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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scientific study of human development can be defined as the science that seeks to understand
how and why people change, and how they do not change, from conception till death
Central to the study of development is the _______-________,___________,which reconizes the sources of continuity, and discontinuity friom the beginning of life to the end
life-span perspective
The five developmental characteristics embodied within the life span perspective are that development is
multidirectional
multicontexual
multicultural
multidisiciplinary
plastic
Three inportant insights of this perspective are the concepts of _____ ____, which refers to that continual change that occurs within each person and each social group, the ____ _____, in which even a tiny change in one system can have a profound effect on the other systems of development; and the power of ____, in which even large changes seemingly have no effect.
dynamic sysstems; buttefly effect;continuity
A group of people born within a few years of each other is called a ______. These people tend to be affected by history in _____(the same way/differnet ways.)
cohort
the samy way
A widely shared idea that is built more on shared perceptions thatn an objective reality is a ______ _____. An inportant point about such ideas is that they ______.(often change/are very stable) over time
social construction
often change
A contextual influence that is determined by a persons income, education, place of residence, and occupation is called a _____, which is often abbriviated ______. Although poverty is a useful signal for severe problems throughtout life, other variables, such as presence of _______ within a family, paly a crucial role in determining individual development. Another variable is _____ _____, which refers to the degree to which neighbors create a functioing, informal network of people who shoew concern for each other.
socieconomic status
SES
supportative relationships
collective efficacy
The values, assumptions and customs as well as the physical objects that a group of people have adopted as a design for living constitute a _______.
culture
The impact of cultural variations in ___ ____ can be seen in the fact that children who_____(sleep alone/sleep with parents) are taught to be independent of their families; while those who _____(sleep alone/sleep with parents) are taught to depend on them for warmth and protection. A _____ is a kind of farming commune developed in _____, whose members share _____________
sleeping places,
sleep alone
sleep with parents
kibbutz
Israel
work
meals
income
and child care
A collection of people who share certain attributes, such as ancestry,natural origin, religion, and language and, as a result, tend to have similar beliefs, values, and cultural experiences is called ___ _____. Biological traits used to differentiate people who ancestors come from different regions is the definition of ____.
ethnic group
race
The study of human development can be divided into three domains:____,____, and ______.
biosocial
cognitive
psychosocial
One of the most encouraging aspects of the lifespan perspective is that devolpment is characterized by ____, or the capability of change.
plasticity
(In person) Because his mother contracted the disease _______ during her pregnancy, David was born with a heart defect and cataracts over both eyes. Thus his immediate problems centered on on ____ problems. However, because he was born at aparticular time, he was already influenced by the larger _____ context. Particulary in the chuch community, the ____-_____ context benifited him. Davids continuing development of his skills is a testimony for ____.
rubella
physical
historical
cultural-ethnic
plasticity
In order the basic steps of scientific method are
formulate a research question
develop a hypothesis
test the hypothesis
draw conclusions
make the findings available
A specific, testable prediction that forms the basis of research project is called a ______
hypothesis
To repeat an experimental test procedure and obtain the same results is to ______ the test of the hypothesis.
replicate
In designing research studies, scientists are concerned with four issues:_____, or whether a study measures what its purports to measure; ____, or whether its measurements are correct; _____, or whether the study applies to other populations and situations; and _____, or whether it solves real life problems.
validicy
accuracy
generalizability
usefulness
When researchers observe and record, in a systematic and ubbiased manner, what research subjects do, they are using ___________.
scientific method
People may be observed in a ____ setting or in a ______
naturalistic
lab
A chief limitation of observation is that it does not indicate the ____ of the behavior being observed.
cause
A number that indicates the dgree of relationship between two variables is a ____. To say that two variables are related in this way ______(does/soes not)necessarily inply that one caused the other.
correlation
does not
The method that allows a scientest to determine cause and effect is the ____. In this method, the researcher manipulates a(n)__________variable to determine its affect on a(n) variable.
experiment
independent
dependent
In an experiment, t he subjects who recieve a particular treatment constitutes the _____; the subjects who do not recieve the treatment constitutes the ____ ______.
experimental group
comparison group
To determine whether a difference between two groups occurred purely by coincidence, or chance, reseachers apply a mathematical test of statistical ______.
