stage where sugar is made

b. the breaking down of sugar

c. the transportation of electrons

d.the production of ATP
a. consists of 2 stages-"photo" stage where light is captured and the "synthesis" stage where sugar is made
1.) Which of these occurs only under abnormal conditions during cellular respiration?

A. The regeneration of NAD+

B. The formation of lactic acid

C. The transport of hydrogen ions into the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

D. The combination of H+ ions and Oxygen to create water
b. the formation of lactic acid
2.) The ____________ structure in mitochondria allows them to harness the potential energy in the bonds of NADH and FADH.

A. Proton Pump

B. Oxaloacetate

C. High Energy

D. Bag-within-a-Bag
d. bag-within-a-bag
3.) When transferred energy excites electrons in a chlorophyll molecule...

A. the primary electron acceptor grabs them and sends them to the electron transport chain.

B. the energy from the excited electrons is transferred to nearby pigment molecules.

C. the energy dissipates.

D. the energy adds to the amount of entropy in the universe.
A. the primary electron acceptor grabs them and sends them to the electron transport chain.
Question 2: When oxygen isnt present, glycolygis can still occur using alternative molecules as electron acceptors, what is the name of this procress?

a. respiration

b. photosynthesis

c. fermentation

d. calvin cycle
c. fermentation
Question 3: When oxygen is not present, what other molecule can be used as an electron acceptor?

a. glucose

b. pyruvate

c. carbon

d. ethanol
b. pyruvate
Which is the correct order for the steps of cellular respiration?

1) calvin cycle, electron transport chain, glycosis

2) glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain

3) glycolysis, calvin cycle, electron transport chain

4) glycosis, electron transport chain, krebs cycle
2) glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
What is the structural difference between ADP and ATP?

1) ADP has all double bonds

2) ATP has more carbon bonds

3) ATP has an additional phosphate group

4) ADP has an additional phosphate group
3)ATP has an additional phosphate group

(since "T" is after "P" it is more, this is how you can remember)
3. The "photo" reaction occurs in the _________, and the "synthesis" reaction occurs in the ____________.

a) vacuole, stroma

b) stroma, thylakoid

c) thylakoid, stroma

d) vacuole, thylakoid
c)thyakoid, stroma
1. The Second law of thermodynamics explains which of the following characteristics of chemical reactions in the human body...

A. In chemical reactions energy is created to help humans manufacture cells.

B. In Chemical reactions in the body some energy is converted into heat

C. In Chemical reactions in the body all energy from the breakdown of glucose can be used by humans.

D. In Chemical reactions in the human body some energy is lost and leaves the body in the form of Carbon dioxide.
b. in chemical reactions in the body, some energy is converted into heat
2. What would be the direct result of a lack of NADPH molecules in the cell respiration process?

A. Glucose would not be produced

B. Carbon dioxide would not be produced

C. The energy from excited electrons could not be used in the cellcular respiration process to make ATP

D. Pyruvate would not be transported from the Inner mitochondrial membrane to the intermembrane space.
C. The energy from excited electrons could not be used in the cellcular respiration process to make ATP
3. How many times must the Krebs cycle repeat in order to fully dismantle the original molecule of glucose?

a) 1

b) 3

c) 7

d) 2
d) 2
Which is/are not an example/s of kinetic energy?

A. Legs pushing a bike

B. Water behind a dam

C. An apple

D. Birds flapping their wings

E. A&D

F. B&C
E. A&D
About how much energy from the sun is captured by plants?

A. 1%

B. 25%

C.75%

D. 99%
A) 1%
What part of the cell does the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain take place?

A)Nucleus
B)Cell wall
C)Mitochondria
D)Golgi apparatus
C) Mitochondria
1. Oxygen defiency _____ the rate at which the mitochondria can break down fuel and produce ATP.

