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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the major rist factors that can't be changed?
Age
Gender
Heredity
What are the major ristk factors you can modify, treat or control by changing your lifestyle or taking medicine?
Smoking
High blood cholesterol
High blood pressure
Physical inactivity
Obesity and overweight
Diabetes
What other factors contribute to heart disease risk?
Stress
Alcohol
What is Metabolic Syndrome?
A clustering of metabolic complications of obesity

-associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Obesity contributes to: hypertension, high blood cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglycemia(high blood sugar)
Sighns of cardio, metabolic, pulmonary disease
pain, discomfort, shortness of breath, dizziness or syncope, orothopnea or paraoxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, ankle edema, palpitations or tachycardia, intermittent claudication, known heart murmur, unusual fatigue, or shortness of breath
Pain, discomfort
-in neck, chest, jay, arms, or other areas may be signs of ischemia
-May be cardiac disease - CAD
-Constricting, squeezing, burning, heavy feeling, dull ache, knifelike
Shortness of breath at rest or with mild exertion
Dyspnea - symptom of cardiac and pulmonary disease, common in strenuous exertion
Dizziness or syncope
Syncope is mostly caused by reduced perfusion of the brain. prevent rise in cardiac output during exercise, severe CAD, aortic stenosis.
Orthopnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
-Dyspnea occurring at rest in laying position, relieved by sitting or standing. usually 2-5 hours after onset of sleep. left ventricular disfunction
Ankle edema
Bilateral ankle edema. evident at night. sign of heart failure. venous thrombosis or lymphatic blockage.
Palpitations or tachycardia
unpleasant awareness of the forceful or rapid beating of the heart. induced by tachycardia, bradycardia, ectopic beats, compensatory pauses. occur from anxiety, anemia, fever
Intermittent claudication
The pain that occurs in a muscle with an inadequate blood supply that is stressed from exercise. doesnt occur when sitting or standing. described as cramp. disappears 1-2 minutes after exercise. CAD and diabetes is more prevelent with this
Known Heart Murmur
may indicate valvular or other cardio disease.
Unusual fatigue or shortness of breath with usual activities
May signal the onset of, or change in the status of cardio, pulmonary, or metabolic disease
Family History
Myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization. or suddin death before 55 in father, or before 65 in mother.
Age
Men>45, Women>55
Cigarette Smoking
Current smoker, one who quit within 6 months, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
Sedentary lifestyle
Not participating in 30 minutes of moderate intensity (40-60% vo2 R) on at least 3 days of the week for 3 months
Obesity
Body mass index >30 or waiste >40 inches for men and >35 for women
Dyslipidemia
LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol or on lipid lowering medication.
Prediabetes
Impaired fasting glucose=fasting plasma glucose
With CVD consider making decisions about:
-level of medical clearance
-the need for exercise testing prior to initiating participation
-The level of supervision fot both exercise testing and exercise program participation
Low Risk
less than 1 CVD risk factor
-risk for cardio event low, physical exercise program may be pursued safely without medical exam
Moderate Risk
2 or more risk factors
-risk for cardio event is increased. may engage in low to moderate intensity physical activity without medical clearance.medical exam recomended
High Risk
Known cardio, pulmonary, or metabolic disease or one or more sign or symptom
-risk for cardio event increased, medical exam should take place and clearance given for exercise at any intensity.
Health fitness professionals should have knowledge of:
-criteria for cardio, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases
-The descriptions of signs and symptoms for these diseases
-The specific criteria that determine the CVD risk factor schemes
-the criteria for each risk category
Cardiac rehabilitation
-A multidisciplinary program of education and exercise established to assist individuals with heart disease in achieving optimal physical, psychological, and functional status within the limits of their disease
Cardiac rehab program includes:
-education of the patient and family in the recognition, prevention and treatment of cardio disease
-Elimination or reduction of risk facctors
-Dealing with the psychological factors that influence revovery from heart disease
-Structured, progressive physical activity, either in a rehab setting or a home program
-Vocational counseling
Cardiac rehab staff
-cardiac rehab advisory board
-attending physician
-medical director
-program coordinator
-professional skilled at exercise testing
-dietician
-behavior specialist
Phases of cardiac rehab
-Phase I
Acute
3 MET FC
Phases of cardiac rehab
Phase II
Sub acute
5 MET FC
Phases of cardiac rehab
Phase III
Intensive rehab
8 MET FC
Phases of cardiac rehab
Phase IV
Ongoing rehab
Adult Fitness