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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Branch of psychology that seeks an understanding of how people affect and are affected by others.
Social Psychology
Earliest social psychologist experiments were by whom?
Max Ringelmann and Norman Triplett
What was the topic of the early social psychology studies?
Effect of presence of others on individual performance
The first two textbooks were by whom?
Edward Rosss and William McDougall
Who made the observance that attitudes were important concepts for social psychology?
Gordon Allport
Who said that behavior was a function of the person and the situation?
Kurt Lewin
Who conducted the study on obedience?
Stanley Milgram
What two camps was psychology divided between?
Behaviorist and Psychoanalysts
Theory that seeks to explain behavior in terms of learning principles and not inner states, thougts or feelings.
Behaviorism
Theory that seeeks to explain behavior by looking at deep unconscious forces
Freudian Psychoanalysis
What is the ABC Triad?
Affect, Behavior, Cognition
Affect
How people feel inside
Behavior
What people do
Cognition
What people think about
The study of human culture
Anthropolgy
The study of goods and money
Economics
The study of past events
History
The study of political organizations
political science
The study of human societies
Sociology
The study of human behavior
Psychology
The study of what happens in the brain
Biological Psychology
Branch of psychology that focuses on behavior disorders and mental illness
Clinical Psychology
The study of thought processes like memory and what people notice
Cognitive Psychology
The study of how people change across their lives from birth to old age and death
Develpmental Psychology
The branch of psychology that focuses in differences between individuals
Personality Psychology
Social psychologists are usually interested in studying the:
individual
Social psychology has borrowed most heavily from what other branch?
Cognitive Psychology
Studying the effect of unemployment on the divorce rate is done by a:
Sociologist
Abnormal behavior is to normal behavior as:
Clinical is to social
Love of wisdom
Philosophy
What and when was Norman Triplett's research?
1897 Cyclists against people or clocks
What and when was Max Ringelmann's research?
1880's Rope pulling studies.
Who were the influences of the early 20th century and what was their finding?
Allport/Attitude and Lewin/Behavior = Individ+Situation
What were the two influences in the 1950's and 60's
Behviorism and Psychoanalysis
What is research that focuses on solving particular practical problems?
Applied Research
What separates philosophy from psychology?
Reliance on scientific method
Who said he studied social psychology because he was curious about people?
Edward E. Jones
Who said there is nothing as practical as a good theory?
Kurt Lewin
What separates common wisdom and social psychological research?
Science
First step in the scientific method
State the problem for study
Second step in the scientific method
Formulate testable hypothesis
An idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but not proven
hypothesis
Third step in scientific method
Design a study to test hypothesis
Fourth step in scientific method
Test the hypothesis
Fifth step in the scientific method
Communicate the results of the study
What is the highest percent variation or "flukes" allowed in test in scientific method?
5%
An experiment in which each participant is exposed to all levels of the independent variable
Within-subject design
An experiment in which each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable
Between-subject design
Unobservable constructs that are linked together in some logical way
Theories
The variable manipulated by the researcher that is assumed to lead to changes in the dependent variable
Independent variable
The variable in a study that represents the results of the events and processes
Dependent variable
Observable operations, procedures, and measurements that are based on the independent and dependent variables
Operational definitions
A research assistant pretending to be another participant in a study
Confederate
The extent to which the independent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical stimulus
construct validity of the cause
The extent to which the dependent variable is a valid representation of the thoretical response
construct validity of the effect
A study in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable and randomly assigns people to groups
Experiment
Procedure whereby each study participant has an equal chance of being each treatment group
Random Assignment
A type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an independent variable but cannot use random assignment
Quasi-experiment
The extent to which changes in the independent varaible caused changes in the dependent variable
Internal Validity
Occurs when the effects of two variables cannot be separated
Confounding
An experiment that includes more than one independent variable or factor
Factorial Design
The effect of a single independent variable on the dependent variable, ignoring the effects of other independent variables
Main Effect
Refers to the joint effects of more than one independent variable on the dependent variable
Interaction
An unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom
Reactance
An experiment conducted in a real-world setting
Field Experiment
The extent to which study participants get so caught up in the procedures that they forget they are in an experiment
Expermental Realism
The extent to which the setting of an experiment physically resembles the real world
Mundane Realism
The extent to which the findings from a study can be generalized to other people, settings or time periods
External Validity
A nonexperimental method in which the researcher merely observes whether variables are associated or related
Correlational approach
The relationship or association between two variables
Correlation
The statistical relationship or association between two variables
Correlation Coefficient
A quantitative literature review that combines the statistical results from all studies
Meta-analysis
Repeating a study to ensure similar results can be obtained
Replication
Most social psychological studies use participants from what continent?
North America
What type of participants do most social psychologists use in their studies?
College Students
"There is nothing as practical as good theory."
Kurt Lewin
Abstract ideas or concepts
Constructs
In one of the first social psychological experiments ever conducted, researcher Norman Triplett examined the records of teams of cyclists. He found that cyclists who raced against each other _____ than those who raced alone (against the clock).

1. were more aggressive after the race
2. cycled more quickly
3. enjoyed the race less
4. got into more accidents
2. cycled more quickly
Dr. Taylor is conducting a study to test the effect of a new drug on people's ability to concentrate at work. His research sample consists of 100 US adults. During a 14-week period, half of the sample is administered the drug and the other half is administered a placebo, and participants' concentration abilities are continually tracked. In the context of this study, if Dr. Taylor uses random assignment, it means that

1. the 100 adults in his study are likely to be representative of the larger population of interest.
2. his research findings are likely to be statistically significant.
3. each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each level of the independent variable (e.g., the placebo group or the drug group).
4. his study will be high in external validity.
3. each research participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each level of the independent variable (e.g., the placebo group or the drug group).
What is the main advantage of an experiment over a correlational study?

