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511 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abiotic
nonliving
absorption
the process by which water and dissolved substances pas through a membrane
acethycholine
a transmitter substance released form the axons of nerve cells at the synapse
active immunity
protective immunity to a disease
adaption
a change that enables an organism to adjust to its enviornment
adaptive radiation
the production of a number of different species from a common ancestor
ADP
energy storage molecule with 2 phosphates
ADH
hormone that regulates water conservation
adipose
fatty tissue
adrenal cortex
outer part of the adrenal gland that secrets cortisone and aldosterone
adrenal medulla
inner part of the adrenal gland that secretes adrenalin
Adrenaline
increases HR- flight or flght
ACTH
stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its hormones, found in the anterior pit.
aerobe
needs xygen to live
aerobis
requiring free oxygen from the atmosphere for normal activity
aldosterone
hormone active in osmoregulation
alimentary canal
organ centrally involved in the human digestive system
allatois
embryonic membrane of birds
allele
different form of a gene
alternation of generations
description of a plants life cycle

diploid-asexual-sporophyte

haploid- sexual- gametophyte
alveolus
air sac in the lung, site of respiratory exchange
amoeboid movement
movement involving flowing of the cytoplasm
anaerobe
an organism that does not require oxygen to respire
anaerobic
living or active in the absence of free oxygen
analogus
describes structures that have similar structure but different function
anaphase
the stage in mitosis and meiosis II that is characterized by the migration of chromatids to the opposite ends of the cells (homologus pairs in meiosis I)
androgen
a male sex hormone (testosterone)
angiosperm
a flowering plant
annelida
segmented worm phylum
anther
part of the male reproductive organ (the stamen) the produces and stores pollen
antibiotic
an antipathogenic substance
antibody
globular proteins produced by tissues to destroy antigens
antigen
a foreign protein that stimulates the production of antibodies
aorta
largest artery; carries blood from the left ventricle
aortic arch
blood vessel between the ascending and descending aorta
appendage
a structure that extends from the trunk of an organism and is capable of active movement
aqueous humor
fluid in the eye, btw cornea and lens
Arachnida
spiders, mites, ticks, etc
artery
blood vessel that caries blood away from the heart
Arthropoda
jointed-leg invertebrates
asexual reproduction
the production of daughter cells by means other that sexual union of gametes (budding and binary fission)
assimilation
conversion of digested foods and other materials into forms usable by the body
assortative mating
the type of mating that occurs when an organism selects a mating partner that resembles itself
atrium
thin walled, anterior chamber of the heart
autolysis
self digestion occurring in plant and animal tissue
autonomic nervous system
part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary muscles
autosome
any non-sex chromosome
autotroph
utilizes the energy of inorganic material
auxin
a plant growth hormone
axon
a nerve fiber
bacillus
bacteria that are rod shaped
bacteriophage
a type of virus that can destroy bacteria
bile
an emulsifying agent secreted by the liver
bile salts
compounds in bile that aid in emulsification
binary fission
asexual reproduction
binomial nomenclature
the system of naming an organism by its genus and species name
biome
a habit zone
biotic
living organism
blastula
a stage of embryonic development in which the embryo consists of a hollow ball of cells
Bowmans capsule
par of the nephron in the kidneys
bud
in plants, an area of undifferentiated tissue
budding
a process of asexual reproduction in which the offspring grows out of the organism
buffer
a substance that prevents chaanges in pH in solutions to which small amts of acids or bases are added
calorie
a unit of heat
calvin cycle (dark cycle)
cycle in photosynthesis that reduces fixed carbon to carbs through the addition of electrons
cambium
undifferentiated tissue in te stem of a plant
caillary
a tube one cell thick that carries blood from a vein to an artery
carapace
hard outer shell made of chitin
carbohydrate
an organix compound to which hydrogen and oxygen ae attached (2:1= H:O)
carbon cycle
the recycling of carbon from decaying organisms for use in future generations
carnivore
meat eater
carotene
an orange plant pigment
cation
an ion with a positive charge
cell wall
a wall composed to cellulose that is external to the cell membrane
cell wall plate
in mitosis of higher plants, formed between the dividing nucleus
central nervous system (CNS)
cencompasses the braina dn spinal cord
centriole
the small granular body within the centrosome to which spindle fibers attach
centromere
the place of attachment of the mitotic fiber to the chromosome
centrosome
a structure in animal cells containing centromeres which creates spindle fibers
cephalic
pertaining to the head
cerebellum
the hindbrain region that controls equilibrium and muscular coordination
