Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

circulatory system

regulates bulk flow over long distances

true circulatory system

contains a pump, fluid, and conduits

open circulatory system

simpler circulatory system with few parts, low pressure, low demand on heart

closed circulatory system

high pressure circulatory system, tightly controlled

iron in hemoglobin

used by vertebrates to carry oxygen


used by invertebrates to carry oxygen, uses copper instead of iron


have a single circuit and a two-chambered heart

land vertebrates

most of these have a three-chambered heart and two partially separated circuits


have a four chambered heart and two fully separated circuits


this side of the mammalian heart pumps to the lungs


this side of the mammalian heart pumps to the rest of the body

right ventricle

right atria->


right ventricle->

left atria


left ventricle

left atria->

systemic tissues

left ventricle->


phase that ends in the contraction of the atria


phase where ventricles contract


period in which ventricles fill with blood


period in which pressure forces open the aortic and pulmonary valves

pacemaker potential

in the heart, a slow, positive increase in voltage across the cell membrane that occurs at the end of one action potential and before the next, coordinating contraction

waves of depolarization

causes electrical potentials on the skin that can be measured by EKGs

autonomic nervous system

regulates total flow, or cardiac output

autonomic nervous system

tightly regulates heart rate

blood pressure

equal to resistance times flow rate

flow rate

constant along the full length of the circuit

smooth muscle

responsible for changing blood vessel diameter

vessel diameter

changed to help distribute blood flow


in blood vessels, increases flow


in blood vessels, decreases flow


vessels that exchange small molecules with tissues

venuous return

rate of blood flow back to the heart, regulated by one-way valves


vessel that evens out pressure from heart and distributes blood


high-resistance vessels that regulate flow into specific capillaries


returns blood to heart and stores blood volume


a small vein that collects blood from the capillaries

two elastin layers

found in arteries, but not in veins


alters membrane potentials in pacemaker cells


blow _____ mmHg partial pressure of O2, hemoglobin releases oxygen


number of cells produced by your bone marrow in one second


the heart can beat on its own without nervous stimulation, so it is ______

cardiac muscle

muscles specialized for pumping blood

skeletal muscle

muscles specialized for rapid and voluntary contraction

smooth muscle cell

muscles specialized for slow, efficient, involuntary control

excitation–contraction coupling

In a muscle cell, the process by which electrical excitation of the cell membrane leads to contractile activity by actin and myosin


A giant, elongated, elastic protein molecule that in a striated muscle cell spans an entire half-sarcomere from the M band to the Z line


to provide neural input


muscle protein that controls the interactions of actin and myosin necessary for muscle contraction


capable of generating an action potential


Wavelike muscular contractions proceeding along a tubular organ, propelling the contents along the tube


A state in which some invertebrate muscles maintain a state of contraction over extended periods of time with minimal energy expenditure


another muscle protein that controls the interactions of actin and myosin necessary for muscle contraction

action potential

An impulse in a neuron taking the form of a brief, local, high-amplitude depolarization of the cell membrane


cytoplasm of a muscle cell

sliding-filament theory

based on the formation and breaking of crossbridges between actin and myosin filaments, causing the filaments to slide past each other


point of contact for nerves

neuromuscular junction

Synapse where a motor neuron axon stimulates a muscle fiber

antagonistic muscle pair

two muscles that perform coordinated opposing actions


a collagen-containing band of tissue connecting muscle to bone


the contractile unit of a muscle cell

fast glycolytic cells

Muscle cells that are highly dependent on ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis


oxygen-binding molecule found in red muscle cells

slow oxidative

Skeletal muscle cells specialized for sustained, relatively low-intensity, aerobic work

myosin filaments

Bundles of linked myosin molecules. Also called thick filaments


In the study of muscle, the event in which a nerve impulse arrives at a neuromuscular junction and initiates an action potential in the cell membrane of a muscle cell


Conduct electrical excitation into the interior of the muscle cell to trigger contraction

asynchronous muscle

muscle in which each excitation results in multiple contractions

smooth muscle

Muscle tissue consisting of small, mononucleated muscle cells innervated by the autonomic nervous system


During muscle contraction, the links formed when the globular heads of myosin filaments bind to specific sites on actin filaments

sarcoplasmic reticulum

the ER of a muscle cell

actin filaments

Chains of linked actin molecules, also called thin filaments


A long, longitudinally oriented component of a striated muscle cell that consists of a series of sarcomeres and extends the length of the cell


muscle filament connected to the M-band


muscle filament connected to the Z-line


muscle filament that runs from z-line to z-line

thin filaments

composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin


binds to troponin, exposing myosin binding sites

myosin binding sites

myosin 'docks' here, pulling on actin to shorten the sarcomere

motor neurons

efficient somatic neurons that stimulate skeletal muscles


action potentials in the t-tubules trigger the SR to release _______

intercalated discs

mechanically connect adjacent cardiac cells

gap junctions

allow action potentials to move between adjacent cardiac cells, have gaps that allow the diffusion of small molecules between adjacent cells

pacemaker cells

endogenously create action potentials


myosin uses ATP to _____ to myosin