a. limits

b. accelerates

c. increases

d. decreases

e. non of the above
a. limites
2. Humans (as well as other animals) can see colors because our eyes contain light-absorbing molecules called:

a. electromagnetic sprectums

b. spectrums of energy

c. carotenoids

d. pigments

e. non of the above
d. pigments
3. The elbaorate system of interconnected membranous structures floating in the stroma are called:

a. chloroplasts

b. thylakoids

c. chlorophyll

d. both a and b

e. none of the above
b. thylakoids
In cellular respiration, what is produced at the end of glycolysis?

a. 2 Pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADH
b. 2 ATP, NADPH, 2 Pyruvate
c. 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP
d. 2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADPH
e. 2 Pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADPH
a. 2 Pyruvate, 4 ATP, 2 NADH
What is the second step of cellular respiration?

a. Krebs Cycle
b.Calvin Cycle
c. Citric Acid Cycle
d. A and B
e. A and C
e. A&C
Which of the steps of cellular respiration does not require oxygen in order to function?

a. Krebs Cycle
b. Calvin Cycle
c. Electron Transport Chain
d. Glycolysis
e. Citric Acid Cycle
d. Glycolysis
1. Which of the following is an example of Potential Energy?

A. A person swimming

B. Water trapped behind a dam

C. Student typing up notes

D. An apple dropping from a tree
B. water trapped behind a dam
3. How does pH affect enzyme activity?

A. The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution affects the enzyme activity

B. The concentration of oxgen ions in a solution affects the enzyme activity

C. Enzymes with a a pH range of 6-8 will become denatured and and loose enzyme activity

D. All enzymes must have a pH range of 6-8 in order to function
A. The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution affects the enzyme activity
2) Iron must be present in the quaternary structure of hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen, this is an example of:

A) Immunogenic Response

B) Cofactors/Coenzymes

C) Denaturation

D) Tertiary Structure

E) Quaternary Structure
B) Cofactors and Coenzymes
3) Which of the following do NOT describe enzymes:

A) A Protein

B) Not reusable

C) Ends in -ase (i.e. sucrase, lactase)

D) Weaken bonds by raising activation energy

E) B and D
E) B and D
When can energy be destroyed?
a) During the “synthesis” part of photosynthesis

b) During the “photo” part of photosynthesis

c) When there is a lack of oxygen in the body during cellular respiration

d) Never
d) Never
Why is ATP and NADPH produced in the first part of photosynthesis?

A) Because it is used in the Krebs cycle to produce energy.

B) Because it is used in plant cells as food.

C) Because the production of glucose in the Calvin Cycle requires energy.

D) Because they are anions which store enery well.
C) Because the production of glucose in the Calvin Cycle requires energy.
Why are the cellular respiration steps located where they are?

A) They are grouped in the same part of the mitochrondria to decrease time and energy lost to transportation.

B) They are grouped in the same part of the mitochrondria so different parts of the process can use the same enzymes.

C) They are in separate parts of the mitochrondria to keep the reactions consistent and functional.

D) They are in separate parts of the mitochrondria because it is easier for scientists to map them like that.
C) They are in separate parts of the mitochondria to keep the reactions consistent and functional
Assuming that a dorm room was an isolated system, and that food is energy, which one of the following is NOT true?

A) No food could ever leave the dorm.

B) Over time, the food would spread out around the dorm room.

C) Food can disappear from the dorm.

D) Although the amount of food is constant, it can be altered into different food (Vegetables and broth to soup).
C) Food can disappear from a dorm
In metabolism, an endergonic reaction is:

a) exergonic

b) catabolic

c) anabolic

d) exothertmic
c)anabolic
Enzymes are globular proteins with what structure?

a) primary structure

b) secondary structure

c) tertiary structure

d) both a and b
c) tertiary structure
Where is the energy from sunlight stored?

a) the chloroplast of a plant cell

b) the mitochondrion of an animal cell

c) the mitochondria in both plant and animal cells

d) the chemical bonds of molecules

e) both c and d
d) the chemical bonds of molecules
Which one of these are NOT an Essential Amino Acid