cerebral cortex
the outer layer of cerebral hemisphere in the forebrain
cerebrial hemisphere
one of the paired, lateral divisions of the forebrain
cerebrum
largest potion of the brain; center of intelligence, conscious thought, and sensation
chemosynthesis
carbs are formed through chemical energy
chemotropism
the orientation of cels to chemical stimuli
chitin
a substance that forms the outer part of the outer integument of insects, or things with exoskeletons
chlorophyll
a green pigment that preforms light trapping during photosynthesis
chloroplast
a plastid containing chlorophyll
Chordata
an animal phylum that have a dorsal nerve cord
chorio
the outermost, extra-embryonic membrane of reptiles and birds
chromatids
one of the two strands that constitute a chromosome
chromatin
a nuclear protein of chromosomes that stains readily
chromosome
a short, stubby rod consisting of chromatin that is found in the ucleus of cells
chyme
partially digested food in the stomach
circadian rhythm
daily cycles of behavior
cleavage
the division in animal cell cytoplasm caused by the pinching in of the cell membrane
climax community
the stable, biotic part of the ecosystem in which populations exist in blanace with each other
clotting
the coagulation of blood caused by the rupture of platelets
cloaca
the chamber in the alimentary canal of certain vertebrates located below the large intestine
cochlea
the sensory organ of the inner ear of mammals
codominant
in state in which two genetic traits are fully expressed and neither dominates
coelom
the space between the mesodermal layers that forms the body cavity of some animal phylia
coenzyme
an organic factor required for enzyme activity
colon
the large intestine
commensal
describes an organ that lives symbiotically with a host; the host neither benefits or is harmed
conditioning
the association of a physical, visceral response with an environmental stimuli
cone
a cell in the retina that is sensative to color and is responsible for color vision
consumer
organism that consumes food from outside it self
contractile vacuole
a specialized structure that controls osmotic pressure by removing water from the cell
cornea
the outer, transparent layer of the eye
corpus callosum
a tract of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the brain
corpus luteum
a remnant of follicle after ovulation that secretes pregesterone
cortex
in plants, the tissue between the epidermis and the vascular cylinder in the root
cortisone
hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex
cotyledon
a "seed leaf"
cretinism
a thyroid deficiency that results in stunted growth and feeblemindedness
crossing over
the exchange of parts of a homologues chromosome during meiosis
cross-pollination
the pollination of a pistil of one flower with the pollen from the stamen from a different flower
crustacea
crustaceans
cuticle
a waxy protective layer secreted by the outer surface of a plant
cytochrome
a hydrogen carrier containing iron that functions in many cellular prcesses
cytokinesis
process by which the cytoplasm and the organelles of a cell divide
cyton
the cell body of a neuron
cytoplasm
the living matter of a cell
cytoskeleton
the organelle that provides mechanical support and carries out motility function for the cell
cytosine
a nitrogen base that bonds with guanine
deamination
the removal of an amino group from an organism
deletion
the loss of part or all of a chromosome
deme
a small, local population
dendrite
the part of the neuron that transmits impulses to the cell body
deoxyrobse
a five carbon sugar that is the maine component of DNA
diastole
the passive, rhythmical expansion or dialation of the cavities of the heart
dicotyledon
a plant that has two seed leaves or cotlyedons
diencephalon
the hind protion of the forebrain
differentiation
a progressive change from which a permanently more mature or advanced state results
diffusion
the movement of particles from one place to another
digestion
the process of breaking down large organic molecules into smaller ones
dihybrid
an organism that is heterozygous for two different traits
dimorphism
the instance of polymorphism in which there is a difference of form between two members of teh species
diploid
describes cells that have a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs (2n)
disaccharide
a sugar composed of two monosaccharides
disjunction
the separation of homologous pairs of chromosomes following meitic synapses
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; found in the cells nucleus; contains coded, genetic information
dominance
a dominant allele suppresses the expression of the other member of an allele pair when both members are present
dorsal root
the sensory branch of each spinal nerve
duodenum
the most anterior portion of the small intestine
ecological succession
the orderly process by which one biotic community replaces another one
ecology
the study of organisms in relation to their environment
ectoderm
the outermost embryonic germ layer that GIVES RISE TO THE EPIDERMIS AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
egg (ovum)
a female gamete
electron transport chain
