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50 Cards in this Set

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What is personality?
sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individual p98
What is heredity?
the transmissionof genetic characteristics from parents to children p98
What is an instinct?
unchanging biologically inherited behavior pattern p98
What is sociobiology?
social science that studies human society and social behavior p98
What is an aptitude?
capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a particular body of knowledge p99
What are feral children?
wild or untamed children p102
Who was John B. Watson? What did he believe regarding nature versus nurture?
John B Watson was an American psychology who believed that he could take a healthy baby and train them to be anything he wanted (nurture more important than nature) p98
Who were the Ik? What does their experience show?
The Ik were a pople of norther Uganda. Their experience shows the poweral effects of cultural environment: they changed drastically when their cultural environment changed pp101-102
Who was Kingsley Davis?
he was a researcher that studied the feral children - Anna and Isabelle. his findings point strongly to the conclusion that our personality comes from our cultural environment
Who was Rene Spitz? What were the results of his studies?
In 1945 psychologist Rene Spitz studied the effects of institutionalization on a group of infants living in an orphanage. His results showed that human interaction is very important for social and psychological development. p106
What are the four principal factors that contemporary sociologists see as influencing personality development and social behavior?
heredity, birth order, parental characteristics, and cultural environment
According to research by Rene Spitz, what effect does the lack of close human contact have on institutionalized children?
It can lead to severe effects such as causing children to waste away and die or to have stunted development.
What two factors seem to make a big difference in the levels of success in the efforts to teach Anna, Isabelle, and Genie to function normally in society?
the amount of human contact each child had and the age at which each child was found
What seems to be the relation of the amount of human contact to levels of success in the efforts to teach Anna, Isabelle, and Genie to function normally in society?
the less human contact the less the child was able to recover
What are some generalizations that can be made regarding the levels of success in the efforts to teach Anna, Isabelle, and Genie to function normally in society?
the more severe and the longer the isolation, the less the child was able to recover
What is socialization?
the interactive process through which individuals learn the basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns of society p107
What is self?
conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity that separates us from other members of society p107
What is looking-glass self?
interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others p107
What is role-taking?
taking or pretending to take the role of others p108
According to sociologists, what are significant others?
specific people, such as parents, brothers, sisters, other relatives,and friends, who have a direct influence on our socialization p108
What is a generalized other?
internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society that we use to guide our behavior and reinforce our sense of self p108
What is "I"?
the unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component of the personality and self-identity p109
What is "me"?
the part of the identity that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society, the socialized self p109
Who was John Locke? What theory of socialization did he propose?
John Locke was an English philospher of the 1600s who proposed the tabula rasa theory. He insisted that each newly born human being is a tabular rasa, or clean slate, on which just about anything can be written. p107
What does the tabula rasa theory propose about socialization?
John Locke insisted that each newly born human being is a tabular rasa, or clean slate, on which just about anything can be written. The cultural environment is more important than heredity. p107
What philospher proposed the tabula rasa theory of socialization?
English philospher, John Locke (1600s) p107
Who was Charles Horton Cooley and what theory of socialization did he propose?
Charles Horton Cooley was a scial psychologist (one of the founders of the interactionist perspective in sociology). He is most known for the idea of the primary group. His socialization theory is called the looking-glass self. p107
What are the three steps of the looking-glass self?
1. we imagine how we appear to others; 2. we determine whether others view us as we view ourselves; and 3. we use our perceptions of how others judge use to develop feeling about ourselves p107-108
Who is George Herbert Mead and what theory of socialization did he propose?
George Herbert Mead was an American philospher and another founder of the interactionist perspective of sociology. He proposed the role-taking theory of socialization p108-109
What social psychologist proposed the looking-glass theory of socialization?
Charles Horton Cooley p107
According to George Herbert Mead, what is role-taking and what three stages do children go through when developing the skills needed for role-taking?
Role-taking is to take or pretend to take on the roles of others, to anticipate what others expect of us. The three steps are imitation, play and games. p108-109
According to George Herbert Mead, what are the two components of the self, and how are they related?
I - the spontanious, unsocialized, self-interested component of personality; the me - the socialized self; they combine to form a well-rounded personality p108-109
What theory of socialization did George Herbert Mead propose?
the role-taking theory p 108-109
What are agents of socialization?
specific individuals, groups, and institutions that provide the situations in which socialization can occur p112
What is a peer group?
primary group composed of individuals of roughly equal age and social characteristics p112
What is mass media?
newspapers, magazines, books, television, radio, films and other forms of cummunication that reach large audiences without personal contact between the individuals sending the information and those receiving it p113, 386
What is a total institution?
setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and subjected to the control of officials of varied ranks; total institutions are primarly concerned with resocialization p115
What is resocialization?
break with past experiences and the learning of new values and norms, total institutions are primarly concerned with resocialization p115
In what ways are total institutions different from other agents of socialization?
Total institutions are concered with resocialization rather thatn socialization. p115
How are social institutions such as family and school important?
They teach children important life skills, as well as, values, norms and beliefs.
How has the nature-versus-nurture debate evolved? What do most social scientists today believe?
Most social scientists today believe that both environment and heredity affect personality. Many believe that the cultural environment holds more weight in most instances.
What do social scientists believe are the four principal factors that influence personality development?
heredity, birth order, parental characteristics and cultural environment
What does research on children reared in isolation indicate about the effects of the cultural environment on social and psychological development?
A healthy cultural environment is essential for a child's full development.
According to Locke, Cooley and Mead, what is the role of self in the socialization process?
Locke, Cooley, and Mead agree that the self emerges through interaction with others. Locke believed every aspect of personality comes from one's environment. Cooley introduced the concept of the looking-glass self. Mead build upon Cooley's theory with the concept of role-taking.
According to Cooley, how does a person's sense of self develop in early childhood and when does this process end?
by interacting with others, imagining how they appear to others, perceiving how others view them, and using those perceptions to refine self view; the process ends at death
What are the four primary agents of socialization in the United States?
the family, peer group, school, and mass media p112
When is the peer group most influential?
Peer groups are particularly influential during the pre-teenage and early teenage years. p112
What agent of socialization provides many, if not, most of the socializaiton experiences of early childhood in the US?
the family p112
What form of mass media probably has the most influence on the socialization of children in the US?
television p113
What are some examples of total institutions?
Answers will vary but may include: prisons, military boot camps, monasteries, and psychiatric hospitals.