A.Valine

B.Leucine

C.Isoleucine

D.Sucrose
D. Sucrose
An Enzymes shape is dependent on:

A. Amino Bonds

B. Monomers

C. Environmental factors

D. Polypeptide Bonds
C. Environmental factors
Which one of these are energy storage molecules?

A. ADP

B. ATP

C. NADPH

D. APP

E. Both B and C
E. Both B and C
2) Which of the following does NOT affect enzyme activity.

A- pH level

B- Temperature

C- Concentration of solutes

D- Length of time needed for reaction
D-Length of time needed for reaction
3) During photosynthesis, how is energy carried through the cell?

A- Light

B- Electrons

C- Chlorophyll A

D- The Krebs Cycle
B-Electrons
In which stage of cellular respiration is glucose split into pyruvate?

a) Krebs Cycle

b) Glycolysis

c) Payoff Phase

d) Electron Transport Chain
B-glycolysis
2.) The stroma is

a. located in the mitochondria

b. the site of sugar creation during photosynthesis

c. a fluid found within a chloroplast

d. the site of the conversion of light energy to chemical energy during photosynthesis

e. both B and C
e. both B and C
3.) Which of the following is/are true?

I. glycolysis is the first stage in cellular respiration

II. cellular respiration and respiration are not related at all

III. the Calvin cycle is part of cellular respiration



a. only I

b. only II

C. only III

d. I and II

e. II and III
A. only I
1. What is it called when water is set free to bond the neighboring amino acids in a polypeptide chain?

a. Splitting

b. Condensation

c. Coupling

d. Bonding
b. Condensation
1. Why might it take a pineapple twice as long to grow than a more "typical" plant like peas or grass?

a. its shape and size take longer to develop

b. sugars are used up much more quickly

c.because the outside of a pineapple is hard rather than soft, it is harder for CO2 to add to the mass of this fruit

d. by closing their stomata during the day and opening them at night, about only 12 hours of worth of photosynthesis is done during 24 hours

e. a majority of the oxygen is combined with H+ ions to create water which is found int he juice of pineapples
d. by closing their stomata during the day and opening them at night, about only 12 hours of worth of photosynthesis is done during 24 hours
3. A food molecule's stored energy is

a. overall inefficient

b. most useful when coming (directly) from photosynthetic organisms

c. used to create ATP, H20, and C02

d. essential for the first step of glycolysis
c. used to create ATP, H20, and C02
4. What is the most important action of the Krebs cycle?

a. producing ATP

b. producing high-energy electron carriers

c. releasing chemical energy

d. converting NADH to NAD+
b. producing high-energy electron carriers
5. Which of the following have potential energy?

a. chemical energy

b. heat

c. concentration gradient

d. light

e. a & c
e. a & c
1. What produces the most amount of useable energy in the kerbs cycle?

1. NADH

2.FADH2

3.ATP

4. zacetylCOA

5. both 1 and 2

6. Both 3 and 4
5. both 1 and 2
2. What happens when energy returns to the resting state during photosynthesis?

1. elctrons are transferred

2. energy and electrons are transferred

3. energy is lost

4. energy is transferred

5. electrons are lost
4. energy is transferred
3. what are the functions of enzymes

1. weaken the bonds to lower activation energy

2. weaken the bonds to lower potential energy

3. weaken the bonds to increase activation energy

4. weaken the bonds to increase potential energy
1. weaken the bonds to lower activation energy
Plants carry out the reactions of the Calvin Cycle using:

A. ATP and CO2

B. ADP and NADPH

C. ATP and NADPH

D. ADP and O2
c. ATP & NADPH
When cellular respiration occurs additional energy must be added to the process. Where does this energy come from?

A.O2

B. NADPH

C. ATP

D. H20+ATP
C. ATP
2) A farmer tries to solve the problem of water loss through evaporation in his crops so he closes the stomata of the plants. What outcome will the farmer most likely face later on?