a complex carrier mechanism located on the inside of an inner mitochondrial membrane of a cell
embolus
a clot formed within a blood vessel
emulsion
a collodial system involving the dispersion of a liquid within a liquid
endemic
pertaining to a restricted locality
endocrine gland
a ductless gland that sercetes hormones directly into the blood stream
endocytosis
a process by which the cell membrane is invaginated to form a vesicle which contains extracellular medium
endoderm
the innermost embryonic layer that gives rise to the LINING OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL AND TO THE DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY ORGANS
endoplasmic reticulum
a netowrk of membrane enclosed spaces connected with the nuclear membrane; transports materials through the cell; can be rough or smooth
enzyme
an organic catalyst and protein
endoplasm
the inner portion of the cytoplasm of a cell
endosperm
the triploid tissue in some seeds that contained stored food and is formed by the union of one sperm nucleus with two nuclei of the females gametophyte
epidermis
outer most layer of an organism
epididymis
the coiled part of the sperm duct adj. to the testes
epiglottis
in mammals, a flap of tissue above the glottis; covers the trachea while breathing and the esophagus while breathing
epicotyl
the portion of a seed plant embryo above the cotyledon
epiphyte
a plant that lives on another plant commensalistically
epithelium
the cellular layer that covers external and internal surfaces
erythrocyte
red blood cells
esophagus
the portion of the alimentary canal connecting the stomach and the pharynx
estrogen
female sex hormone
ethanol fermentation
a form of anaerobis respiration found in yeast and bacteria
ethylene
a hormen that ripes fruit and induces aging
eukaryote
multicellular organism
Eustachian tube
air duct from the middle ear to the throat that equalizes external and internal air pressure
excretion
the elimination of metabolic waste
exocrine
pertaining to a type of gland that releases its secretion throug a duct
exocytosis
a process by which the vesicle in the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside
exoskeleton
describes arthropods and other animals whose skeletons are outside their skin
eye
a sensory organ capable of detecting light
F1
the first filial generation (first offspring)
F2
the second filial generation
fallopian tube
the mammalian oviduct that leads from the ovaries to the uterus
feedback mechanism
the process by which a certain function is regulated by the amount of the substance it produces
femur
the thigh bone
fermentation
anaerobis respiration that yeilds 2 molecules of ATP, lactic acid, ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide, or some similar compound via the glycolytic pathway
fertilization
the fusion of sperm and egg
fibrin
protein threads that form in the blood during blood clotting
fibringen
blood protein that is transformed to fibrin upon clotting
fitness
ability of an organism to contribute its alleles and therefore its phenotypic traits to future generations
flagellate
an organism that possesses one o more whiplike appendages called flagella
flagellum
a microscopic, whiplike filament that serves as a locomotor structure in flagellate cells
follicle
the sac in the ovary in which the egg develops
food vacuole
a vacuole in the cytoplasm in which digestion takes place
frame shift mutation
a mutation involving the addition or loss of nucleotides
fruit
a mature ovary
FSH
an anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the follicles in females and the function of the seminiferous tubules in males
functional group
chemical groups attached to carbon skeletons that give compounds their functionality
gall bladder
an organ taht stores bile
gamete
a sex or reproductive cell that must fuse with another of the opposite type to form a zygote
gametophyte
the haploid, sexual stage in the life cycle of plants
ganglion
a grouping of neuron cell bodies that acts as a coordinating center
gastrula
a stage of embryonic development characterized by the differntiation of the cells into the ectoderm an endoderm germ layers and by the formation of the archenteron; can be either two or three layered
gene
the portion of a DNA molecule that serves as unit of heredity; found on the chromosome
gene frequency
a decimal fraction that represents the presence of an allele for all members of a population that have a particular gene locus
genetic code
a four-letter code made up of the nitrogen bases A, T, C, and G; each chromosome is made up of thousands of these bases
genetic drift
random evolutionary change in the genetic makeup of a (usually small) population
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism with out reguard to its physical appearance
genus
in taxonomy, a classification between species and family; a group of very closley related species
geographical barriers
any physical feature that prevents the ecological niches of different organisms from overlapping
geotropism
any movement or growth of a living organism in response to the force of gravity
germ cell
a reproductive cell
germ layer
one of the primary tissues of the embryo layers