significance
Experiments are sometimes critizised for studing behavior in a situation that is _______.
artifical
Another limitation is that participants in this research technique(except very young children) who know they are research subjects may attempt to _________. The most accurate and ethical way to conduct developmental research on children is the ____ ______.
produce the results they believe the experimentor is looking for
natural experiment
Ina(n) _____, scietest collect information from a large group of people by personal interview, written questionaire, or some other means.
survey
Potential problems with this research method are that the questions may be_____ and respondants may give answers they think the reseacher _____.
biased
excepts(wants)
An intensive study of one individual is called _____. An advantage of this method is that it provides a rich ____ description of development , rather than relying on only on ____ data. Another inportant use it that it provides a good____ for other research.
case study
qualitative
quantitative
starting point
Research that involves the comparison of people of differnt ages is called a ____ research design
cross-sectional
With cross-sectional research it is very difficult to ensure that the various groups differ only in their ____. In adition, every cross-sectional study will, to some degree refelct___ ____.
ages
cohort differences
Research that follows the same people over a relatively long period of time is called a _____ research design. Stae three deawbacks of this type of research design
longitudinal
Over time, some subjects may leave the study. Some people may change simple because they are part of the study. Longitudninal studies are time comsuming and expensive.
The research method that combines the longitudinal and cross-sectioned methods is the ___ ___ research method
cross-sequential
The approach that emphasizes the influence of the systems that support the develping person is called the ___-____ approach. This approach was emphasized by _______.
ecological systems
Urie Bronfenbrenner
According to this model the family, the peer group, and other aspects of the immediate social setting constitute the _______.
microsystem
System that link one microsystem to another constitute the _____.
mesosystem
Community institutions such as schools and church make up the ______.
exosystem
Cultural values, political philosophies, economic patterns and social systems make up the _______.
macrosystem
The finals system in this model is the _____. which emphasizes the inportance of historical time on development
chronosystem
Developmental researchers work from a set of moral principles that constitute their ___ ____ _____ Reseachers who study humans must obtain ______, which refers to written permission, ensure their subjects are not ____ and that they are allowed to stop at any time.
code of ethics
informed consent
harmed
A research study that is a complilation of data from many other sources is called a ____-_____.
meta-analysis
The scientific study of human development is defined as the study of
a. how and why people change or remain the same over time
b. psychosocial infuences of age
c individual differnces in learning over the life span
d. all of the above
how and why people change or remain the same over time
The research method that involves complilation of data from many other sources is the:
a. case study
b. meta-anyalsis
c.cross-sectional
d. scientific observation
b. metaanyalsis
Which of the following is not one of the three inportant aspects of social context discussed in the text
a. historical
b.socioeconmic
c. cultural
d. racial
racial
Which of the following describes a neighborhood in which people pitch in to keep children safe, keep trash off the streets, and generaly show concern for one another?
a. cohert effect
b.collective efficacy
c.meta-analysis
d. butterfly effect
b. collective efficacy
The ecologiacl systems approach to developmental psychology focuses on the
a. biochemistry of the body systems
b. macrosystems only
c. internal thinking process
d. overall environment development
d overall environmental development, this approach sees development as occuring within 5 interacting levels, or environments
Reseachers who take life span perspective on development focus on:
a. the sources of continuity from the begginning of life to the end
b. the sources of discontinuity throughout life
c. the "nonlinear" character of human develpment
d. all of above
d. all of above
That fluctuaations in body weight are affected by gens, appetite, caregiving, culture, and food supply indicates that body weight
a. is characterized by linear change
b. is a dynamic system
c. often has a butterfly effect
d. is characterized by all of the above
b. is a dynamic system
(a body weight does not always increase in a linear fashion. c. although it is possibel that a small change in a persons body weight could set off a series of changes culminate amajor event, the question is concerned with the interconnectedness of body weight, nutrition, and other dynamic developmental systems.)