1. The researcher is able to study phenomena within their natural context.
2. The researcher is better able to draw conclusions about cause and effect.
3. The researcher can use a much smaller sample size and still find a statistically significant result.
4. Research participants are always representative of the population.
2. The researcher is better able to draw conclusions about cause and effect.
Jackson is interested in the effects of violent movies on aggressive behavior. He has some participants in his study watch Grand Torino (his “violent” movie) and others watch Marley and Me (his “nonviolent”movie). Unfortunately, in addition to these movies being very different in their violence level, they also differ in a lot of other ways (one is a comedy, the other isn’t, and so forth). This means that Jackson’s study has a

1. factorial design.
2. confound.
3. nonrandom assignment.
4. random assignment.
2. confound.
The effect of a single independent variable by itself, ignoring the effects of other independent variables, is called a(n)

1. confound.
2. interaction effect.
3. main effect.
4. correlation coefficient.
3. main effect.
In which of the following situations would Igor be MOST likely to experience reactance?

1. He is out on a first date with an attractive person and trying to make a good impression.
2. He sleeps through an important job interview, and only has himself to blame.
3. He finds out that his mother has cancer, but that she has been hiding it from him for several years because she didn't want him to worry about her.
4. He comes home and finds his older brother reading his journal—where he has written deep, dark secrets that he does not want anyone to see.
4. He comes home and finds his older brother reading his journal—where he has written deep, dark secrets that he does not want anyone to see. Student Response
Researchers often attempt to design studies that will be high in both experimental realism and mundane realism. However,

1. most researchers acknowledge that mundane realism is almost impossible to achieve.
2. most researchers acknowledge that experimental realism is really only important when one is conducting a true experiment.
3. experimental realism is generally considered to be far more important.
4. mundane realism is generally considered to be far more important.
3. experimental realism is generally considered to be far more important.
When findings from a study are likely to generalize to other people and other settings, the study is said to have

1. internal validity.
2. construct validity.
3. external validity.
4. mundane realism.
3. external validity.
There is a moderately strong, positive relationship between different forms of prejudice: People who are prejudiced against Group X also tend to be prejudiced against Group Y. Given this information, we should expect the correlation between anti-Jewish prejudice and anti-Asian prejudice to be about

1. .04
2. 0.4
3. 40
4. 4.0
2. 0.4
When there is no relationship between two variables, the correlation coefficient is

1. 0
2. -100
3. +1.0
4. -1
1. 0
Suppose that you are interested in knowing whether there are gender differences in suicide (i.e., whether one gender commits suicide more frequently than the other). The only way to study this precise question would be to conduct

1. a true experiment, using random assignment.

2. a field experiment, using random assignment.

3. correlational research looking at archival data (existing data).

4. a quasi-experiment, using no random assignment.
3. correlational research looking at archival data (existing data).
Replication refers to

1. the joint effects of two or more independent variables.

2. the technique of meta-analysis.

3. repeating an experiment to see if the same results can be obtained..

4. an experimental setting seeming like the real-world.
3. repeating an experiment to see if the same results can be obtained..
Suppose that you are conducting a research project for a social psychology class. Due to the fact that you have no budget for the research, you are forced to rely on a college student population. How big of a problem is this in terms of your ability to later generalize your findings to other groups of people?

1. It is a very serious problem if your sample size is under 1000; if your sample size is over 1000, however, it is not a serious problem.

2. It is a very serious problem, for pretty much anything you are studying.

3. It is an issue to pay attention to and take into consideration, but it is generally not a very serious problem unless you are studying certain topics (e.g., attitudes about aging or education). Student Response

4. It is a very serious problem for most topics within social psychology (though not all).
3. It is an issue to pay attention to and take into consideration, but it is generally not a very serious problem unless you are studying certain topics (e.g., attitudes about aging or education).
Behaviorism seeks to explain human behavior in terms of

1. learning principles such as rewards and punishments.

2. broad environmental influences such as historical time period and geography.

3. basic biological drives such as hunger and thirst.
4. culture.
1. learning principles such as rewards and punishments.
Following the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989, social psychology’s focus on conflict

1. emphasized racial/ethnic conflict.
2. remained unchanged.
3. lessened.
4. increased.
1. emphasized racial/ethnic conflict.
When psychologists talk about "cognitions," they are typically referring to

1. thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes.
2. unconscious motivations.
3. emotions or feelings.
4. abnormal thoughts or experiences (e.g., delusions).
1. thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes.
When trying to explain a person's behavior, the first place social psychologists tend to look is to

1. the person's unconscious motivations.
2. the situation the person is in.
3. the person's relationships with family members as a child.
4. the person's personality.
2. the situation the person is in.
Which of the following fields is MOST concerned with understanding different human cultures?

1. Economics
2. Anthropology
3. Political science
4. Social psychology
2. Anthropology
Laela is interested in studying how groups of which we are members influence our thinking and behavior. Which other social science (besides social psychology) will Laela’s work MOST closely intersect?

1. Sociology
2. Neuroscience
3. Economics
4. History
1. Sociology
Social psychology can be seen in many different settings, including the daily newspaper. The Garfield comic displayed in the lecture for this module illustrated stereotypes.

1. False
2. True
2. True