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13 Cards in this Set

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ICS 
Dog = 3 - 3.5
Cat = 2 - 2.5

Apicobasilar length = 60% thoracic height
3/5th, 2/5th rule
3/5ths cranial = right heart
2/5ths caudal = left heart
ICS
Dog = 3 - 3.5
Cat = 2 - 2.5

Apicobasilar length = 60% thoracic height
3/5th, 2/5th rule
3/5ths cranial = right heart
2/5ths caudal = left heart
Vertebral Heart Score
Apicobasilar length
craniocaudal length

start at T4 - sum the vertebral bodies
normal range 8.7 - 10.7
breed specific ranges
Normal Size of Cardia Silhouette
Heart is less than or 1/2 width of thorax at 9th rib
younger animals have rounder hearts
deep chested dogs have rounder hearts
roughly 40% of heart is to right of midline and 60% to the left
Pulmonary Vessels

Size:
Location:
Assesment:
Size:
use 9th rib in VD/DV view
use 4th on lateral view
pulmonary vasculature should be equal width
arteries and veins should appear equal in size

Location:
ABV - dorsal to ventral on lateral; lateral to medial on VD/DV
Veins are ventral and central

Assessing:
aid radiographic diagnosis; vascular dynamics, ongoing pathophysiology
VD - 9th rib
lateral - 4th rib
VD - 9th rib
lateral - 4th rib
Left atrial enlargement
most common cardiomegaly
dilation, mitral valve disease
pulmonary over circulation

increased height of caudodorsal heart (2/5th rule)
- Tracheal bifurcation elevated
loss of caudal cardiac waist
-stair step/backpack sign in R Lateral view
...
most common cardiomegaly
dilation, mitral valve disease
pulmonary over circulation

increased height of caudodorsal heart (2/5th rule)
- Tracheal bifurcation elevated
loss of caudal cardiac waist
-stair step/backpack sign in R Lateral view
Divergence of caudal bronchi
-cowboy sign
- possible bronchial compression
Dilated left auricle
-2-3 o'clock bulge (VD/DV view)
Left Ventricular Enlargment
caused by: hypertrophy, dilation
cardiac disease: sub-aortic stenosis, heart failure

increased height of caudodorsal heart
often concurrent left atrial enlargement
-tracheal bifurcation elevated
- possible bronchial compression
rounding/co...
caused by: hypertrophy, dilation
cardiac disease: sub-aortic stenosis, heart failure

increased height of caudodorsal heart
often concurrent left atrial enlargement
-tracheal bifurcation elevated
- possible bronchial compression
rounding/convex appearance of caudalventral aspect of the cardiac silhouette
round of the apex on the VD view
increased size of left heart
Right Atrial Enlargment
uncommon
dilation
tricuspid valve dysplasia

bulge at craniodorsal aspect of cardiac silhouette on lateral view
-loss of cranial cardiac waist
Bulge of heart from 9:00 to 11:00 on VD/DV view
-findings can overlap
-dilation of aortic arch o...
uncommon
dilation
tricuspid valve dysplasia

bulge at craniodorsal aspect of cardiac silhouette on lateral view
-loss of cranial cardiac waist
Bulge of heart from 9:00 to 11:00 on VD/DV view
-findings can overlap
-dilation of aortic arch or MPA may appear similar
Right Ventricular Enlargment
caused by: hypertrophy, dilation
Cardiac diseases: heartworm disease, pulmonic stenosis

more readily identified than left ventricular enlargement

increased sternal contact
- >3 ICS on lateral view
- consider breed variation
Reverse 'D'
...
caused by: hypertrophy, dilation
Cardiac diseases: heartworm disease, pulmonic stenosis

more readily identified than left ventricular enlargement

increased sternal contact
- >3 ICS on lateral view
- consider breed variation
Reverse 'D'
-increased amount of right heart on VD/DV view, with concurrent rounding on right margin of heart
Displaced cardiac apex
Generalized Cardiomegaly
caused by: multiple chamber enlargement, pericardial space diseases
*caution: underinflated lungs, small breed dogs

enlarged rounded appearing cardiac silhouette
both right and left sided heart enlargment
caused by: multiple chamber enlargement, pericardial space diseases
*caution: underinflated lungs, small breed dogs

enlarged rounded appearing cardiac silhouette
both right and left sided heart enlargment
Aorta
Enlarged Cranial Aorta
-patent ductus arteriosus
-aortic stenosis
-redundant aorta
- 11:00 - 1:00
-continuation with caudodorsal mediastinal facial plane

Small aorta:
right heart failure
hypovolemia
Enlarged Cranial Aorta
-patent ductus arteriosus
-aortic stenosis
-redundant aorta
- 11:00 - 1:00
-continuation with caudodorsal mediastinal facial plane

Small aorta:
right heart failure
hypovolemia
Main Pulmonary Artery
Enlarged:
DV/VD Focal bulge @ 1:00- 2:00
not easily seen on lateral view

DDX:
pulmonic stenosis
patent ductus arteriosus
Heartworm Disease
Enlarged:
DV/VD Focal bulge @ 1:00- 2:00
not easily seen on lateral view

DDX:
pulmonic stenosis
patent ductus arteriosus
Heartworm Disease
Caudal Vena Cava
Variable Size:
Respiration
cardiac cycle
abdominal distention
breed variation
weight

Enlarged:
> 1.5 the width of aorta
seen with right heart disease, volume overload

decreased:
subjective, hypovolemia
Variable Size:
Respiration
cardiac cycle
abdominal distention
breed variation
weight

Enlarged:
> 1.5 the width of aorta
seen with right heart disease, volume overload

decreased:
subjective, hypovolemia