A hypothesis is
a. conclusion
b. prediction to be tested
c. statistical test
d. correlation
b. prediction to be tested
A developmentalist who is interested in studying the influences of a person's immediate environment on his or her behavior is focusing on which system?
a. mesosystem
b. macrosystem
c. microsystem
d. exosystem
c microsystem
( mesosystem refers to systems that link one microsystem to another, macrosystem this refers to cultural values,polical philosphies, economic patterns, and social conditions,exosystem includes the community structures that affect the functioning of smaller groups
Socioeconomic staus is determined by a combination of variables, including
a. age, education, and income
b. income, ethnicity, and occupation
c. income, education, and occupation
d. age, ethnicity and occupation
c. income, education, and occupation
a disadvange of experiments is that:
a. people may behave differently in an artificail environment in a labratory
b.contol groups are too large to be accommodated in most labs
c.they are the method most vuneracle to bias on the part of the reseacher
d, proponents of the ecological approach over use then
a. people may behave differntly in the artificial setting of a lab
In an experiment testing the effects of group size on individual effort in a tug of war task, the number of people in each group is the
a. hypothesis
b. independent variable
c. dependent variable
d. level of significance
b. independent variable
(a. a possible hypothesis for this experiment would be that the larger the group, the less hard a given individual will pull, c. the dependent variable is the measure of individual effort, d significance level refers to the numerical value specifying the possibility that the results of an experiment could have occured by chance.)
Which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between parents religious beliefs and their attitudes toward middle-school sex education?
a. experimentation
b. longitudinal research
c. naturalistic observation
d. the survey
d. survey
( a. experimrntation is appropriate when one is seeking to uncover cause and effect relationships in this example the reseacher is only interested in determing whether parent beliefd predict their attitudes, b, longitudial research would be appropriate if the reseacher sought to examine the deveolpment of these attitudes over a long period of time.and c mere observation would not allow the reseacher to determine the attitudes of the participants.
A kibbutz is most accurately described as a(n)
a. farming commune whose members share work, income, and child care
b. group of people born in the same religion, social class, and historical era
c. research method often used by developmental psychologist
d. idea that is built more on shared perception that on objective reality
a. farming commune who members share work, income, and child care ( b. group of people born in the same region, social class, and historical era describes cohort, c a kibbutz is a group of people not a ressearch method, d. idea that is built more on shared proception than on objective reality is social contruction)
Developmentalist who carefully observe the behavior of school children during recess are using a research method known as
a. the case study
b. cross-sectional research
c. scientific observation
d. cross-sequential research
c. scientific research ( a case study one subject is studied over a period of time, b. cross sectionsl and d cross sequietial two or more groups of subjects are studied and compared
Scientist rarely repeat an experiment
False just the opposite, scientist always try to replicate their or others people work
(In person) The case study of David cleaarly demonstrates that for some children only nature (or heridetity) is inportant.
False The case study of David shows that both nature and nurture are inportant in affecting outcome
Observation usually indicates a clear relationship between cause and effect.
false a disadvantage of observation is thast the variables are numerous and uncontrolled, and therefor cause and effect relationships are difficult to pinpoint
Each social context influences developnent independently
false each social context effects thje way a person develops, and each is affected by the other contexts
Cohort differnces are an example of the impact of the social context on develpment
true
Every trait of an individual can be altered at any point in the life span
true
Socioeconomic status is rarely measured solely by family income
false it government statistics it often is
The influences between and within Bronfenbrenners systems are undirectional and independent
false quite the reverse is true
people of different ethnic groups can all share one culture
true
longitudinal research is particulary useful in studing development over a long age span
true
children who sleep with their parents are taught to be depend on their parents for protection and typically become bold and independent as adults
false this is true of children who asleep alone
An individuals personel sphere of development refers to his
a. microsystem and mesosystem
b. exosystem
c. macrosystem
d. microsystem,mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosysytem
d. microsysytem, mesosysytem, exosytem, macrosysytem, and chronosystem
Developmental psychologist explore three area of development
a. physical, coginitive, psychosocial
b. physical, biosocial, cognitive
c. biosocial, cognitive psychosocial
d. bisosocial, cognitive, emotional
c biosocail, cognitive, psychosocial
The most inportant principle of the developmental research code of ethics is:
