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84 Cards in this Set

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circulatory system

regulates bulk flow over long distances

true circulatory system

contains a pump, fluid, and conduits

open circulatory system

simpler circulatory system with few parts, low pressure, low demand on heart

closed circulatory system

high pressure circulatory system, tightly controlled

iron in hemoglobin

used by vertebrates to carry oxygen

hemocyanin

used by invertebrates to carry oxygen, uses copper instead of iron

fish

have a single circuit and a two-chambered heart

land vertebrates

most of these have a three-chambered heart and two partially separated circuits

mammals

have a four chambered heart and two fully separated circuits

right

this side of the mammalian heart pumps to the lungs

left

this side of the mammalian heart pumps to the rest of the body

right ventricle

right atria->

lungs

right ventricle->

left atria

lungs->

left ventricle

left atria->

systemic tissues

left ventricle->

diastole

phase that ends in the contraction of the atria

systole

phase where ventricles contract

diastole

period in which ventricles fill with blood

systole

period in which pressure forces open the aortic and pulmonary valves

pacemaker potential

in the heart, a slow, positive increase in voltage across the cell membrane that occurs at the end of one action potential and before the next, coordinating contraction

waves of depolarization

causes electrical potentials on the skin that can be measured by EKGs

autonomic nervous system

regulates total flow, or cardiac output

autonomic nervous system

tightly regulates heart rate

blood pressure

equal to resistance times flow rate

flow rate

constant along the full length of the circuit

smooth muscle

responsible for changing blood vessel diameter

vessel diameter

changed to help distribute blood flow

vasodilation

in blood vessels, increases flow

vasoconstriction

in blood vessels, decreases flow

capillaries

vessels that exchange small molecules with tissues

venuous return

rate of blood flow back to the heart, regulated by one-way valves

artery

vessel that evens out pressure from heart and distributes blood

arteriole

high-resistance vessels that regulate flow into specific capillaries

vein

returns blood to heart and stores blood volume

venule

a small vein that collects blood from the capillaries

two elastin layers

found in arteries, but not in veins

acetylcholine

alters membrane potentials in pacemaker cells

40

blow _____ mmHg partial pressure of O2, hemoglobin releases oxygen

2,000,000

number of cells produced by your bone marrow in one second

myogenic

the heart can beat on its own without nervous stimulation, so it is ______

cardiac muscle

muscles specialized for pumping blood

skeletal muscle

muscles specialized for rapid and voluntary contraction

smooth muscle cell

muscles specialized for slow, efficient, involuntary control

excitation–contraction coupling

In a muscle cell, the process by which electrical excitation of the cell membrane leads to contractile activity by actin and myosin

titin

A giant, elongated, elastic protein molecule that in a striated muscle cell spans an entire half-sarcomere from the M band to the Z line

innervate

to provide neural input

myosin

muscle protein that controls the interactions of actin and myosin necessary for muscle contraction

excitable

capable of generating an action potential

peristalsis

Wavelike muscular contractions proceeding along a tubular organ, propelling the contents along the tube

catch

A state in which some invertebrate muscles maintain a state of contraction over extended periods of time with minimal energy expenditure

troponin

another muscle protein that controls the interactions of actin and myosin necessary for muscle contraction

action potential

An impulse in a neuron taking the form of a brief, local, high-amplitude depolarization of the cell membrane

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm of a muscle cell

sliding-filament theory

based on the formation and breaking of crossbridges between actin and myosin filaments, causing the filaments to slide past each other

synapse

point of contact for nerves

neuromuscular junction

Synapse where a motor neuron axon stimulates a muscle fiber

antagonistic muscle pair

two muscles that perform coordinated opposing actions

tendon

a collagen-containing band of tissue connecting muscle to bone

sarcomere

the contractile unit of a muscle cell

fast glycolytic cells

Muscle cells that are highly dependent on ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis

myoglobin

oxygen-binding molecule found in red muscle cells

slow oxidative

Skeletal muscle cells specialized for sustained, relatively low-intensity, aerobic work

myosin filaments

Bundles of linked myosin molecules. Also called thick filaments

excitation

In the study of muscle, the event in which a nerve impulse arrives at a neuromuscular junction and initiates an action potential in the cell membrane of a muscle cell

t-tubules

Conduct electrical excitation into the interior of the muscle cell to trigger contraction

asynchronous muscle

muscle in which each excitation results in multiple contractions

smooth muscle

Muscle tissue consisting of small, mononucleated muscle cells innervated by the autonomic nervous system

cross-bridges

During muscle contraction, the links formed when the globular heads of myosin filaments bind to specific sites on actin filaments

sarcoplasmic reticulum

the ER of a muscle cell

actin filaments

Chains of linked actin molecules, also called thin filaments

myofibril

A long, longitudinally oriented component of a striated muscle cell that consists of a series of sarcomeres and extends the length of the cell

myosin

muscle filament connected to the M-band

actin

muscle filament connected to the Z-line

titin

muscle filament that runs from z-line to z-line

thin filaments

composed of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin

calcium

binds to troponin, exposing myosin binding sites

myosin binding sites

myosin 'docks' here, pulling on actin to shorten the sarcomere

motor neurons

efficient somatic neurons that stimulate skeletal muscles

calcium

action potentials in the t-tubules trigger the SR to release _______

intercalated discs

mechanically connect adjacent cardiac cells

gap junctions

allow action potentials to move between adjacent cardiac cells, have gaps that allow the diffusion of small molecules between adjacent cells

pacemaker cells

endogenously create action potentials

unbind

myosin uses ATP to _____ to myosin