gibberellin
a hormone that stimulates plant stem elongation
gill silt
a preforation leading from the pharynx to the outside environment
glomerulus
a network of capillaries in the Bowman's capsule of the kidneys
glottis
in mammals, the slit-like opening formed by the vocal folds in thelarynx
glycogen
a starch form in animals; glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver
glycolysis
the anaerobic respiration of carbs
goiter
an enlargement on the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine
golgi body
membranous organelles involved in the storage and modification of secratory products
gonads
the reproductive organs the produce sex cells
Graffian follicle
the cavity in the mammalian ovary in which the egg ripens
granum
the smallest particle that is capable of carrying out photosynthesis
gray matter
a portion of the CNS consisting of cytons, their dendrites, and synaptic connection
guanine
a nitrogen base that links with cytosine
guard cell
one of a pair of kidney-shaped cells that surround a stomate and regulate the size of the stomate in a leaf
gymnosperm
a plant that belongs to the class of seed plants in which th seeds are not enclosed in an ovary; includes conifers
haploid
describes cells that have half the chromosome number typical species (n chromosome number)
hemoglobin
a protein compound containing iron that is found in red blood cels; gives RBC's their capacity to carry oxygen
hepatic portal system
the veins that carry blood from the digestive organs to the liver
herbivore
plant-eater
hermaphrodite
an organism possessing both male and female organisms
heterotroph
an organism that must get its inorganic and organic raw materials from the enviornment; a consumer
heterozygous
describes an individual that possesses two contrasting alleles for a given trait (Tt)
homeotherm
an animal with a constant body temp
homologous
describes two or more structures that have similar forms, positions, and origins despite the differences between their current functions; ex= arm of a human, flipper of a dolphin, and the foreleg of the horse
homozygous
describes an individual what has the same gene for the same trait on each homologous chromosome (TT or tt)
hormone
a chemical messenger that is secreted by one part of the body and carried by the blood to affect another part of the body
Host
any organism that is the victim of a parasite
humerus
bone of the upper arm
hybrid
an offspring that is heterozygous for one or more gene pairs
hydrostatic skeleton
fluid skeleton of annelids
hyperthyroidism
an over secretion of thyrods that leads to high metabolism and a goiter
hypertonic
describes a fluid that his a higher osmotic pressure that another fluid it is compared to; it exerts greater osmotic pull than the fluid on the otherside of a semipermeable membrane; hence it possesses a greater concentration of particles, and acquires water during osmosis
hypocotyl
the portion of the embryonic seed plant below the point of attachment of teh cotyledon; forms the root
hypothalamus
a section of the posterior forebrain assoicated with the pituitary gland
hypotonic
describes a fluid that has a lower osmotic pressure than a fluid it is compared to; it exerts lesser osmotic pull than the fluid on the other side of a semipermeable membrane; hence, it possess a lesser concentration of particles, and loses water during osmosis
ilium
the dorsal part of the hip girle
immunity
a resistance to disease developed through the immune system
imprinting
the process by which environmental patterns or objects presented to a developing organism during a "critical period" of its growth is accepting as a permanent element of behavior
incomplete dominance
genetic blending; each allele exerts some influence on the phenotype
independent assortment
the law by which genes on different chromosomes are inherited independently of each other
ingestion
the intake of food from the environment into the alimentary canal
inner ear
a fluid-filled sensory apparatus that aids in balance and hearing
insulin
a hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates blood sugar concentration by converting glucose to glycogen (lowers blood sugar)
integument
refers to the protective covering,such as a covering of an ovule, that develops into the seed coat, or an animals skin
interphase
a metabolic stage between mitosis in whish genetic material s reproduced
intersititial cells
cells which in the female are located between the ovarian follicles, and in the male are located between the seminiferous tubules in the testes; in both cases, these cells produce male sex hormones
inversion
occurs when a segment of genetic material on a chromosome is reversed
iris
the colored part of the eye that is capable of contracting and regulating the size of pupils
irritability
the ability to respond to a stimulus
isolation
the separation of some members of a population from the rest of their species
isomer
one of a group of compounds that is identical in atomic composition, but different in structure
isotonic