a. never physically or psychologically harm those who are involved in research
b. maintain confidentiality at all cost
c. obtain informed consent at all costs
d. ensure that participants do not understand the tru purpose of their research study
a. never physically or psychologically harm those who are involved in research
When developmentalist speak of the "butterfly effect" they are most directly referring to the idea that
a. a small event may have a powerful impact on development
b. development is fundamentally a nonlinear event
c. each context of development is a dynamic system
d. each context of development interacts with the others
a. a small event may have a powerful impact on development
According to the ecological-systems approach, the macrosystem would include
a. the peer group
b.the community
c.cultural values
d. the family
c cultural values
( a peer group and d family are part of microsystem and b the community is part of the exosystem)
When developmentalist speak of " power of continuity" they are referring to the insight that:
a. a change in one developmental system often affects many other things
b. a small change can become hugh
c. a large change may have no perceptible effect
d. all of the above occur
c. a large change may have no perceptible effect ( a a change in one devopmental system often effects many other things is insight of inmteracting systems and b. a small change can become hugh is butter fly effect
Professor Cohen predicts that because " babyboomers" grew up in an era that promoted independence and assertitiveness, people in their 40's and 50's will respond differently to a polical survey than will people in their 20's and 30's. The professors prediction regarding political attitudes is an example of
a. meta-anyalsis
b. hypothesis
c. indepentdent variable
d. dependent variable
b hypothesis
(In a meta-anaylsis, the results of a number of seperate research studies are combined and variables are treatments (independent) or behaviors (dependent) in experiments, which the situation clearly is not
A cohort is defined as a group of people"
a. of similar national origin
b. who share a common languange
c. born within a few years of each other
d. who share the dame religion
c born within a few years of each other
(A B D are attributes of an ethnic group)
In a test of the effect of noise, groups of students performed a proofreading task in a noisy or quiet room. To what group were students in the noisey room assigned?
a. experimental
b, comparison
c. randomly assigned
d, dependent
a experimental the group is the one in which the variable or treatment in this case noise is present (b students in quiet room would be the comparison group, presumably all students in both groups were randomly assigned to their group, and the word dependent refers to a kind of variable in experiments;groups are either experimental or control.)
In differentiating ethnicity and culture we note that
a. ethnicity is an exclusively biological phenomenon
b. an ethic group is a group of people who were born within a few years of each other
c. people of many ethic groups can share one culture, yet maintheir ethic identities
d. racial identity is always an element of culture
c. people of many ethic groups can share one culture
If developmentalist discovered that poor people are happier than wealthy people are, this would indicate that wealth and happiness are:
a. unrelated
b. correlated
c. examples of nature and nurture, respectively
d. causally related
b correlated
(a wealth and happiness clearly are related, c for one thing, poverty is clearly an example of nurture, not nature and d correlation does not apply causation)
The plasticity of development refers to the fact:
a. development is not always linear
b. each human life must be understood and inbedded in many context
c. there are many reciprocal connections between childhood and adulthood
d. human characteristics can be molded into different forms and shapes
d human characteristics can be molded into differnt forms and shapes
In an experiment testing the effects of noise level on mood, mood is the
a. hypothesis
b. indepentdent vaariable
c. dependent variable
d. scientific observation
c dependent variable
(a hyposthesis make specific testable predictions, b noise level is the independent vaiable and d scientific observation is a research method in which participants are watched while their behavior is recorded)
a group of people born within a few years of each othr
cohort
determined by a persons income, education, and occupation
socioeconomic status
research study comparing people of differnt ages at the same time
cross-sectional research
the historical conditions that affect develpment
exosystem
collection of people who share certain attributes, such as national origin
ethnic group
shared values, attitudes, and customs maintained by people in specific setting
culture
local insstitutions such as schools
exosystem
the variable manipulated in an experiment
independent variable
connections between microsystems
mesosystem
to repeat a sstudy and obtain the smae findings
replicate
the variable measured in an experiment
dependent variable
research study retesting one group of people at several differnt times
longitudinal research
Dr Ahmed is conducting research that takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment. Evidently Dr Ahmed is using the
a. ecological sytem approach
b. logitudinal method
c. cross-sectional method
d.case study method
a ecological sytem approach
