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49 Cards in this Set

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An orbital with l = 2 is called a _____ orbital. These orbitals always occur in groups of _____ orbitals of equal energy.

d



5

Which of the following statements correctly describe the principal quantum number, n? Select all that apply.

n can have any positive whole-number value and the lower the value of n, the greater the probability that the electron is closer to the nucleus.

Which of the following is a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?

It is not possible to assign fixed paths for electrons.

An orbital with l = 0 is called a(n) _____ type orbital and has a(n) _____ shape. There is always a total of _____ orbital(s) of this type for each principal energy level.

s


spherical


1

Which of the following statements correctly describe the angular momentum quantum number, l? Select all that apply?

- The allowed values of l are determined by the value of n.



- The number of possible l values equals the value of n.



The value of l dictates the allowed values of m[l]

Electromagnetic radiation consists of particles called ______, each of which has a discrete amount, or quantum, of energy. However, since electromagnetic radiation also has wave properties, each particle is also characterized by a specific _____ (m) and frequency (s-1).

photons


wavelength

Place the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength (shortest at the top to longest at the bottom).


Radiowaves, UV radiation, Visible light, X-ray, IR radiation.

X-ray


UV radiation


Visible light


IR radiation


Radiowaves

Waves that are in phase...

experience constructive interference.

Amplitudes will add...

if waves are in phase.

Waves that are out of phase...

experience destructive interference.

Amplitudes will cancel...

if waves are out of phase.

Energy is not continuous, but is quanitized or divided into "packets" each of which contains a definite amount of energy. An energy "packet" is called a(n) _____ and the energy of each "packet" is directly proportional to its_____.

quantum


frequency

Which of the following statements correctly describe probability density and electron probability density diagrams?

- The probability of finding an electron generally decreases with increasing distance from the nucleus.



- These diagrams show the probability of finding an electron in a particular region of the atom.

All matter behaves as though it moves in a(n) _____. The motion of any particle can be described by the de Brogile equation, which relations the wavelength of a particle to its ______ and speed.

wave



mass

The speed of a wave is determined by multiplying the ______ of the wave by its wavelength. In a vacuum all electromagnetic radiation travels at a constant speed, the speed of ______.

frequency



light

An atomic orbital in terms of the mechanical model of the atom...

is a mathematical function that describes the position of the electron-wave in three dimensions.

The principal quantum number n indicates the...

principal energy level.

The angular momentum quantum number l indicates the...

sublevel of the orbital.

The magnetic quantum number m[l] indicates the...

orientation of an orbital in space.

The relative size of the orbital is related to the value of...

the quantum number n.

The shape of the orbital is related to the value of...

the quantum number l.

For a principal quantum number n=3, what values of the angular momentum quantum number l are allowed?

0, 1, & 2

The _____ momentum quantum number has the symbol l and can take values from _____ to (n-1). The number is related to the _____ of the orbital.

angular


0


shape

The phenomenon where an electric current is produced by shining a light on a metal plate is called the ____effect. The minimum frequency required to cause a current to flow is called the ______ frequency. This frequency depends on the identity of the metal used.

photoelectric



threshold

Which of the following statements correctly describe the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom? Select all that apply.

- The atom is in its lowest energy state when the electron is in the orbit closest to the nucleus.



- Each energy state of the hydrogen atom is associated with a fixed circular orbit of the electron around the nucleus.



- Only certain energy levels are allowed within the hydrogen atom.

Using the Schrodinger wave equation we can determine the probability of finding an electron in a particular region of the atom. The probability density _____ with distance from the nucleus, meaning that the farther one gets from the nucleus the _____ likely it is to find an electron.

decreases



less

Which of the following statements correctly describe the magnetic quantum number, m[l]? Select all that apply.

- The allowed values for m[l] range from -l to +l.



- This value indicates the orientation of an orbital in the space around the nucleus.

A p orbital has _____ regions or lobes of high electron probability, on either side of the nucleus. This gives the orbital a dumbbell shape with a(n) _____ or region of zero electron density at the nucleus.

two



node

The distance a wave travels during one cycle is called its _____. This is usually measured as the distance between two _____ or two troughs.

wavelength



peaks

All waves in the electromagnetic spectrum travel at the same ______ through a vacuum, but differ in their frequency and wavelength. A wave with a long (large) wavelength will have a(n) ______ frequency.

speed


low

Electrons, like all other matter, exhibit the dual behavior of both _____ and waves. Since electrons travel like waves their energy is restricted to certain energy _____, each of which is associated with a specific wavelength.

particles



levels

Which of the following statements correctly describe photons?

-A photon can transfer momentum to another particle in a collision.



-Each photon has a specific energy, frequency, and wavelength.



-Photons are particles of electromagnetic radiation.

The apparent bending of a wave around the edge of an object is called_____. If a wave passes through a slit that has a width of the same order of magnitude as its______ it will bend around both edges of the slit to give a semicircular wave.

diffraction



wavelength

Which of the following statements correctly describes how energy is absorbed by an atom?

The energy of the absorbed radiation must match the difference between the two energy states of the atom

Which of the following statements correctly describe wave-particle duality?

-matter and energy are different forms of the same entity.



-energy and mass can be interconverted.



-all matter exhibits wavelike motion.

In Bohr's model of the atom, the quantum number n is associated with the _____ of an electron orbit. The lower the n value, the ____the electron is to/from the nucleus and the ____ energy level.

Energy



closer



lower

Planck's constant equation...

Each element has its own atomic line spectrum, consisting of fine lines of individual wavelengths that are characteristic for the element. This occurs because of the atom contains specific _______ levels, and an atom can only absorb or emit radiation that corresponds to the ________ between these levels.

energy



difference

Visible light is one type of _____ radiation, which consists of energy propagated by eletric and _____ fields that alternately increase and decrease in intensity as they move through space.

electromagnetic



magnetic

The _____ of a wave is the number of wave cycles per second. The quantity is given the symbol 𝝂 and has units of s⁻¹ or _____.

frequency



Hz

In the quantum mechanical model of the atom, an electron is viewed as a wave-particle that occupies a three-dimensional space near the nucleus. The movement of the electron is described by a _____ function, which is also called an atomic _____.

wave



orbital

The amplitude of an electromagnetic wave relates to _____ and _____.

Intensity and brightness (for visible light)

In order for a current to flow in a photoelectric cell, a photon of light must be _____ by an electron in the metal. For this to occur the____ of the proton must be equal to or greater than the energy needed to remove the electron from its energy state. It is the _____ of the light that is important, not its intensity.

absorbed



energy



frequency

An equation that reflects the relationship between energy and frequency is...

E = h𝝂

These statements correctly describe p orbitals...

- p orbitals always occur in groups of three



- a p orbital has a dumbbell shape with two lobes, one on either side of the nucleus.



- The p orbitals of a group are perpendicular to each other.

An atom is in its lowest energy state, or ____ state, when its electrons are in the lowest possible energy levels. If an electron in the atom absorbs a photon of radiation that is equal in energy to the difference between two energy states it will move to a higher energy state and the atom is said to be in the ______ state.

ground



excited

What determines the color of visible light?

Its frequency and wavelength

According to the Bohr model for the hydrogen atom, the energy of the atom is not continuous but has certain discrete energy ______, each of which is related to a fixed circular _____ of the electron around the nucleus. The father the electron is from the nucleus, the ____the energy of the system.

-levels



-orbit



-higher

Describe the atom in terms of quantum mechanics.

- Electrons exhibit behavior of both waves and particles.



- The movement of each electron in the atom can be described by a wave function.



- Each electron occupies a three-dimensional space near the nucleus. This space is described by a wave function.