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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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How many years ago were the first plants on land?
430 Million Years Ago
Why did the first plants come to land?
Ozone layer
What are the three advantages for organisms to move to land?
A. Exposure to sunlight -> photosynthesis
B. Availability of inorganic nutrients -> less competition
C. Increased CO2 Exposure
A, B, C
What is the evidence that plants evolved from algae?
Both have chlorophyll and cell walls made of cellulose and both store energy as starch.
How many phyla of nonvascular plants are there?
Three Phyla
What phylum contains liverworts?
What phylum contains conifers?
Why phylum contains horsetails?
Where do liverworts lie?
Close to the ground
What does a gametophyte do?
Produces sperm and egg
What makes nonvascular plants different from other plant groups?
1. No true roots, rhizoids
2. Dissolve rock/tree/etc. to get inorganic nutrients
3. Sperm swims to egg in water (need water/moisture)
4. Nonvascular
4 things
What belongs to Phylum Anthocerophyta?
Which phylum is "cone bearing"?
Xylem and phloem in plants is the equivalent of what in humans?
Veins and arteries
Which phylum shares a single characteristic with algae and what is the characteristic?
Anthocerophyta: hornwarts
Each cell has 1 large chloroplast
Where do hornwarts grow?
Moist, shady areas
Which plants have a thalloid?
Liverworts (Hepatophyta)
What are rhizoids?
Root"like" structures that anchor the gametophyte down
What is alternation of generations?
A haploid gametophyte to a diploid sporophyte
True or Fase: Dicots evolved from monocots.
What do mosses have in place of roots?
What are holes in the cuticle? What do they do?
Stomata: allow gas exchange
What are two plant adaptations?
Ex. Woody tissue, spores
Do mosses use seeds or spores?
Seedless, produce spores
What is the definition of cuticle?
Waxy, protective covering that prevents water loss and keeps out CO2
Why are seed plants the dominant land plants?
Their seeds are protected and don't need moist environments
Which carries water: xylem or phloem?
What type of plant is tolerant of air pollution?
Ginkgo tree (Ginkgophyta)
What are the three types of nonvascular plants?
Mosses, liverworts, and hornwarts
What is a good reason to beautify a city with a gingko tree? Bad?
They are tolerant of air pollution but the female seeds fall on the sidewalks and release butyric acid, which smells bad
Which is dominant in mosses: gametophyte or sporophyte?
What are the two defining characteristics of angiosperms?
They are flowering and their seeds are enclosed in fruit
What phylum do mosses belong to?
How tall do cycads get?
18 meters/60 feet
Where are cycads native to?
The tropics
What did pioneers use as potscrubbers?
Horsetails (Sphenophyta)
Which plants have thin, transparent leaflike structures?
Liverworts (Hepatophyta)
What are three uses of sphagnum?
Fertilizer, fuel, and it is used to pack bulbs & flowers for shipping
Why are mosses good for an ecosystem?
They decompose into soil
What are two uses of gymnosperms?
Christmas trees and paper
What are gymnosperms known as?
Naked seed plants
Why must ferns live in a wet environment?
Sperm swims through water to egg
What are two examples of monocots?
Lilies, irises, bananas, pineapple
What is a cotyledon?
Leaf inside seed; internal leaf structure; embryotic leaf
What type of venation do dicotyledons have?
Net venation
Which venation is more efficient: net or parallel?
Net; it covers more surface area
What are two characteristics of monocotyledons?
They have parallel venation, scattered vascular bundles, and flower parts occurring in 3s
How are vascular bundles arranged in dicotyledons?
Radially arranged
What is the world's largest flower? Its nickname?
Rafflesia; "stinking corpse lily"
Where is Rafflesia found?
Southeast Asia
Where are horsetails found?
Tropical and temperate regions
How tall is the tallest sequoia?
110 meters/360 feet
What is ephedra?
Desert shrub that resembles horsetail
What is fruit?
Ripened ovary that surrounds seeds
What is the largest phylum?
Which plants look like miniature pine trees?
Club mosses (Lycophyta)
Which plants produce spores on the ends of short branches?
Whisk ferns (Psilotophyta)
What was the dominant plant up until about 200 million years ago?
Seedless Vascular Plants
What are fronds?
Mature leaves
What are fiddleheads?
Tightly wound young leaves