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14 Cards in this Set

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subtractive and additive processes
Subtractive: sculptor begins with a mass of material larger than the finished work
And removes material
Carving is a subtactive process

Additive: the sculptor builds the work adding material as the work proceeds.
Modeling, construction, and assemblage are additive processes
relief (low and high),
meant to be seen from one side only, very often used to decorate architecture

Low or high relief-
low relief is where the figures have a shallow depth
High relief is where the sculptures project forward from the base at least half their depth

Frontal vs. in-the-round
sculpture in-the-round
Impossible to represent in a single photograph all at once.
Ex. Giovanni da Bologna. The Rape of the Sabine Women. completed 1583
frieze
A sculptural band
Ex. Maidens and Stewards, fragment of the Panathenaic Procession, from the east frieze of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens. 447–438 BCE
carving
subtractive process in which the material being carved is chipped, hammered, or gouged away from an inert, raw block of material

-sculptors who work in stone must take into account the different characteristics of each type of stone
Modeling
Additive process in which a pliant substance (usually clay) is molded
Ex. Robert Arneson. Case of Bottles. 1964
naturalism
A brand of representation in which artist retains apparently realistic elements but presents the visual world from a distinctly personal or subjective point of view.
contrapposto,
counter-balance

In contrapposto, the weight falls on one foot, raising the corresponding hip. This shift in weight is countered by a turn of the shoulders, so that the figure stands in a sort of S-curve
Ex. Praxiteles. Hermes and Dionysos. c. 330 BCE
Casting
Employs a mold into which some molten material is poured and allowed to harden.
Ex. Tomb of Emperor Shih Huang Ti. 221–206 BCE
lost wax process
Technique developed to create hollow pieces rather than solid ones
assemblage
The process of bringing individual objects or pieces together to form a larger whole.

Often associated with the transformation of common materials into art
Ex. Louise Nevelson. Sky Cathedral. 1958
installation
Artwork that radically changes the space it is shown in by introducing sculptural materials in order to transform our experience of it
site-specific art
Site-specific art: art that is designed for a specific space
Ex. Kara Walker. Insurrection! (Our Tools Were Rudimentary, Yet We Pressed On), installation view. 2000. Cut paper silhouettes and light projections, site-specific dimensions.
earthworks
Large scale out-of-doors environments
Ex. Robert Smithson. Spiral Jetty. April 1970