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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Are viruses considered alive?

No

Which two scientists conducted experiments that demonstrated the DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?

Hershey and Martha

What does the envelope of a flu virus help the virus do?

Envelope helps enter and leave the cell.

Where inside the host cell does the herpes virus reproduce?

Nucleus

Can you cure plants of virus disease?

No

Can humans acquire virus diseases from animals?

Yes, almost all viruses have effected them.

What kind of virus is HIV?

Retrovirus

What enzyme does HIV use the synthesize DNA from RNA?

Reverse transcriptase

What type of cells does HIV infect and damage?

Infects white blood cells

What is the main difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote?

Nucleus for prokaryotes, no nucleus for eukaryotes.

What is the nucleoid region of a prokaryote?

Contains cell DNA.

How much smaller are prokaryotes compared to eukaryotes?

10x smaller.

Are all prokaryotes very similar or very different?

Very different

What is the name of the substance that makes up the cell walls of bacteria which archaea do not have?

Peptidoglycan

What are some types of evidence that archaea and eukaryotes are more closely related than archaea are to bacteria?

More in common with humans

What are two domains of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and Archaea

What would be the shape name for pairs of rod-shaped bacteria?

Oval shape for rods

What is the name for curved or comma shaped bacteria?

Vibrios are J shaped

What is the term for helical or spiral shaped bacteria?

Cocci

What are the three functions of the bacterial cell wall?

Maintain shape, no bursting, and good for protection

What is the function of the pili?

Help adhension on bacteria and provide links during conjugation

What is the function of the capsule?

The capsule can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages.

What is the function of the flagella?

Movement

Whose genome is bigger, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes

Can endospores survive boiling water?

Yes

What nutritional group of bacteria get both their energy and carbon from organic molecules and is the largest group of bacteria?

Chemoheterotroph

What short, thin appendages help prokaryotes adhere to surfaces?

Pili

Where do chemoautrophic bacteria get their carbon and energy from?

CO2 from air and energy from inorganic compounds

Do heterotrophs get their carbon from organic or inorganic compounds?

Organic

Name the three main groups of Archaea?

Extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles, and methanogens

Characteristics of halophiles, thermophiles, and methanogens

Salty, extreme hot waters, or methanogens make their own energy.

What are cyanobacteria?

Photosynthesize in a plantlike manner

What are actinomycetes?

Live in soil and decomposer like fungus

Are methanogens in the domain bacteria or domain archaea?

Domain archaea

What is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the U.S.?

Chlamydia

What does salmonella cause?

Food poisoning and typho fever?

What type of bacterial disease causes a large, bullseye-shaped rash?

Lyme disease!

What are some things that have reduced bacterial diseases?

Sanitation/Antibiotics/Education

Can you get anthrax by simply touching it with the skin?

Break in the skin or inhale it

How do cyanobacteria help plants?

Fixing nitrogen

What group of organisms have had the greatest impact on the environment more than all other forms of life?

Bacteria

What is transformation?

Uptake of foreign DNA from environment

What is transduction?

Transfer of bacterial genes by phage

How did Frederick Griffth go about proving transformation?

Transformation

What is the advantage of conjugation, transduction, and transformation?

All increasing genetic information

Spreading a computer virus by using emails is most like which of the processes above?

Transduction

How do bacteria pass on genes for antibiotic resistance?

Plasmid

What are the requirements for a functional F factor?

Carry genes and build organ of replication and pass genes.

What human activities have contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?

Over use of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture