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21 Cards in this Set

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List the three processes of heat transfer.
The three processes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation.
Name the only process that can transfer heat through the vacuum of space.
Radiation
State whether sound travels fastest in a solid, a liquid or a gas.
Sound travels fastest in a solid.
State whether sound travels fastest in a solid, a liquid or a gas.
The middle ear consists of the ossicles (hammer, anvil and stirrup) and the eardrum.
A beam of light hits a plane mirror at an angle of 45°. State the angle at which it is reflected.
The beam of light will be reflected at the same angle, 45°.
Explain how a sea breeze forms.
In the daytime, land heats up more quickly than the sea. Hot air rises above the land and cooler air takes its place. This produces a sea breeze.
Describe what is likely to happen to infrared radiation that hits: a black plastic pot plant
a black plastic pot plant will be absorbed
Describe what is likely to happen to infrared radiation that hits: a white shade sail over a sandpit
a white shade sail over a sandpit will be reflected
Describe what is likely to happen to infrared radiation that hits: a glass window on a boat.
a glass window on a boat will be transmitted.
Kim toasts marshmallows on an open fire. Although she can't see any flames, she can still feel heat from the fireplace. Explain why.
All objects emit infrared radiation. The hotter an object is, the more infrared radiation it emits. Although Kim can’t see any flames, the coals of the open fire are extremely hot. These coals radiate intense infrared radiation, which Kim feels as she sits nearby.
Describe how the pitch of a violin string can be changed.
The pitch of a violin string is changed by the musician pressing on the string, making its effective length shorter for different notes.
Predict the sizes of angles x, y and z
Predict the sizes of angles x, y and z
Angle x + 60° = 90° (as this is a right angle), so x = 30°.
Angle y = 60° (by the law of reflection).
Angle z + 60° = 90° (as this is a right angle), so z = 30°.
Explain whether an image projected from a data projector onto a wall is real or virtual.
An image projected onto a screen is a real image.
Identify what vibrates in each musical instrument below to produce a sound.
a a harp
b a trumpet
c a bongo drum
a Strings vibrate.
b A column of air vibrates.
c The skin of the drum vibrates.
A periscope is used in a submarine to allow sailors to see what is above the surface of the water. Copy Figure 4.5.2 and complete the path of a ray of light to demonstrate how this works.
A periscope is used in a submarine to allow sailors to see what is above the surface of the water. Copy Figure 4.5.2 and complete the path of a ray of light to demonstrate how this works.
Light is reflected by a periscope to allow sailors to see what is above the surface of the water
Perspex has a greater refractive index than that of ice. Identify in which material light travels faster.
Light travels faster in substances of lower refractive index, and so will travel faster through ice than through Perspex.
Perspex has a greater refractive index than that of ice. If light travels from ice into Perspex, State whether it will bend towards or away from the normal.
If light travels from ice into Perspex, it is travelling into a substance of greater refractive index and will bend towards the normal.
A light ray travels through material X and hits the boundary of the transparent material Y at an angle of 40° to the surface. It is then refracted into material Y at an angle of 35°. Identify whether X or Y has the greater refractive index.
Light bends towards the normal when it leaves material X and enters material Y. This means material Y has greater refractive index than material X.
A seagull circling overhead spies a fish below, as shown in Figure 4.5.3. Construct a diagram to show where the fish appears to be when seen by the seagull.
A seagull circling overhead spies a fish below, as shown in Figure 4.5.3. Construct a diagram to show where the fish appears to be when seen by the seagull.
Light from the fish is refracted away from the normal as it emerges into the air from the water. As a result, when a seagull traces the path of the light reaching it back into the water, the fish appears to be closer to the surface than it actually is
Propose reasons why light travels faster in ice than in water.
Sound travels faster through glass than through water because the particles making up glass are positioned closer together than the particles making up water.
Propose why sound travels faster through glass than through water.
Ice has a slightly lower refractive index than water. As a result, light will undergo fewer collisions as it passes through ice than through water and will travel slightly faster.