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17 Cards in this Set

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What is the purpose of a test cross?
To check for carriers of a trait and the probability that offspring will have a particular allele
Why do plant and animal breeders use genetics?
To selectively breed organisms with desirable traits
Inbreeding
Mating between closely related individuals
Test Cross
A cross of an individual of unknown genotype with an individual of known genotype
Genetic Engineering
A faster more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a specific allele in a population
Recombinant DNA
Made by connecting, or recombining, fragments of DNA from different sources
Transgenic Organisms
Contain genes from other species
Restriction Enzymes
Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide sequence
Plasmid
A small ring of DNA found in a bacterial cell
Vector
Means by which DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell (Bacterial DNA)
Gene Splicing
Rejoining of DNA fragments
Clones
Genetically identical copies
Human Genome
The total number of genes in an individual
Linkage Map
The genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromosome
Gene Therapy
The insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders
Why are plant cells difficult to genetically engineer?
They do not have the plasmids needed for taking up foreign DNA
An organism that contains functional recombinant DNA is called a what?
Transgenic Organism