A. His crops will triple in yield

B. His crops will fail

C. His crops will remain the same

D. He will in the end have to water his plants the same

E. The soil will have more moisture and grow in nutrient.
B. his crops will fail
3. What percentage of the energy payoff from a molecule of glucose is harvested in the final step of cellular respiration?

a. 90%

b. 50%

c. 20%

d. This statistic is impossible to measure.
a. 90%
1. During the fall leaves change colors because

A) The chlorphyll A and B molecules are used up

B) The leaves die and don't absorb any light and loose color

C) The chlorphyll molecules are broken down and stored in the branches

D) In the absence of chlorphyll caretenoid reflects light instead expressing an orange color

E) C and D
E. C and D
2. Synthsis of photosynthesis takes palce in

A) thylakoid

B)stroma

C) plasma membrane

D) mitochondira
B) stroma
3) The tertiary bonds of protiens are held together by

A) R groups

B) Hydrogen bonds

C) Amino acid chains

D) magic

E) A and B
E) A and B
1. During the fall leaves change colors because

A) The chlorphyll A and B molecules are used up

B) The leaves die and don't absorb any light and loose color

C) The chlorphyll molecules are broken down and stored in the branches

D) In the absence of chlorphyll caretenoid reflects light instead expressing an orange color

E) C and D
E) C and D
If a chemical reaction were as spontaneous as a college student sometimes is you would call it

A) Exergonic

B) Endergonic

C) Platonic

D) Isotonic
a. exergonic
Which is the willing acceptor for the NADH electrons in the absence of oxygen in animals?

a) acetaldehyde

b) pyruvate

c) the cell wall

d) none of the above
b. pyruvate
Which of the following plants use the method of CAM as their primary method of carbon fixation?

a) common ivy

b) sun flowers

c) pineapples

d) corn
c. pineapples
Why do photosynthesizing plants need water?

a) to replace protons used to make choloroplast

b) to excite electrons

c) to replace electrons sent to the electron transport chain

d) to replace oxygen loss during photosynthesis
c) to replace electrons sent to the electron transport chain
Which is NOT released during Glycolysis?

a. ADP

b. H2O

c. NADH

d. ATP
A. ADP
2. Which is NOT an input in the "Photo" process?

a. CO2

b. Photons

c. Oxygen

d. H2O
c. Oxygen
3) Which term describes when glycolysis occurs in the absence of oxygen and alternative molecules need to be used as electron acceptors?

a) Fermentation

b) Pellagra

c) Krebs Cycle

d) CAM
a) Fermentation
1. Which of the following statements are FALSE:

A. Chlorophyll a absorbs blue-violet and red wavelengths of light.

B. Chlorophyll b absorbs yellow-green wavelengths.

C. Carotenoids absorb blue-violet and blue-green wavelengths.

D. Carotenoids reflect yellow, orange, and red wavelengths.

E. All of the above are correct.
B. Chlorophyll b absorbs yellow-green wavelengths.
2. Which of the following plants are most likely to use C3 photosynthesis?

A. Saguaro cactus

B. Corn

C. Palm tree

D. Common ivy

E. None of the above would use C3 photosynthesis.
D. common ivy
Which of the following about proteins is NOT true? (Keep in mind that proteins take many forms)

a) can catalyze chemical reactions in a cell

b) can serve as chemical messengers

c) are basic sugars

d) are composed of amino acids
c) are basic sugars
Which of the following is NOT true about photosynthesis?

a) It yields CO 2 and H2O

b) It yields C6H12O6 and O2

c) The majority of it occurs underwater

d) It occurs in the chloroplasts of a plant
a) it yields CO2 and H2O
Suppose that humans used the backup electron acceptor acetaldehyde instead of pyruvate when they lack oxygen. What would happen if humans performed strenuous physical activity under this condition?

a) The end product they produced would be ethanol

b) They would probably be a little drunk

c) They would turn into yeast cells

d) A and B
d) A and B
2. Photosynthesis occurs in two parts: the "photo" reaction and "synthesis". Where in the chloroplast does the "photo" reaction take place and how is energy being converted?