describes a fluid that has the same osmotic pressure as a fluid it is compared to; it exerts the same osmotic pull as the fluid on the other side of a semipermeable membrane; hence it neither gains nor loses water during osmosis, and possesses the same concentration of particles before and after osmosis occurs
Krebs Cycle
process of aerobic respiration that fully harvests the energy of glucose; also known as the citric acid cycle
lactase
the enzyme that acts upon lactase
lacteal
a lymph tubule located in the villus that absorbs fatty acids
lactic acid fermentation
a type of anaerobic respiration found in fungi, bacteria, and human muscle cells
lara
a period in the development of animals between the embryo and adult stages
legume
a flowering plant with simple dry fruit, characterized by nodes on their roots that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria
lens
a structure of the eye that focuses images on the retina by changing its convexity
levels of structure
different relationships that are formed in proteins between teh original sequence of amino acids and more complex 3D compounds
lichen
an association between an algae and a fungus that is symbiotic and mutualistic in nature
linkage
occurs when different traits are inherited together more often than they would have been by chance alone
lipase
a fat-digesting hormone
lipid
a fat or oil
littoral zone
a marine biome
Loop of Henle
the thin, bent part of the renal tubule that is the site of the counter-current flow and the sodium gradient
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the conversion of a follicle into the corpus luteum and the secretion of progesterone
lymph
a body fluid that flows in its own circulatory fluid in lymphatic vessels separate from blood circ.
lymph capillary
on of many tubules that absorb tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream via the lymphatic system
lymphocyte
a kind of white blood cell in vertebrates that has a rounded nucleus; involved in immune response
lysosome
an organelle that contains enzyme that aids in intracellular digestion
macula
a sensory hair structure in the inner ear
malleus
he outermost bone of the middle ear (hammer)
malpighian tubules
tubules that excrete metabolic wastes into the hindgut in arthropods
maltase
an enzyme that acts upon maltose and converts it into glucose
maltose
a 12-carbon sugar that is formed by the union of two glucose molecules
marsupial
a pouched mammal, such as the kangaroo or opossum
medulla
the inner layer of an organism surrounded by the cortex
medulla oblongata
the posterior part of the brain tha controls the ate of breathing and other autonomic functions; most primitive part
medusa
a jellyfish
meiosis
a process of cell division whereby each daughter cell recieves only one set of chromosomes' the formation of gametes
Menelian Laws
laws of classical genetics established through Mendel's experiments with Peas
meninges
three membranes that envelop te brain and spinal cord
meristem
an undifferentiated, growing region of a plant that is constantly undergoing cell division and differentiation
mesoderm
a primary germ layer that gives rse to the SKELETON, CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, AND MANY ORGANS AND TISSUES BETWEEN THE EPIDERMIS ADN THE EPITHELIUM
metabolism
a grop of life-maintaing processes that includes nutration, respiration, and the synthesis of biochemica substances
metamorphosis
the transformation of an immature animal into an adult
metaphase
a stage of mitosis; chromosomes line up at hte equator of teh cell
microbodies
organelles the serve as specialized containers for metabolic reactions
micron
one-thousandth of a millimeter; a unit of microscopic length
mitochondria
cytoplasmic organelles that serve as sites of respiration
mitosis
a type of nuclear division that is charcterized by complex chromosomal movement and the exact duplication of chromosomes; occurs in somatic cells
monocotyledon
a plant that has a single cotyledon or seed-leaf
monohybrid
an individual that is heterozygous for only one trait
morphology
the study of form and structure
morula
the solidball of cells that results from cleavage of an egg
mucosa
a mucus-secreting membrane, such as the inner intestinal lining
mutagenic agent
agent that induces mutations; typically carcinogenic
mutation
changes in genes that are inherited
mutualism
s symbotic relationship from which both organisms involved derive some benefit
myelin sheath
a fatty sheath surrounding the axon og a neuron that aids in stimulus transmission; it is secreted by the Schwann cells
NAD
an abbreviation of nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide, also DPN; a respiratory oxadation-reduction molecule
NADP
an abbreviation of nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate, also TPN; an organic compound that serves as an oxidation-reduction molecule
nephron
functional urinary tubules responsible for excretion in the kidneys of vertebrates
nerve
a bundle of nerve axons
nerve cord
a compact linear organization of nerve tissues with ganglia in the CNS
nerve net
a multidirectional sensory system of lower animals such as the hydra, consisting of nerve fibers spread throughout the ectoderm
neural tube
an embryonic structure that gives rise to the central nervous system
