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42 Cards in this Set

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What is the basic anatomy of the heart

Blood enters through two large veins --> empty oxygen-poor blood to atrium --> tricuspid valve allows flow into right ventricle -->pulmonic valve allows blood to lungs --> left atrium --> mitral valve opens to allow blood into left ventrical. It shuts and pumps to aorta

Where does electrical signal originate from in the heart?

sinoatrial node located in the atrium of the right atrium

Where is the endocardium found?

Lines the atria and ventricles. Innermost layer. lines ventricle cavity and arium cavity

Lines the atria and ventricles. Innermost layer. lines ventricle cavity and arium cavity



Where is the myocardium found?

next layer out from the endocardium. Where cardiac muscle is that leads to contraction

next layer out from the endocardium. Where cardiac muscle is that leads to contraction

Where is epicardium?

outermost layer along the surface of the heart

What is found in the endocardium?

Endothelium


Subendothelium


Subendocardium

What is the function of endothelium?

simple squamous epithelium with a thin continuous basal lamina



Is in physical contact with the blood in the chambers of the heart



What is the function of the subendothelium?

loos connective tissue layer with abundant elsatic fibers and some smooth muscle bundles



Similar to lamina propria

Subendocardium

Layer of loose connective tissue with small vessels, nerves, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers



Connects to myocardium

What molecules are extremely rich in the endocardium as a whole? how will these appear?

Collagen and elastin. Collagen = pink fuzzy lines, 

Collagen and elastin. Collagen = pink fuzzy lines,

What is the blue what is the group of red that the big arrow is pointing to?

What is the blue what is the group of red that the big arrow is pointing to?

Blue = collagen


Red group = smooth muscle bundle

What makes up the myocardium?

cardiac muscle fibers, parts of the cardiac skeleton, the impulse conductions ystem



What surrounds each cardiac muscle cells and what bundles these cells?

Each muscle cell is surrounded by endomysium



Groups of cardiac cells (fascicles) are held in place by perimysium t

What fibers make up atrial cardiac muscle?

overlapping network of woven fibers with collagen and elastin interspersed

What do atrial cells look like compared to ventricle cells

They are smaller and more granular

They are smaller and more granular

What leads to the more granular appearance of atrial cells?

they have an endocronine fuction

What electrically distinguishes atrial cardiac muscle from ventrical cardiac muscle

It conducts impulses faster and contract more rhythmically due to more gap junctions than ventricular cardiac cells

What does the ratio of endocardium to myocardium look like in the artial cardiac muscle?

Thicker endocardium and thinner myocardium

What histologically identifies ventricular cardiac muscle from atrial muscle cell?

Thicker myocardium than atria


Large cardiac myocytes, less granular


 


Cell layers whind helically around cavity to aid in "wringing out" of heart during contraction




Fewer elastic fibers

Thicker myocardium than atria


Large cardiac myocytes, less granular



Cell layers whind helically around cavity to aid in "wringing out" of heart during contraction



Fewer elastic fibers

What is a general feature of all cardiac skeleton?

Dense connective tissue scaffolding into which cardiac muscle fibers insert and from which cardiac valves extend

What are the commponents of the cardiac skeleton

- annuli fibrosae 


-trigona fibrosae 


-septum membranaceum 


 


All of these are subject to calcification with age or dz 

- annuli fibrosae


-trigona fibrosae


-septum membranaceum



All of these are subject to calcification with age or dz

What does annuli fibrosae consist of?

Dense CT rings that surround and reinforce valve openings 


 


All four rings associated with the 4 major valves 

Dense CT rings that surround and reinforce valve openings



All four rings associated with the 4 major valves

Trigona fibrosae

two triangular dense CT masses lying between the two groups of annuli fibrosae

What is the septum membranaceum?

Dense fibrous plate forming the top of the mascular interventricular septum

What are cardiac valves made up of>

Folds of endocardium enclosing a core of dene fibrous CT (rich in collagen and elastin)



Bases are anchored to the strong fibrous rings of the annuli fibrosae

Where is the mitral/bicuspid valve?

located between left atrium and left ventricle


What is the structure of the bicuspid?

2 cusps or flaps each anchored to papillary muscles

What are the chordae tendinae

Chordae tendinae

Chordae tendinae

What are the chordate tendinae made up of?

loosely arranged collagen and elstin fibers on the outside, central core of longitudinally arranged collagen fibers



Elastic fibers on the outside and collagen in the middle

What are the papillary muscles and what is their function?

They prevent valves from collapsing The chordae insert on the fibrous cap (In blue) 

They prevent valves from collapsing The chordae insert on the fibrous cap (In blue)

what are the structural features of the tricuspid valve/av valve?

Located between right atrium and ventricle 


 


3 cusps 


 


Free edge of each cusp is anchored to the papillary muscles in the floor of the right ventricle by chordae tendinae 


 


Fibrous connective tissue core 

Located between right atrium and ventricle



3 cusps



Free edge of each cusp is anchored to the papillary muscles in the floor of the right ventricle by chordae tendinae



Fibrous connective tissue core

Which valves are the semilunar valves?


What is unique about them

The aortic valve (left ventricle and aorta), pulmonary valve (between right ventricle and pulmonary artery)



3 cusps each


No chordae tendinae



Each cusp has a thickened nodule at the center of its free edge

What are the three distinct layers of the aortic cusp?

Fibrosa: densley packed collagen 


Spongiosum: proteoglycan and GAG matrix with loosely arranged collagen 


Ventricularis: abundant elastic fibers 

Fibrosa: densley packed collagen


Spongiosum: proteoglycan and GAG matrix with loosely arranged collagen


Ventricularis: abundant elastic fibers

How does the current spread through the heart.

SA node --> AV node --> AV bundle --? bundle branches --? purkinje fibers 

SA node --> AV node --> AV bundle --? bundle branches --? purkinje fibers

What does the SA node consist of>

Small mass of specialized cell found in the right atrium median wall adjacent to the opening of the superior vena cava within the terminal groove 


 


Fastest intrinsic rhythm of contraction 

Small mass of specialized cell found in the right atrium median wall adjacent to the opening of the superior vena cava within the terminal groove



Fastest intrinsic rhythm of contraction

What does the SA node have lots of?

collagen and elastin SA node 

collagen and elastin SA node

What do purkinje fibers look like

Larger and paler than typical cardiac myocytes with 1-2 central nuclei, intercalated disk and sparse myofilaments 

Larger and paler than typical cardiac myocytes with 1-2 central nuclei, intercalated disk and sparse myofilaments

What do purkinje fibers look like

What happens during myocardial infarction

1. acute/ischemia. you lose intracellular striations. Nuclei and pyknotic are irregularly shaped


2. Three days later you will see a great deal of nutrophils everywhere


3. A few weeks later you will get wavy tissue/elastic type fibers


4...

1. acute/ischemia. you lose intracellular striations. Nuclei and pyknotic are irregularly shaped


2. Three days later you will see a great deal of nutrophils everywhere


3. A few weeks later you will get wavy tissue/elastic type fibers


4. Eventually you get fibrosis and scarring and the replacement of the area with dense connective tissue