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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the delivery of characteristics from parent to offspring
heridity
the scientific study of heredity
genetics
a specific characteristic
trait
a process in which male and female reproductive cells join
fertilization
states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
law of dominance
the offspring of crosses between parents of different traits
hybrid
a uniform strain of organisms that is relatively pure genetically because of continued inbreeding and artificial selection.
pureline
the different forms of a gene
allele
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein & thus determines a trait
gene
separation of alleles
segregation
sex cells
gametes
the likelihood of a particular event occurring
probability
organisms that have two different alleles for the same gene
heterozygous
uses mathematical probability to help predict the genotype and phenotype combination in genetic crosses
punnett square
genetic makeup
genotype
physical makeup
phenotype
states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
the phenotype produced by both alleles are clearly expressed
codominance
has two or more alleles
multiple alleles
traits controlled by two or more genes
polygenic traits
can affect gene expression and influence genetically determined traits
environmental conditions
a process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
meiosis
each of the four chromosomes from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent
homologous
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of genes
haploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains 2 sets of homologous chromosomes
diploid
structure containing 4 chromosomes that forms during meiosis
tetrad
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
crossing over
fertilized egg
zygote