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47 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main groups of angiosperms?

Monocots and Dicots

Cotyledons

Seed (embryo) leaves

Moncots

One cotyledon


Main veins usually parallel


Vascular bundles in complex arrangements


Floral parts usually in multiples of 3


Fibrous root system

Dicots

Two cotyledon


Main veins usually branched


Vascular bundles arranged in ring


Floral parts usually in multiples of 4/5


Taproot usually present

A typical plant body consists of _____and ______

roots ; shoots

Where do plants draw their resources from?

Roots and shoots

Root System

Anchors plants in soil


Absorbs/transports minerals/H2O


Stores food

Roots hairs _____ absorptive surface

Increase

Shoot System

Obtains CO2 & light from air


Stem(nodes/internodes) support leaves/flowers

Leaves are ______ organs; flowers are _______ organs (terminal/axillary buds)

Photosynthetic; reproductive

Apical dominance

Is an evolutionary adaptation the increase the plant's exposure to light

Many plants have modified ______, _______, and _______

Roots , stems, and leaves

Function of modified roots

Store sugar

Function of modified stems

Stolons enables a plant to reproduce asexually


Rhizomes store food and can form new plants


Tubers are structures specialize for storage

Function of modified leaves

Store food or water


Fn in protection of plant


Aid in climbing (tendrils)

The three tissue systems that make up the plant body

Dermal, vascular, and ground

Dermal tissue system

Forms outer protective covering of the plant; epidermis and cuticle

Vascular tissue system

Contains xylem and phone


Provides long-distance transport/support

Ground tissue system

Most of the bulk of the petals


Pith


Cortex

Pith is _____ to vascular tissue; cortex is ______ to vascular tissue

Internal; external

Arrangement of tissue systems in root

Vascular cylinder is in center


Ground tissue system consists entirely of cortex

Vascular cylinder structure

Xylem radiates out


Phloem fills in space

Arrangement of tissue in stem

Vascular tissue in vascular bundles


-Dicot, arranged in a ring


-Monocot, scattered throughout ground tissue


Ground tissue


-Dicot, has both cortex and pith region


-Monocot, not divided into regions

Arrangement of tissue in leaf

Epidermis interrupted by stomata flanked by guard cells


Mesophyll ground tissue sandwiched between lower and upper epidermis


Vascular system made up of network veins

Plant cells 3 unique structures/functions

Chloroplasts, the sites of photosynthesis


Central vacuole, containing fluid


Cell wall, surrounds the plasma membrane

What are the five major types of cells?

Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, fibers, sclereids

Parrenchyma

Perform most of the plants metabolic functions

Collenchyma

Provides support

Sclerenchyma

Form a rigid skeleton that supports the plant the main component of wood

Fibers

Long cells arranged in bundles

Sclereids

Shorter, have very hard secondary walls

Xylem in vascular tissue

Conveys water and minerals

Pholem in vascular tissue

Transport sugars

Water conducting cells in angiosperms

Tracheids and vessel elements


Hollow tubes of dead cell walls

Food conducting cells

Sieve-tube members separated by sieve plates

What are flowering plants categorized by?

Basis of length of life cycle

Annuals

Complete life cycle in a single year or less

Biennials

Complete life cycle in 2 years

Perennials

Live and reproduce for many years

Primary growth _______ a plant to grow in length; primary growth ______ behind the root tip in 3 zones

Enables; occurs

Apical meristems

Are unspecialized cells that continue to give rise to new cells

Location of apical meristems

Tips of rod and terminal/axillary buds of shoots

Structures of apical meristem

Covered by protective root cap that is sloughed off during growth

What are the 3 zones where primary growth occurs?

Zone of cell division, zone of elongation, zone of maturation

Secondary growth ______ the girth of woody plants

Increases

Secondary growth is produced by _______

Lateral meristems

Lateral meristems

Two cylinders of dividing cells, vascular cambium and Cork cambium