A) plasma membrane: light energy --> thermal energy

B) cytoplasm: thermal energy --> chemical energy

C) stroma: light energy --> chemical energy

D) thylakoid: light energy --> chemical energy

E) none of the above.
D) thylakoid: light energy --> chemical energy
1) Which of these is not part of the synthesis cycle in photosynthesis?

a)Calvin Cycle with the stroma

b)chemical reactions occuring in the stroma

c)enzymes being recycled

d) ATP is produced

c) Glucose is produced
d) ATP is produced
1. All of the following are results that happens as a result of breaking down macromolecules except

A. heat

B. energy

C. increased entropy

D. disordered building blocks

E. ordered building blocks
E. ordered building blocks
2. All of the following require energy except

A. glycolysis

B. anabolic reaction

C. xergonic reaction

D. Krebs cycle
D. Krebs cycle
3. Which of the following is NOT part of the electron transport chain process?

A. NADPH being produced

B. Electrons falling to lower energy states

C. Protons rush into the mitochondrial matrix with great kinetic energy

D. Electrons combine with Oxygen and free H+ ions to form water
A. NADPH being produced
1. What wavelenghts of color can be absored by Carotenoid pigements?

A) Blue and Purple

B) Green and Orange

C)Orange

D) Orange, Green and Blue

E)Green
A) Blue and purples
2) Which of the following molecules can be used for energy without haveing to undergo any additional proceses?

A) ADP

B) ATP

C)NADH

D)FADH2
B) ATP
3) Which process of ceullar resperation produces the greatest amount of ATP?

A) Electron Transport

B) Kreb's cycle

C) Glycolysis

D) Photosynthesis
A) Electron Transport
4) Whcih of the following Pigments is connected to a primary electron acceptor?



A) Caratonid

B) Chlorophyll B

C) Chlorophyll A

D) All of the above
C) Chlorophyll A
2. Which, out of the following, is NOT true in regards to the Calvin Cycle?

A. The Calvin Cycle occurs in three steps

B. The Calvin Cycle must fix three atoms of carbon from carbon dioxide to synthesize one molecule of G3P

C. Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast

D. In the regeneration phase, the remaining ATP molecules are used to regenerate G3P
D. In the regeneration phase, the remaining ATP molecules are used to regenerate G3P
3. The Second photosystem consists of all of the following except...

A. 1st Electron transport chain

B. 2nd Electron transport chain

C. Water-splitting photosystem

D. NADPH producing photosystem

E. G3P transport chain
E. G3P transport chain
2) 6O2 + C6H12O66CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy is the general equation for

a) Aerobic respiration

b) Anaerobic respiration

c) Glycolysis

d) Krebs Cycle

e) None of the above
A) aerobic respiration
3) Which of the following are NOT true?

a) ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis, electron transport chain, and the Krebs cycle.

b) The electron transport chain occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

c) The electron transport chain requires oxygen.

