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58 Cards in this Set

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The purpose of coupling two biochemical reactions is to

use an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction

In a pair of coupled reactions, if the favorable reaction releases more energy than the amount required by the unfavorable reaction, the excess energy is

released as heat and used to maintain body temperature

Endergonic reactions are those that have a _ value of ΔG and _ spontaneous

positive; non-spontaneous

Which sequence illustrates the order of the steps from food to biochemically useful energy?

digestion; acetyl-SCoA production; citric acid cycle; ATP production

All of the following are energy strategies used in biochemical reactions except

Chemical reactions occur in pairs in order to change the value of ΔG for one of the reactions

ATP is the molecule most often used for energy transport because

its hydrolysis releases an intermediate amount of energy and is relatively slow except in the presence of the appropriate enzymes


Which statement is true concerning the relationship between FAD and FADH2?

FADH2 is the reduced form of FAD


In addition to producing ATP, the citric acid cycle produces _ as high energy molecules and _ as its major chemical waste product

reduced coenzymes; CO2

In the first step of the citric acid cycle, acetyl-SCoA reacts with _ to produce _ which is isomerized to _ in the second step

oxaloacetate; citrate; isocitrate

The mitochondria are the location where _ takes place and most _ is produced

citric acid cycle; ATP

The common molecule produced from all foods at the second stage of catabolism is

acetyl-SCoA

In a pair of couple reactions, if the favorable reaction releases more energy than the amount required by the unfavorable reaction, the excess energy is

released as heat and used to maintain body temperature

In steps 5-8 of the citric acid cycle, the high-energy molecules _, _, and _, are produced and _ is regenerated to begin another turn of the cycle

GTP; FADH2; NADH/H+; oxaloacetate

The ultimate source of energy for all but very few biochemical reactions is

The sun

The driving force which provides the energy for synthesis of ATP in the fourth stage of metabolism

the concentration gradient of hydrogen ions between the two sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane

The metal that acts as an electron carrier in the cytochromes in the electron transport is

Iron

ATP is the molecule most often used for energy transport because

its hydrolysis releases an intermediate amount of energy and is relatively slow except in the presence of the appropriate enzymes

Which statement is true concerning the relationship between FAD and FADH2?

FADH2 is the reduced form of FAD

The reaction in which ATP is converted to ADP with release of 7.3 kcal is a(an) _ reaction

hydrolysis

The fourth stage of metabolism, in which the high energy molecules from stage three are oxidized to produce ATP is referred to as

the electron transport chain

The energy released by GTP hydrolysis is (more than, less than or the same) as ATP hydrolysis

the same

In the TCA or citric acid cycle, α-Ketoglutaric acid reacts with co-enzyme A to yield

succinyl-SCoA

In the TCA or citric acid cycle, the reactions at steps 3, 4, 6 and 8 are catalyzed by

NAD+ and FAD

_ is the common intermediate of all food groups

pyruvate?

In the 1st stage of metabolism, the catabolic process is facilitated by _

amylase

The pH difference in the mitochondria is a result of the overall process of _

metabolism

The electron transport chain transfers electrons from _ co-enzymes to oxygen and is coupled to _ production

reduced; ATP

In addition to flavoproteins and the heme protein _, the respiratory chain of mitochondria includes the small molecules _

cytochrome; ubiquinones

Whereas digestion is _, metabolism is _

catabolic; anabolic

The citric acid cycle supplies the _ with _, which ultimately generate energy

electron transport chain; reduced coenzymes

A glycosidic bond is

a bond formed between an anomeric carbon atom and any OR group

The linkage joining the two monosaccharides in the dissacharide shown in the structure is a(n) _ glycosidic linkage

β (1,4)

Which is the best description of a carbohydrate?

A compound that is composed of an aldehyde or ketone and has one or more hydroxyl groups

Lactose when hydrolyzed will form

glucose and galactose

Cellulose is a polymer consisting of thousands of

β-glucose molecules

Which substance is a monosaccharide?

cellulose

_ is converted to ketone bodies during starvation, which can provide up to 50% of the ATP needed for homeostasis

Acetyl-SCoA

The metabolic process which produces glucose from _ sources is called _

non-carbohydrate; gluconeogenesis

In the 1st stage of carbohydrate metabolism the enzyme _ catabolizes _ and _, which are polymeric forms of the carbons that supply the TCA cycle

α-amylase; starch; glycogen

The blood clotting factor heparin, insect exoskeleton chitin and chondroitin found in the fluids of the eyes and joints are all synthesized from _

monosaccharides

Amylopection and glycogen both have _ and _ glycosidic bonds

α-1,4; α-1,6

Which is a hemiacetal?

glucopyranose

Lactate formed in muscles can be utilized through

glucose-alanine cycle

α-glycosidic bond is present in

maltose, sucrose and lactose

compounds having the same structural formula but differing in spatial configuration are known as _

optical isomers


In the 1st stage of carbohydrate metabolism the enzyme _ catabolizes _ and _, which is one source of the carbons that supplies the TCA cycle

amylase; glucose; other sugars

Sucrose is a disaccharide of _ and _, linked by a(n) _ bond

glucose; fructose; ether glycosidic

_ is the most abundant polysaccharide in nature

Cellulose

Two sugars which differ from one another only in configuration around the C1 carbon atom are termed _

anomers

The reducing ability of carbohydrates is due to _

carboxyl group

The formation of the stable, low energy ring structure in D-glucose requires that _ forms a hemiacetal

c-1 and c-4

Exergonic reaction picture

Endergonic reaction picture

ATP to ADP picture

Citric acid cycle picture

Electron transport chain process picture

Metabolism picture

Disaccharide pictures