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71 Cards in this Set

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What region contains the DNA?

Nucleoid. Blue squigglies.

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ by which feature?

Multiple inner compartments.

Which of the following statements correctly describes the endosymbiont theory.

Eukaryotes acquired mitochondria and chloroplasts by engulfing prokaryotes.

The exception of supporting the endosymbiont theory

DNA in nucleus

A student examines a cell that possesses the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, an outer cell membrane, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. It could be a cell from

a plant, but not an animal.

Mitochondria are found in

plant and animal cells.

Which cell feature is found in both plant and animal cells?

Rough ER

A cell possesses the following features: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, phospholipid bilayer, energy acquisition and processing. It could be a cell from

any kind of organism.

A cell that keeps its DNA in a nucleus could be a cell from which of the following groups of organisms?

fungi and plants

Which cell features are found in both animal and plant cells?

ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and outer cell membrane

Prokaryotic cells lack four of the following features. Which feature is found in prokaryotes?

phospholipid bilayers

The three domains of life are

Eukarya, archaea, and bacteria.

Prokaryotes carry out all of the following except

ATP formation in chloroplasts.

Glycogen is

a polysaccharide found in animals

Cellulose

a carbohydrate composed of many monomers

A carbohydrate that yields many monosaccharides when hydrolyzed is a


Polysaccharide

A simple sugar is composed of equal parts carbon and water, which gave rise to the general name of any sugar as a

Carbohydrate

What can not hydrolyzed any further?

Monosaccharide

What can be split into two monosacchrides?

Disaccharide

Energy can be extracted from what bonds in a sugar molecule?

both C-H bonds and C-C bonds

Carbohydrates are formed in the process of photosynthesis from the starting materials of

carbon dioxide and water.

Carbohydrates are burned in cellular respiration for the purpose of producing

energy for the cell.

1 glucose + 1 fructose combine to form _______ by ___________.

sucrose; dehydration synthesis

The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a disaccharide linking two glucose molecules via dehydration synthesis?

C12H22O11

To calculate how many C, H, and O are in a polysaccharide, one can simply multiply the C, H, and O present in each monomer by the number of monomers contained in the polysaccharide, and then ADD one H2O molecule for every monomer.

False

High-fructose corn syrup consists of

55% fructose and 45% glucose.

To which sugar are human taste buds most sensitive?

fructose

The sugar transporters in the human gut are best at transporting which two in equal proportion?

fructose and glucose

From the fact that high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) tastes sweeter than regular table sugar, one can conclude that

the percentage of fructose in HFCS must be higher than that in table sugar.

Lactose tolerance is highest in human populations

with a long history of dairy farming over many generations.

Starch functions in

energy storage in plants but not in animals.

Glycogen functions in

energy storage in animals but not in plants.

Cellulose functions in

providing structural support in plant cell walls.

The polysaccharides used for energy storage should be expected to be _______ to break down.

Easy

The polysaccharides used for structural support should be expected to be _______ to break down.

Difficult

Because starch and cellulose have different functions, they

must have different structures.

Compared to fat, glycogen is mobilized _______ and ________ to become exhausted as an energy source in human metabolism

more quickly; is faster

The energy content per gram for fats, carbohydrates, and proteins is about how many kcal/gram, respectively?

9; 4; 4

True or false? If ATPs third phosphate group were more tightly attached, ATP would be an even better energy donor.

False

Which of the following is least stable?

ATP

ATP is produced

by producers and by consumers.

Two species that harbor microbes capable of breaking down cellulose for energy are

termites and cows.

False statement: Starch and cellulose

are both structural components of plant cell walls.

Because it is branched and can be broken down to ________ by multiple enzymes at the same time, _________ is digested more quickly than _________.

monosaccharides; amylopectin; amylose

Which of the following dietary carbohydrates activate genes that promote fat storage most strongly?

sugars and amylopectin

The polysaccharides ________________ occur in plants, while ___________ occur(s) in animals.

cellulose and amylose; glycogen

The formula for the sugar ribose is C5H10O5. What would be the formula of a trisaccharide made from three ribose monomers?

C15H26O13

DOMAIN BACTERIA

• single-celled
• found everywhere
• some cause disease in
humans, but most are
beneficial

DOMAIN ARCHAEA

• single-celled
• often live in extreme
conditions, such as
environments that are
very hot, salty, or acidic


DOMAIN EUKARYA

• single-celled or
• multicellular, larger, more
sophisticated cells

“Pro-karyote”

“before nucleus” (no nucleus = no
membrane around the DNA)

“Eu-karyote”

“real nucleus” (with
membrane around the DNA)

Kingdom Plantae

• multicellular
• use sunlight to
produce sugars via
photosynthesis

Kingdom Fungi

• single-celled or
multicellular
• decompose and
digest dead
organisms

Kingdom Animalia

• multicellular
• eat and digest other
organisms

Protists

• single-celled or
multicellular
• catch-all category
for all remaining
eukaryotes
• includes many
kingdoms

All living cells share these key components:

• Nucleic acids (DNA) to store
genetic information for protein synthesis
• Proteins to perform diverse tasks (and
ribosomes to make proteins)
• Outer cell membrane to maintain a
suitable internal environment
• Ability to acquire energy from the
environment for ATP formation & the 3 types
of cellular work

Eukarya (Eukaryotes)

Larger cells,
compartmentation by
multiple inner membranes
for “multi-tasking”

Bacteria & Archaea

Small cells; lack internal
compartmentation
(i.e., have no membrane around the DNA, no
mitochondria, no chloroplasts, no Golgi apparatus, no
rough or smooth ER),
different species specialize in unique
biochemical pathways

Mitochondria

the eukaryotic cell’s powerhouses



Burn energy-rich molecules with O2
to gain lots of ATP energy for cellular work

All eukaryotes have mitochondria for
making lots of ATP: plants, animals,
fungi, protists

.

Prokaryotes do not have
mitochondria; many prokaryotes
cannot burn food molecules with O2
and instead use fermentation to
make small amounts of ATP.

.

Chloroplasts

solar energy collectors/converters



Role: Convert solar energy
into energy-rich sugars in
photosynthesis



Prokaryotes do not have chloroplasts;
(photosynthetic bacteria perform
photosynthesis using other structures)



Chloroplasts occur only in
plants & algae

Mitochondria and chloroplast both possess
their own

DNA, ribosomes, and a double membrane – as if they
were independent organisms engulfed by a bigger cell by
endocytosis.

Endosymbiont Theory

Engulfed non-photosynthetic
prokaryote becomes
a mitochondrion



Engulfed photosynthetic
prokaryote becomes
a chloroplast

Unique plant cell features

Chloroplasts (for photosynthesis)
Cell wall and central vacuole
(for structural support)

glucose, fructose, galactose

sugars with 6 carbons

Predict the energy content of sugar: A sugar should have
____________ energy content compared to a fatty acid with
the same number of C atoms.

about twice the

Follow the carbon
from CO2 to sugars
and back

Within the cells of producers and consumers,
sugars are broken down, providing cellular
energy and releasing CO2.




CO2 is converted to sugars and
other molecules by producers
via photosynthesis.



Sugars are absorbed
by consumers that
eat plants.

ATP

is produced not only in cellular respiration,
but also as an intermediate in sugar production in photosynthesis

anabolism

production of energy-rich
molecules and/or of the organism’s material substance