d) All of the above are true
d) all of the above are true
biofuels vs. fossil fuels
fuels produced from plant and animal products vs. fuel produced from decayed remains of ancient plants and animals
Are biofuels and fossil fuels renewable resources?
No, only biofuels are
The activities of living organisms are fueled by...
breaking the chemical bonds in food molecules and harnessing the released energy
What is cellular respiration?
The process by which all living organisms release the energy stored in the chemical bonds of food molecules and use it to fuel their lives
What is energy?
The capacity to do work.
*work is anything that involves moving matter against an opposing force
Is heat a form of kinetic energy?
yes!
Is light a form of kinetic energy?
yes!
Chemical energy, the storage of energy in chemical bonds, is also a type of _______ energy.
potential
The 99% of unused energy doesn't disappear, it _________.
Is reflected back into space, absorbed by land & the atmosphere, and transformed into heat.
What is thermodynamics?
The study of the transformation of energy from one type to another
Give an example of thermodynamics.
A human converting the potential energy of a mound of pasta into the kinetic energy of running a marathon
What is the chief energy currency of the cell?
ATP
ATP
*adenosine triphosphate
*a small sugar molecules and adenine
*also contains a chain of 3 negatively charged phosphate groups white make it effective in carrying and storing energy
*always ejecting one of its phosphate groups
*after a phosphate is broken off, it is left with 2 phosphates=ADP!
Are plants the only organisms capable of photosynthesis?
No, bacteria and other unicellular organisms are as well.
"Photo" segment during which light is captured, and a "synthesis" part where sugar is synthesized
p.131
Is the passing of e's from one molecule to another potential or kinetic energy?
potential
Chlorophyll a molecules are different from other pigment molecules because?
When chlorophyll a's electrons go to an excited state they do not return to resting; they continually lose their excited e's to a molecule called the primary electron acceptor
So where do electron replacements come from for chlorophyll a?
water! (water inside the thylakoid are continuously split inside the chloroplast to replenish chlorophyll a)
Think of each step of the e's in the ETChain like jumping down stairs
the e's fall to a lower energy state, and a little bit of energy is released
What links the first photosystem to the second?
The electron transport chain
There are 2 electron transport chains
p.138
At the end of the 2nd etc, e's are passed to NADP+, creating NADPH, which is?
*a high energy electron carrier
*the second product of the "photo" portion of photosynthesis
"synthesis" part of photosynthesis=
the Calvin cycle
Calvin Cycle
*takes molecules of CO2 from the air and uses them to assemble sugar
*second part of photosynthesis
What are stomata?
*small pores on the undersides of leaves
*openings that are the primary sites for gas exchange in plants
*open stomata allow water to evaporate from the plant
* yet closing them oxygen cannot be released and CO2 cannot come in
Every protein has a different composition of amino acids
p.64
Complete proteins vs. incomplete proteins
Complete contain all 8 essential aa's, while incomplete do not
Give an example of a protein with each 4 diff structures
primary-??
secondary-??
tertiary-hydrogen bonds
quaternary-hemoglobin
lipoproteins vs. glycoproteins
lipoprotein-cholesterol & triglyceride+protein
glycoprotein-carbohydrates+proteins
For proteins to function properly, they must retain their 3-d shape
p.66
How do enzymes bring about a reaction?
*temporarily sharing one or more e's with the substrate molecule
*creating a "micro-habitat" that favors the reaction
*orienting or holding substrate molecules in place
What is cellular respiration?
*the reverse of photosynthesis
*plants and animals break down the chemical bonds of sugar and other fats&proteins to release energy that created them
*it is not breathing(respiration)
*the released energy is stored in the bonds of ATP molecules
What is the order of steps in cellular respiration?
Glycolysis-->krebs or citric acid cycle-->electron transport chain
Glycolysis
*sugar-splitting
*only step many unicellular organisms need
*glucose-->2 pyruvate
*phases: an "uphill" prepatory phase and a "downhill" payoff phase
Before any energy can be extracted from glucose, some energy must be ________ to the molecule.
added