neuron
a nerve cell
niche
the fuctional role and position of an organism in an ecosystem
nicitating membrane
a thin, transparent, eyelid-like membrane
nitrogen cycle
the recycling of nitrogen from decaying organisms for use in future generations
nondisjunction
the failure of some homologous pairs of chromosomes
notochord
a flexible, supportive rod running longitudinally through the dorsum ventral to the nerve cord
nuclear membrane
a membrane that envelopes the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm
nucleolus
a dark-staining small body within the nucleus; composed of RNA
nucleotide
an organic molecule consisting of joined phosphate, 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base
nucleus
an organelle that regulates cell functions and contains the genetic material of the cell
olfactory
related to the sense of smell
oogenesis
a process o formation of ova
organelle
a specialized structure that carries out particular functions in eukaryotic cells
osmoregulation
the ways in which organisms regulate their suply of water
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane, from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration
ovary
the female gonad in animals; the base of the pistil in plants
oviduct
a tube connecting the ovaries and the uterus
oxidation
the removal of hydrogen or electrons from a compound or addition of oxygen
paring (synapsis)
an association of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division
parasitism
a relationship in which one organ benefits at the expense of another
parasympathetic
pertaining to a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system of vertebrate
parathyroid
an endocrine gland of vertebrates, usually paired, and located near or within the thyroid; it secretes parathormone, which controls the metabolism of calcium
parenchyma
plant tissue consisting of large thin walled cells for storage
passive immunity
a resistance to disease produced through injection of antibodies
parthenogenesis
a form of asexual reproduction in which the egg develops in the absence of sperm
pathogen
a disease-causing organism
pedigree
a family tree depicting the inheritance of a particular genetic trait over several generations
pelagic zone
a marine biome typical of the open seas
pepsin
a stomach enzyme that partially digests enzymes
peptide
the kind of bond formed
Peripheral Nervous System
comprises somatic and autonomic nervous system; consists of cranial and spinal nerves
peristalsis
waves of contractions and relaxation passing long a tubular structure, such as the digestive tube
permeability
degree of penetrability
pH
a symbol that denotes the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution: the lower the pH, the more acidic (1-6); neutral (7); the higher the number, the more basic (8-14)
phagocyte
any cell capable of ingesting another cell
pharynx
the part of the alimentary canal between the mouth and the esophagus
phenotype
the physical appearance of a gene trait
pheromone
substance secreted by organisms that influence the behavior of other members of the same species
phloem
the vascular tissue of a plant that transports organic materials from the leaves to other parts of the plant
photolysis
a process of photosynthesis in which water is split into H+ and OH-; the hydrogen ion then joins the NADP to form NADPH
photoperiodism
a response by an organism to the duration and timing of light and dark conditions
photosynthesis
the process by which light energy and chlorophyll are used to manufacture carbs out of CO2 and water; an autotrophic process using light energy
phototropism
plant growth stimulated by light (stem=to light; root= away from light)
phylogeny
the study of the evolutionary descent and interrelations of groups of organisms
phylum
a category of taxonomic classification that is ranked above class; kingdoms are divided into phylum
physiology
the study of all living processes, activities, and functions
pineal body
a structure found between he cerebral hemispheres of vertebrates; secretes melatonin, which may help regulate the pituitary by regulating hypothalamic releasing factors
pinocytosis
the intake of fluid droplets into a cell
pistil
he part of the flower that bears the female gametophyte
pith
the central tissue of a stem, used for food storage
pituitary
a gland composed of two parts, anterior and posterior, each with its own secretions; called the master gland because its hormones stimulate secretions by other glands
placenta
a structure formed by the wall of the uterus and the chorion of embryo
planaria
the class of free-living flatworms
plankton
passively floating or drifting flora and fauna of a body of water
plasma
the liquid part of the blood
plasma membrane
the cell membrane
plasmodium
a motile, multinucleate mass of protoplasm resulting from fusion of uninuclear amoeboid cells (slime mold)
plastid
cytoplasmic bodies within a plant cell that are often pigmented
platelet
small, disc-shaped bodies in the blood that play a chief role in coagulation
pleural cavity
the cavity between the lungs and the wall of the chest
plexus
a network of blood or nerve vessels