In order to study the effects of temperature on mood, Dr Sanchez had students fill out questionaires in a very warm or very cool room In this study, the independent variable consist of
a. the number of students assigned to each group
b. the students response to the questionaires
c. the room temperature
d. the subject matter of the questionaire
c room temperature is the variable being manipulated
Jahmal is writing a paper on the role of the socail context in development. He would do well to consult writings of
a. Piaget
b. Freud
c. Bronfenbrenner
d. Skinner
c Bronfenbrenner
Piaget is notable in the area of cognitve develpment
Freud is was a pioneer of psychoanalysis
Skinner is notable in the history of learning theory
Summarizing her presentation on race and biology, Trisha notes that:
a. a racial group is a collection of people who share ancestral heritage
b. race is a biological construction defined by the genetic traits of a group of people
c. social scientist reconize that all racial catagories are inprecise
d. all of the above are tru
b race is a biological construction defines by the genetic traits of a group of people
Esteban believes that high doses of caffiene slow a persons reaction time. In order to test his belief, he has 5 friends each drink three 8 ounce cups of coffee and then measures their reaction time on a learning task. What is wrong with Estebans research stratigie
a. No indepent variable is specified
b. no dependent variable is apecified
c. There is no comparison condition
d. there is no provision for relication of the findings
c there is no comparison condition
When reseachers find that the results of a study are statistically significant, this means
a. they may have caused ourely by chancce
b. it is unlikely they can be replicated
c. it is unlikely they could have occured by chance
d. the sample population was representative of the general population
c. It is unlikely they could have occured by chance
When we say that the idea of old age as we know it is a "social construction" we are saying
a. the idea is built on shared percceptions of members of society
b. old age has only recently been reagrded as a distinct part of life
c. old age can not be defined
d. the idea is based onwell tested hypothesis
a. the ideal is built on shared perceptions of members of society
Professor Jorgenson believes develoment is plastic. By this she means
a. change in development occurs in evry direction, not in a straight line
b. human lives are embedded in many different context
c. there are many cultures that influence development
d. every individual, and every trait within each individual, can be altered at any point in the life span
d every individual and every trait within wach individual can be altered at any oint in the life span
(a. change in development occurs in every direction and not in straight line describes multidirectional
b. human lifes are embedded in many differnt context describes multiconteextual
c. there are many cultures that influence development describes multiciltural
Karens mother is puzzled by the numerous discrepancies between developmentmental psychology textbook she used in 1976 and her daughters contemperary text. Karen explains that the differnce are the results of
a. the lack of regard by earlier reseachers for the scientific method
b. changing social conditions and cohert effects
c. the wide-spread use of cross-sectional research today
d. the wides pread use od longitudinal research today
b changing social conditions and cohert effects
If height and body weight are correlated, which of the following is true
a. there is cause and effect relationship between height and weight
b. knowing a persons height, one can predict her weight
c. both and b are true
d. neither is true
b. knowing a person height one can predict her weight
An example of longitudinal research would be and investigater compares the performance of
a. several differnt age groups on memory test
b. the same group of people at differnet ages on a test of memory
c. an experimental group and a comparison group on test of memory
d. several differnet age groups on a test of memory as each group is tested repeatedly over a period of years
b the same group of people at differnt ages on a test of memory
For her developmental psycology research project, Lakia decide she wants to focus primarily on qualitative data. You would advise her to conduct
a. a survey
b. an experiment
c, a cross-sectional
d. a casy study
d a case study
( a survey,experiment and cross sectional usually produce quanatative results, rather than qualitative data
Professor Johsnon warns her students to be skeptical of the results of a contoversal study because it has not been replicated. By this she means
a. there was no experimental group
b. there was no cmparison group
c. the study has not yet been repeated by other reseachers in order to verify the original findings
d. the results are statistical insignificant
c the study has not yet been repeated by other reseachers in order to verify the original findings
Dr Watson is comparing research findings for a group of 30 year olds with the findings of the same individuals at age 20, as well as with findings for groups who were 30 in 1990. Which research method is she using?
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional
c. case study
d. cross sequential
d cross sequential
To find out whether peoples attitudes regarding an issue vary with their age group, Karen distributes the same survey to groups of people in their 20,30, 40,50 and 60. Karen is evediently conducting
a. longitudinal research
b. cross sectional research
c. cross sequential research
d. case study
b cross sectional