(this occurs during uphill phase, makes molecule less stable)
All living organisms extract energy from the _________ _______ of molecules.
chemical bonds
Eat food, digest food, absorb nutrients into the bloodstream, then cellular respiration starts
p.144
Cellular respiration: what is the input and output?
Input: Oxygen & Sugar
Output: CO2, Water, and ATP
Does glycolysis occur in the absence of oxygen?
Yes
Do cells get more "energy bang" for their "food buck" in glycolysis or the krebs cycle?
the krebs cycle
Mitochondria are considered ______ "factories"
ATP
The Krebs cycle main job: ?
to capture a huge amount of chemical energy by producing high-energy electron carriers
Krebs cycle input?
output?
p.147
Mitochondria have how many membranes?
inner and outermost membranes
In cellular respiration, oxygen is used during:
A. glycolysis
B. krebs cycle
C. Electron transport chain
D. A and C
E. A,B,C
C. electron transport chain
Low NAD+ levels in Tylenol murder victims is due to a defect in:
a. glycolysis
b. krebs cycle
c. electron transport chain
d. B and C
c. electron transport chain
Where is the oxygen coming from (during cellular respiration)?
From ???
Where is the CO2 going to (during cellular respiration)?
----
Where is the glucose coming from (during cellular respiration)?
-----
Metabolic pathways are?
*• 20 subprocesses that run 20 chemical reactions with 20 different enzymes →20 is the magic number of cellular respiration
• know it’s subdivided
• know it’s complex
• don’t worry about those 20 specific things
Define metabolism.
*all the biochemical reactions in the cells of an organism
*catabolism + anabolism
Aerobic metabolism?
with the use of oxygen
i.e. running
Anaerobic metabolism?
without the use of oxygen
i.e. brewing beer
Fermentation is the partial breakdown of sugars that occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Also?
*occurs in absence of oxygen
*only done in yeast cells (alcohol, bread-baking)
*bread-alcohol leaves, CO2 makes bread rise
*CO2 makes alcohol bubbly
Lactic acid fermentation is the same process as regular fermentation
*pyruvate is reduced by NADH to form lactate as a waste product (no CO2 is lost)
*human muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation (the "burn")
If you exercise too hard, your muscles shut down from a lack of ___________
oxygen
Alcohol fermentation vs. lactic acid fermentation
alcohol-2 step process & CO2 is lost
lactic-1 step process, no loss of CO2
In the absence of oxygen, glycolysis will soon shut down
*without the etc regenerating the pool of NAD+, there is no electron carrier for the glycolytic cycle to pick up its electrons
What drives glycolysis?
NAD+
Glycolysis produces NADH which is an ________ ________ molecules.
electron transporter
Electron Transport Chain
*occurs in mitochondria
*the inner part, specifically
*3 different enzymes used
*Example: going down stairs, lose a little bit of energy each time and transfer e's each time
Who brings the e's??
10-24 ppt
KNOW THAT OXYGEN IS USED IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
----
Cellular respiration formula?
C6H12O6+O2-->CO2+H2O+ATP
What are 3 modifications that pyruvate undergoes before Krebs?
1. Passing some e's to NAD+ which builds two molecules of NADH
2. CO2 is release
3. two acetyl-CoA's are created
How many steps are in the Krebs cycle?
8
What are the inputs of the krebs cycle? Outputs?
Input: Acetyl-CoA
Output: six carbon molecule,
what else??
It is the energy held in high-energy electron carrriers ______ and ______ generated in _____ & ______ _______ that generate the largest amount of usable ATP energy.
NADH and FADH2, glycolysis and Krebs cycle
Mitochondria convert ______ energy (from electrons) into _____ energy (conc. gradient of protons
kinetic-->potential
Mitochondria harness this potential energy in the bonds of ______ & ______ molecules
NADH & FADH2
mitochondrial matrix (inside inner bag) and...
intermembrane space (outside the inner bag)
What kind of electrons are handed off to oxygen to form water?
lower-energy electrons
What are the inputs of the etc?
outputs?
Inputs: NADH, FADH2, Oxygen
Outputs: Water and ATP
p.150
What are the inputs of the Krebs cycle? outputs?
Inputs: Acetyl CoA
Outputs: NADH, FADH2, ATP, CO2
When cyanide gets into the mitochondria, it binds...
...to a molecule in the etc, preventing it from accepting e's. This halts the transfer of e's and the pumping of protons across the mitochondrial membrane.
There is one willing acceptor for the NADH e's in the absence of oxygen...
pyruvate!