point mutation
a mutation in which a single nucleotide base is substituted for another nucleotide base, or an extra one is added
polar body
nonfunctional haploid cells created during meiosis in females
pollen
the microspore of a seed plant
pollination
the transfer of pollen to the micropyle or to a receptive surface that is associated with an ovule
polymer
a large molecule that is composed of many similar molecular units
polymorphism
the individual differences of form among the members of a species
polyp
a typical coelenterate individual with a hollow tubular body whose outer ectoderm is separated from its inner endoderm
polyploidy
a condition in which an organism may have multiple of the normal number of chromosomes (4n, 6n, etc)
polysaccharide
carb that is composed of many monosaccharides
pons
the part of the hindbrain located in the brain stem
population
all the members of a given species inhabiting a certain locale
Porifera
the phylum of sponges
primary oocyte
a cell that divides to form the polar body and the secondary oocyte
primary spermatocyte
a cell that divides to form two secondaries spermatocytes
producer
organism that produces its own food; first sstage in the food chain
progesterone
the hormone secrete by the corpus luteum of vertebrates and the placenta of mammals
prokaryote
unicellular organism with simple cell structure
prophase
a mitotic or meiotic stage in which the chromosomes become visible and during which the spindle fibers form
protein
one of a class of organic compounds that is composed of many amino acids; contains C, H, O, N
prothrombin
a part of the plasma in the blood of vertebrate
Protista
a kingdom of unicellular living organisms that are neither animals or plants; includes algae, smile molds, and protozoa
ptyalin
a digestive enzyme of the saliva that turns starch into maltose
pulmonary
relating to the lung
pupil
on opening of the eye whose size is regulated by the iris
purine
a nitrogenous base such as adenine or guanine; when joined with sugar and phosphate, a component of nucleotides and nucleic acids
pyrimidine
a nitrogen base such as cytosine, thymine, and uracil; when joined with sugar and phosphate, a component of nucleotides and nucleic acids
pyloric valve
a muscular valve regulating the flow of food from the stomach to the small intestine
recessive
pertains to a gene or characteristics that is masked when a dominant allele is present
recombinant DNA technology
technology that allows for manipulation of genetic material
reduction
a change from a diploid nucleus to a haploid nucleus, as in meiosis
vitamin
an organic nutrient required by organisms in small amounts to aid in proper metabolic processes
white matter
an accumulation of axons within that CNS that is white because of its fatty, myelin sheath
wood
xylem that is no longer being used; gives structural support to the plant
xylem
vascular tissue of the plant that aids in support and carries water
yolk sac
a specialized structure that leads to the digestive tract of a developing organism and provides it with food during early development
zygote
a cell resulting from the fusion of gametes
regeneration
the ability of certain animals to regrow missing body parts
respiration
a chemical action that releases energy from glucose to form ATP
respiratory center
the area of medulla that regulates the rate of breathing
reticulum
a network or mesh of fibrils
retina
the innermost tissue layer of the eyeball that contains light-sensitive receptor cells
Rh Factor
an antigen in blood, determines neg. or pos. blood
rhizome
an undergrown stem
ribosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm that contains RNA; serves as a site for protein synthesis
rhodopsin
the pigment in rod cells that causes light sensitivity
rickettsia
a type of virus/bacteria
RNA
ann abbreviation of ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid in which the sugar ribose; a product of DNA transcription that serves to control certain cell activities; acts as a template for protein translation; types include messenger, transfer, and ribosomal RNA
rod
a cell in the retina that is sensitive to weak light
root hair
outgrowths of a root's epidermal cells that allow for greater surface area for absorption of nutrients and water
saprophyte
an organism that obtains its nutrients from dead organisms
secondary tissue
tissue formed by the differentiation of cambium that causes a growth in of a plant stem
selective breeding
the creation of certain strains of specific traits through control of breeding
self-population
the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil of the same flower
semicircular canal
fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that are associated with the sense of balance
seminal fluid
semen
seminiferous tubules
structures in the testes that produce sperm and semen
sensory neurons
a neuron that picks up impulses from receptors and transmits them to the spinal cord
serum
the fluid that remains after fibrinogen is removed from the blood plasma of vertebrates
sex chromosome
there are two types, X and Y. XX signifies a female and XY signifies a male. there are two fewer genes on the Y than on the X
