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34 Cards in this Set

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-Describe features of Cystic Fibrosis as an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involving a defective Chloride channel protein
.
-Describe emphysema and pneumonia
.
-Describe Chronic smoking as an inducer of the transformation of respiratory epithelium into a stratified squamous epithelium, an initial step in its eventual transformation into a tumor
.
-Describe the use of Epinephrine and other sympathomimetic drugs to relax smooth muscle during asthma attacks
.
Divisions of Respiratory Tract
Anatomically:
Functionally:
Anatomically:
the Upper Respiratory Tract (U R T)
the Lower Respiratory Tract (L R T)

Functionally:
Conducting passages
Transitional zone
Sites of Gaseous exchange
Anatomically:


<Divisions of Respiratory Tract
the Upper Respiratory Tract (U R T)
the Lower Respiratory Tract (L R T)
Functionally

<Divisions of Respiratory Tract
Conducting passages
Transitional zone
Sites of Gaseous exchange
Functions of the Respiratory System
-Conditioning of air (filteration, temperature adjustment and humidification).
-Olfaction
Phonation (production of sound)
-Gas exchange
-Metabolism- air and blood-borne compounds
-Defense-immune system
The basic structural feature of the functional epithelium is the =

Sites of Gaseous Exchange:
extraordinary reduction of the tissue mass to extremely thin and extensive sheets so that the functional components, air and blood are its major constituents and are brought into very intimate and extensive contact.
Typical Respiratory Epithelium

LM:
Pseudostratified columnar ciliated with Goblet cells

(Typical Respiratory Epithelium).
Three types of cells are identifiable

Typical Respiratory Epithelium
Columnar ciliated
Goblet cells
Basal cells
EM: 6 cell types

Typical Respiratory Epithelium
Ciliated columnar cells
Mucous goblet cells
Brush Cells
other Brush cells
Basal cells
Small granule cells
|         |        |         |            |         |    

Mucous 
Ciliated 
Basal 
Small 
Brush 
other Brush
| | | | | |

Mucous
Ciliated
Basal
Small
Brush
other Brush
Ciliated columnar cells:


Typical Respiratory Epithelium
Most abundant
~ 300 cilia per cell
Mitochondria below apical surface
Goblet cells:

Typical Respiratory Epithelium
Secretion of mucous
Complement of the mucous glands
Dissolve several substances (O3, SO2)
Proliferate with chronic exposure to irritants.
Most abundant
~ 300 cilia per cell
Mitochondria below apical surface

what cells =
Ciliated columnar cells:
Brush cells have numerous microvilli on their apical surface. Brush cells have _______ nerve endings on their basal surfaces and are considered to be sensory receptors.
afferent

no Q about brush cells
Small granule cells
diffuse neuroendocrine system

pic
main function of the typical respiratory epithelium is =


Typical Respiratory Epithelium
mucus layer by ciliary action (Mucociliary escalator).
***
Kartagener’s syndrome aka =
Immotile cilia syndrome

deficiency of dynein

causes what =
2ct
causes infertility in men

chronic respiratory tract infections in both sexes
Mucociliary Escalator
Mucociliary Escalator
Sol layer (Periciliary fluid)
Sol layer (Periciliary fluid)
Mucous (gel) phase (superficial)
Mucous (gel) phase (superficial)
Changes in the character of Respiratory Epithelium =
5ct
-Pseudostratified columnar ciliated
to
-Simple columnar ciliated
to
-Simple cuboidal ciliated
to
-Simple cuboidal nonciliated
to
-Simple squamous
In the regions exposed to direct air flow or physical abrasion (wear & tear) the respiratory epithelium changes to
stratified squamous non-keratinizing type e.g.
3ct
pharynx,
epiglottis
vocal cords.
In smokers, the proportion of ciliated cells to =
goblet cells is altered.
Clinical Note:

If air currents are changed, the affected area changes from typical respiratory epithelium to stratified squamous.

In smokers, the proportion of ciliated cells to goblet cells is altered.
Nasal Cavities are divided into:


Upper Respiratory Tract
1 Vestibule
2 Nasal fossae
Respiratory segment
Olfactory segment
Vestibule:
Anterior & dilated portion of the nasal cavity
Within nares epithelium changes into =

Upper Respiratory Tract
non-keratinizing stratified squamous.
Vestibule:
Anterior & dilated portion of the nasal cavity
Outer skin =

Upper Respiratory Tract
stratified squamous keratinizing
Around nares (nostrils) are numerous
_______ & ____________ glands
sebaceous
sweat glands

also have thick short hairs called =
vibrissae
Nasal Fossae:


Upper Respiratory Tract
Outside nares =

Within nares epithelium =

Nasal Fossae:=
Outer skin stratified squamous keratinizing

non-keratinizing stratified squamous.

changes to pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells

Epithelium lies upon a basal lamina and is supported by connective tissue layer,

lamina propria
contains
tubuloalveolar glands

Lamina propria contains small collections of lymphatic tissue.

Lamina propria lies on the periosteum or perichondrium thus forming mucoperiosteum or mucoperichondrium
Nasal cavity is divided by a septum.
Extending from the lateral walls are 3
bony shelf like projections known as
=
chonchae

covered by =
mucoperiosteum
Nasal Cavity:
mucoperiosteum
describe =
Superior-
Middle-
Inferior-
Superior- covered by olfactory & Resp. epithelium

Middle- covered by Resp. epi

Inferior- covered by Resp. epi
*Swell Bodies =
superficial plexus of large thin walled vessels called =
superficial plexus of large thin walled vessels called =
cavernous
 or
 erectile tissue, 

common site of nose bleed.
cavernous
or
erectile tissue,

common site of nose bleed.
Inferior concha
Mucoperiosteum
Epithelium
Lamina propria
Bone
Mucoperiosteum
Epithelium
Lamina propria
Bone
Olfactory Epithelium

Specialized area of nasal epithelium on dorsal surface of nasal passage

Type of Epithelium
Pseudostratified columnar
ciliated epithelium w
3 cell types =

______ cells are not found here =
______bodies are not present =
Olfactory receptor neurons with axons projecting to olfactory bulb
Supporting cells
Basal cells


goblet cells
Swell bodies are not present.
Olfactory Epithelium

_____ _____ layer contain
Lamina propria

what glands
serous glands aka=

Bowman’s glands
serous glands aka=

Bowman’s glands