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15 Cards in this Set

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Name the 5 unifying characteristics of life?
1.Organization: all organisms made from one or more cells; Internal environment is separate from the external environment.
2.Ability to sense and React to stimuli: adaptions
3.Growth and Differentiation: specialization of cells to preform specific functions
4.Reproduction and Evolution of a species
5.Meabolism
The _____ is the smallest unit of life.
Cell
Define differentiation, adaptation, metabolism.
1.Differentiation:specialization of cells to perform specific functions.
2.Adaption: Includes long term adjustments to the environment
3.Metabolism: The sum of chemical reactions occurring in and the the use of energy for growth, reproduction, differentiation, and homeostasis
Define homeostasis.
The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment regardless of changes in the external environment.
What is the consequence if homeostasis is not maintained?
Disease or Death
Define negative feedback.
when the effector does the opposite of the stimulus
-most common type
-ex. thermoregulation: the body temperature increases, and the blood vessels dilate and there is sweating which cools the body down
Define positive feedback
when the effector produces a response that exaggerates the stimulus
-Less common
-e.g. blood clotting: Damage causes release of chemicals that attract platelets; The more platelets that arrive, the more chemicals are released
Define the terms sensor, controller, and effector and be able to identify them in an example of homeostasis.
1.The Sensor which detects the stress.
2.The Control Center which receives information from the sensor and sends a message to the Effector.
3.The Effector which receives the message from the control center and produces the response which reestablishes homeostasis.
Describe the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic homeostatic regulation.
Extrinsic regulation of the internal environment via the nervous or endocrine system whereas the intrinsic regulation is self-regulation of the internal environment done at the cellular level in localized areas
Explain the key differences between nervous and endocrine regulation?
a. Nervous – fast, acute, specific
vs.
b. Endocrine – slow, chronic, specificity dependent on receptors in target tissue
Define anatomy (gross vs. microscopic)?
The study of structure and relationship between body parts
-Gross: parts visible to the naked eye
-Microscopic:
:Histology: tissue structure
:Cytology: cell structure
Define Physiology
The study of the function of the body’s parts; could be focused at any level
Examples:
1. System physiology – digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine
2. Cell physiology
3. Pathophysiology – physiology of disease [pathos = suffering]
List the levels of biological organization from simplest to most complex.
Molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Explain how the study of anatomy and physiology applies to each of the levels.
1.Molecular:
-organic molecule: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and
nucleic acids; (sometimes combined, e.g. glycoproteins,
glycolipids, etc…)
-Function: Building blocks of cells (e.g. structural proteins
of hair & nails, phospholipids of the cell membrane)
-Messengers of communication (e.g. hormones,neurotransmitters)
- sources of energy and storage (ex. glucose, fats, proteins)
-enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions
-medium for information storage and propagation (DNA and RNA)

-
Continued
2.Cellular:
a. Organelle functions, such as the special function of
sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells
b.Anatomy of cilia, flagella, and microvilli and how they aid in specialized cell functions
c.Maintenance of ion gradients across cell membranes and how this enables cells to communicate
3.Tissue: cells work together to preform specific functions; includes nervous, connective, muscle, epithelial tissue
4.Organ:
a.Multiple tissue types work together to form organs
which perform specific functions & maintain homeostasis
b. Examples – lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, etc…
5.Organ system:multiple organ system come together to preform complex functions
b.Example – the lungs, heart, blood vessels, and blood
work together to provide O2 to all tissues of the body and remove cellular wastes
6.Organism: comprised of multiple organ systems