sex linkage
occurs when certain traits are determined by genes on the sex chromosomes
sinus
a space in the body
small intestine
the site of most digestion of nutrients and absorption of digested nutrients
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle
somatic cell
any cell that is not a reproductive cell
species
a group of populations that can interbreed
spermatogenesis
the process of forming the sperm cells from primary spermatocytes
spindle
a structure that arises during mitosis and helps separate the chromosomes; composed of tubulin
spiracle
the external opening o the trachea in insects, opening into respiratory system
sphincter
a ring-shaped muscle that is capable of closing a tubular opening by constriction
spore
a reproductive cell that is capable of developing directly into an adult
sporophyte
an organisms that produces sperm
stamen
the part of the flower that produces pollen
steroid
one of a class of organic compounds that contains a molecular skeleton of four fused rings of carbon
stigma
the uppermost portion of pistil upon which pollen grains alight
stoma (stomate)
a microscopic opening located in the epidermis of a leaf and formed by a pair of guard cells; the guard cells interact physically and regulate the passage of gas between the internal cells and the external environment
stomach
the portion of alimentary canal in which some protein digestion occurs; its muscular walls churn food so it is more easily digested
stroma
a sense fluid within the chloroplast; the site at which CO2 is converted into sugars in photosynthesis
style
a stalklike or elongated body part, usually pointed at one end
substrate
a substance that is acted upon by an enzyme
sucrase
an enzyme that acts upon sucrose
symbiosis
the living together of two organisms in an intimate relationship
sympathetic
pertaining to a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system
synapse
the junction or gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neruon
synergistic
describes organisms that are cooperative in action
synaptic terminal
the swelling at the end of an axon
synapsis
the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
systole
the contraction of the atria or ventricles of the heart
tiaga
forest-like habitat zone
taxonomy
the science of classification of living things
telophase
a mitotic stage in which nuclei reform and nuclear membrane reappears
test cross
the breeding of an organism with a homozygous recessive in order to determine whether an organism is homozygous dominant or heterozygous dominant for a given trait
testes
the male gonads that produce sperm and hormones
tetrad
a pair of chromosome pairs present during the first metaphase of meiosis
thalamus
a lateral region of the forebrain
thermoregulation
the ways in which organisms regulate their internal heat
thoracic duct
a major lymphatic that empties lymph into a vein in the neck
thorax
the part of the body of an animal that is between the neck or head and the abdomen
thrombin
a substance that participates in the clotting of blood
thrombokinase
the enzyme released from the blood platelets in vertebrates during cotting
thymine
a pyrimidine component of nucleic acid and nucleotide; bonds with adenosine
thymus
a ductless gland in the upper chest region concerned with immunity and the maturation of lymphocytes
thyroid
an endocrine gland located in the neck that produces thyroxin
thyroxin
a hormone of the thyroid gland that regulates basal metabolism
tissue
a mass of cells that have similar structures and perform similar functions
trachea
an air-conducting tube
transcription
DNA codes are transcribes onto RNA
translation
RNA is translated into different proteins
translocation
the transfer of a piece of chromosome to another chromosome
transpiration
the evaporation of water from leaves or other exposed surfaces of plants
trilobite
a maine arthropod
trypsin
an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
tundra
the biome located in the polar region and the tiaga
turgor pressure
pressure exerted by the contents of cell against the cell membrane or cell wall
umbilicus
the naval
ungulate
a hoofed animal
uracil
round in RNA but no in DNA, bonds with adenosine
urea
an excretory product of protein metabolism
ureter
a duct that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
urethra
a duct though which urine passes from the bladder to the outside
urinary bladder
an organ that stores urine before it is excreted
urine
fluid excreted by the kidneys containing urea, water, salts, etc
uterus
the womb in which the fetus develops
vacuole
a space in the cytoplasm of a cell te contains fluids
vagus nerve
the tenth cranial nerve that innervates digestive organs, heart, and other areas
vein
a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from the capillaries
ventral root
the basal branch of each spinal nerve
ventricle
the more muscular chambers of the heart that pumps blood to the lungs and to the rest of the body
vestigial organ
an organ that is not functional in an organism, but was functional at some point in time
villus
a small projection in the walls of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption